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for all the other parts of Painting, he was as absolutė à master of them, and possessed them all as thoroughly as any of his predeċessors in that noble art. His principal studies were made in Lombardy, after the works of Titian, Paulo Veronese, and Tintaret, whose cream he haś skimmed, (if you will allow the phrase,) and extracted from their several beauties many general máxims and infallible rules which he always followed, and by which he has acquired in his works a greater facility than that of Titian; more of purity, truth, and science than Paulo Veronese ; and more of majesty, repose, and moderation than Tintoret.

To conclude; his manner is so solid, so knowing, and so ready, that it may seem this rare accomplished genius was sent from heaven to instruct mankind in the Art of Painting.

His school was full of admirable Disciples ; amongst whom Vandyck was he who best comprehended all the rules and general maxims of his Master ; and who has even excelled him in the delicacy of his carnations, and in his cabinet-pieces; but his taste, in the designing part, was nothing better than that of Rubens.


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reason, the artful Painter, and the Sculptor, imitating the Divine Maker, form to them. selves, as well as they are able, a model of the superior beauties; and, reflecting on them, endeavour to correct and amend the common Nature, and to represent it as it was first created, without fault, either in colour or in lineament.

“ This idea, which we may call the Goddess of Painting and of Sculpture, descends upon

the marble and the cloth, and becomes the original of those Arts; and, being measured by the compass of the intellect, is itself the measure of the performing hand; and, being animated by the imagination, infuses life into the image. The idea of the Painter and the Sculptor is undoubtedly that perfect and excellent example of the mind, by imitation of which imagined form, all things are represented which fall under human sight: such is the definition which is made by Cicero, in his book of the Orator to Brutus. As I therefore in forms and figures, there is • somewhat which is excellent and perfect, · to which imagined species all things are



* referred by imitation, which are the ob.

jects of sight ; in like manner we behold e the species of eloquence in our minds,

the effigies, or actual image of which we • seek in the organs of our hearing. This is * likewise confirmed by Proclus, in the

Dialogue of Plato, called Timæus : If, says he, you take a man as he is made by

Nature, and compare him with another who is the effect of Art, the work of · Nature will always appear the less beau. • tiful, because Art is more accurate than * Nature." But Zeuxis, who, from the choice which he made of five virgins, drew that wonderful picture of Helena, which Cicero, in his Orator before mentioned, sets before us, as the most perfect example of beauty, at the same 'time admonishes a Painter to contemplate the ideas of the most natural forms; and to make a judicious choice of several bodies, all of them the most elegant which he can find : by which we may plainly understand, that he thought it impossible to find in any one body all those perfections which he sought for the accomplishment of a Helena, because Na

ture in any individual person makes nothing that is perfect in all its parts.

For this reason Maximus Tyrius also says, that the image which is taken by a Painter from several bodies, produces a beauty, which it is impossible to find in any single natural body, approaching to the perfection of the fairest statues. Thus Nature, on this account, is so much inferior to Art, that those Artists who propose to themselves only the imitation or likeness of such or such a particular person, without election of those ideas before mentioned, have often been reproached for that omission. Demetrius was taxed for being too natural; Dionysius was also blamed for drawing men like us, and was commonly called 'Aybpwmózgados, that is, a Painter of Men. In our times, Michael Angelo da Caravaggio was esteemed too natural : he drew persons as they were ; and Bamboccio, and most of the Dutch Painters, have drawn the worst likeness: Lysippus, of old, upbraided the common sort of Sculptors for making men such as they were found in Nature ; and boasted of himself, that he made them as they ought to

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