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Christ knew no sin ;' and is declared to be without spot, or blemish :' the Holy One and the Just;' even the Holy One of God.' It could not be from ignorance ; because no intelligent creature who knew Jehovah at all, could possibly suppose himself to be more important, great, and excellent than Jehovah ; and because Christ will not be supposed, even by the Unitarians, to be capable of such ignorance. It is therefore true. But if it be true, it is by inevitable consequence also true, either that Christ is greater and more important than Jehovah, or that he is Jehovah himself.

Farther: As Christ is the end of all things, if he be not Jehovah, there is nothing of which Jehovah is the end. As all things were made for Christ ; if Christ be not Jehovah, there is nothing which is made for Jehovah. The united tendency and result of all that has been, is, or will be in the universe, is the accomplishment of the pleasure and glory of Christ; and if Christ be not Jehovah, Jehovah will exist without any glory displayed, without any interest, or concern, in the universe.

It ought also to be added, that he who is the end of all things, for whose glory and pleasure they are to operate, must possess power sufficient to direct them to his glory, and intelligence to discern that this purpose is accomplished by them all. When we consider the greatness and multitude of the things themselves, and their everlasting continuance and operation, it will I think be impossible not to conclude, that this power and intelligence must be, in the strictest sense, unlimited.

It is with reference to this very subject, as I apprehend, that our Saviour, in his intercessory prayer, utters to the Father these remarkable words:* All things which are mine, are thine ; and all things which are thine, are mine: and I am glorified in them,' John xvii. 10. Here, in two forms of expression, he declares to the Father the co-extension of the property which the Father and the Son have in the universe, and their mutual possession of all things ; and then adds, that

he is glorified in,' or by means of,' them all.' This may be properly styled Christ's own comment on the declaration of St. Paul, that all things were made for him ;' that is, for his

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* Sec the original Greek.

use, his glory; for here Christ declares his glory to be actually accomplished by them all.

This doctrine is plainly and utterly inconsistent with the Arian notion of Christ's being a subordinate God; to whom divine power is supposed to have been delegated, and who in this character of a delegate is supposed to have created the universe, and to be worshipped. On this notion I propose to make some observations hereafter. At present I shall only remark, that he who is the first cause, or Creator, and the last end, of all things, is all that is or can be meant by the SUPREME GOD. All things being made for his use, and being the means of his glory, there is nothing left to a being higher and greater than himself; nor does it appear that such being can have any material concern with the universe in any manner whatever.


I shall now consider the fifth, and last particular mentioned under this head : viz. That divine worship is in the Scriptures required, and by persons inspired was actually rendered, to Christ.

Divine worship is required to be rendered to Christ, John v. 22, 23. For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son: that all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth-not the Father that sent him.' this passage of Scripture we are informed, that the infinite prerogative of judging the universe is committed by the Father to the Son for this, as at least one, if not the only great end, • that all (that is, I apprehend, all intelligent creatures, the word men not being in the original) should honour the Son even as (that is, just in the same manner as, and in the same degree as) they honour the Father. The final judgment, being an act which eminently displays the infinite perfections, is committed to the Son, that he may be perceived with indubitable evidence to possess these perfections, and may therefore receive that peculiar honour which is due to Him only by whom they are possessed. The honour which is due in a peculiar sense to God consists supremely in religious worship; in making him the object of our supreme affection ; and rendering to him our supreme obedience. All this is here required to Christ in the same manner in which it is required to the Father. Whether it be supposed that this passage be intended to include angels, or not, they are expressly required to worship him in Psalm xcvii. 7. Confounded be all they that serve graven images : worship him, all ye gods.' St. Paul quotes a part of this verse in the following manner : 'And again, when he bringeth in the first begotten into the world, he saith, Let all the angels of God worship him.' It is therefore certain, that all the angels of God are required to worship Christ.

The only possible debate which can arise here is concerning the kind of worship which is to be rendered. On this I observe, first, that the Greek word is Tspooxumaatwear, and that this word is used twenty-four times in the New Testament to denote the worship of the true God; that it is used many times more to denote the religious worship of false gods; and that it is, so far as I have observed, the only word used to denote what is intended by worship, when considered as an act immediately performed. The words Θεραπευω, Λατρευω, and Σεζομαι, reddered also to worship, appear rather to express either habitual reverence or service, or a general course of worship, considered as a character or course of life. Προσκυνεω, so far as I have been able to observe, is the only term used to denote religious worship by St. John ; and is certainly the appropriate word for this idea, if there is any such appropriate word in the New Testament. It is particularly the word used by Christ in his answer to Satan ; . Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God:' and in his discourse with the woman of Samaria concerning the place where, the manner in which, and the persons by whom, God is acceptably worshipped.

