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Richard Clay And Sons, Limited,
London And Bungay.


The present work consists mainly of reprints of the more important articles I have contributed to reviews and other periodicals during the thirty-five years from 1865 to 1899.

I have ventured to call them "Studies," because the larger part of them deal with problems in which I have been specially interested, and to the comprehension and solution of which I have devoted much time and thought. Many of these problems are connected with the modern theory of evolution, others with important geological and physical theories, others again with educational, political, or social questions. They are dealt with either in the way of exposition or criticism, and in several cases they contain novel views or fresh arguments, strengthening the case in favour of some of the disputed theories.

In order to make the subjects discussed more interesting to the general reader, I have, wherever possible, introduced copious illustrations, and this has led me in many cases so to modify and enlarge the original article as to render it a new piece of work. Those which did not lend themselves to illustration have received a careful revision.

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