Secondly: That religious worship is here intended is certain, because the Object of the worship commanded, is directly opposed, in the command itself, to idols ; and the worship required to that which is forbidden. Confounded be all they

• that serve, that is, religiously worship,' graven images; that boast themselves of idols. As if God had said, Worship no more graven images, nor idols of any kind; for all their worshippers shall be confounded : Worship him, the Messiah, the Son of God; and not only you, the sottish men who are guilty of this idolatry, but all ye angels also, to whom this worship is often sottishly rendered.

so the same manner is worship commanded to both men

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and angels. Phil. iii. 9—11.. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name; that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.' In this passage, all things celestial, terrestrial, and subterranean (as it is in the original,) are required to bow the knee to Christ, and to confess him to be Lord. To bow the knee is well known appropriate pharasology to denote religious worship. I have

• left me,' says God to Elijah ‘ seven thousand in Israel, all the knees, that have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him,' 1 Kings xix. 18.* St Paul also says, 'I bow my knees to the Father of all mercies. But to place it beyond all doubt, we need only refer to Isaiah xlv. 22, 23. whence this passage is quoted : Look unto me, and be ye saved, all ye ends of the earth : for I am God, and there is none else. By myself have I sworn, and the truth is gone out of my mouth; the word, and it shall not be revoked. Surely to me shall every knee bow, shall every tongue swear : saying, Only to Jehovah belongeth salvation and power't. To ascribe to Jehovah salvation and power (the thing which, the Apostle informs us, is the same with confessing that Christ is Lord), and to bow the knee when making this ascription is undoubtedly religious worship, if any thing is. Accordingly, this ascription is often made by the saints in the Scriptures, and the saints and angels in heaven.

In accordance with these requisitions, we find Christ actually worshipped in great numbers of instances. I shall omit here the numerous instances in which we are directly told that persons worshipped Christ, while here in the world, merely because they would give birth to a critical controversy too minute and too extended for the present occasion. The instances about which such a controversy cannot at least decently arise are sufficiently numerous for my design.

1. In Genesis xviii. we are told that · Jehovah appeared unto Abraham in the plains of Mamre, as he sat in the door of his tent. The manner of his appearance was the following * As he lifted up his eyes and looked, lo, three men stood by him, and he ran to meet them, and bowed himself toward the ground.' To one of them he said, 'My Lord, if I have now found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant,' &c. The person here spoken to is called by Abraham, '78. This person in the 13th verse is called Jehovah; and in the 14th says, ' Is any thing too hard for Jehovah?' and informs Abraham of the destruction of the cities of the plain, which he had determined to bring upon them for their sins. To this person Abraham prays repeatedly for the preservation of these cities. Lot also, to whom he appeared in the following chapter, prayed to him for his own preservation, and that of the city Zoar, and was accepted. These persons are in the first place called three men. One of them, whom Abraham calls Adonai, or Lord, is afterwards called by himself, by Abraham, and by Moses, Jehovah ; and was worshipped by both Abraham and Lot. The other two are aftewards repeatedly called angels. Now it will not be pretended that God the Father appeared as a man, or that he ate of the provision furnished by Abraham ; forno one hath seen God’ the Father, ' at any time.' Yet this person is here styled Jehovah, and was worshipped ; and this person was Christ.

* See Hosea xüji, 2; and Psalm ii, 2

+ Lowth.

2. In Judges xiii. the Angel-Jehovah appeared to Manoah and his wife. When he departed, it is said, that. Manoah knew that he was the Angel-Jehovah :' and it is added, · Manoah said unto his wife, We shall surely die, because we have seen God. But his wife said unto him, If Jehovah were pleased to kill us, he would not have received a burnt-offering and a meat-offering at our hands.' In verse 16, the Angel had said to Manoah, If thou wilt offer a burnt-offering, thou must offer it unto Jehovah ; for,' it is subjoined, Manoah

• knew not that he was the Angel-Jehovah.' But after he had ascended in the flame of the altar, then, it is declared, • Manoah knew that he was the Angel-Jehovah.' The burntoffering and the meat-offering Manoah and his wife then perceived themselves to have offered unwittingly to him who had manifested to them his acceptance of both at their hands.

Here the worship was not only presented to Christ, but, what is of much more importance to my purpose, was accepted by him.

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