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In every figur'd group the judging eye Demands the charms of contrariety; In forms, in attitudes, expects to trace Distinct inflections, and contrasted grace, Where art diversely leads each changeful line, Opposes, breaks, divides the whole design : Thus, when the rest in front their charms display,

Let one with face averted turn away;
Shoulders oppose to breasts, and left to right,
With parts that meet and parts that shun the

This rule in practice uniformly true
Extends alike to many forms or few.

4 XIII. Diversity of Attitude in Groups,




* Inque figurarum cumulis non omnibus idem Corporis inflexus, motusque ; vel artubus omnes Conversis pariter non connitantur eodem ; Sed quædam in diversa trahant contraria membra, 149 Tranverséque aliis pugnent, et cætera frangant. Pluribus adversis aversam oppone figuram, Pectoribusque humeros, et dextera membra sinistris, Seu multis constabit opus, paucisve figuris.

XIII. Positurarum diversitas in cumulis.

* Yet keep thro' all the piece a perfect poize; If here in frequent troops the figures rise, There let some object tower with equal pride; And so arrange each correspondent side, That, thro' the well-connected plan, appear No cold vacuity, no desert drear.


* Say does the Poet glow with genuine rage, Who crouds with pomp and noise his bustling


Devaid alike of taste that Painter deem, Whose flutt'ring works with num'rous figures


Altera pars tabulæ vacuo neu frigida campo,
Aut deserta siet, dum pluribus altera formis
Fervida mole sua supremam exsurgit ad oram.
Sed tibi sic positis respondeat utraque rebus,
Ut si aliquid sursum se parte attollat in unâ,
Siç aliquid parte ex aliâ consurgat, et ambas
Equiparet, geminas cumulando æqualiter oras.
Pluribus implicitum personis drama supremo
In genere, ut rarum est, multis ita densa figuris


' XIV. A Balance to be kept in the Picture.

XV. Of the Number of Figures.

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XIV. Tabulæ libramen


i XV. Numerus Figu



A task so various how shall art fulfill,
When oft the simplest forms elude our skill?
But, did the toil succeed, we still should lose
That solemn majesty, that soft repose,
Dear to the curious eye, and only found,
Where few fair objects fill an ample ground.
Yet if some grand important theme demand
Of needful forms a busy band,
Judgment will so the several groups unite,
That one compacted whole shall meet the sight.
*The joints in each extreme distinctly


Nor e'er conceal the outline of the feet:

* XVI. The Joints of the Feet.

Rarior est tabula excellens; vel adhuc ferè nulla
Præstitit in multis, quod vix bene præstat in unâ: "5"
Quippe solet rerum nimio dispersa tumultu,
Majestate carere gravi, requieque decora;
Nec speciosa nitet, vacuo nisi libera campo.
Sed si
opere in magno, plures thema grande requirat
Esse figurarum cumulos, spectabitur unà
Machina tota rei; non singula quæque seorsim.
Præcipua extremis raro internodia membris.
Abdita sint; sed summa pedum vestigia nunquam.


XVI. Internodia et Pe




The hands alike demand to be exprest In half-shewn figures rang'd behind the rest ; Nor can such forms with force or beauty shine, Save when the head and hands in action



n. Each air constrain'd and forc'd, each gesture rude,

Whate'er contracts or cramps the attitude, With scorn discard.. When squares or angles join,

When flows in tedious parallel the line,
Acute, obtuse, whene'er the shapes appear, 235
Or take a formal geometrick air,

• Gratia nulla manet, motusque, vigorque figuras Retro aliis subter majori ex parte latentes, Ni capitis motum manibus comitentur agendo.


Difficiles fugito aspectus, contractaque visu Membra sub ingrato, motusque, actusque coactos; Quodque refert signis, rectos quodammodo tractus, Sive parallelos plures simul, et vel acutas,

XVII. The Motion of

the Hands with the Head.


" XVIII. What things are to be avoided in the Distribution of the Piece.


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These all displease, and the disgusted eye Nauseates the tame and irksome symmetry. Mark then our former rule*; with contrast strong

And mode transverse the leading lines prolong;


For these in each design, if well exprest,
Give value, force, and lustre to the rest.

Nor yet to Nature such strict homage pay, As not to quit when Genius leads the way; Nor yet, tho' Genius all his succour sends, 245 Her mimick powers tho' ready memory lends,

Vel geometrales (ut quadra, triangula) formas : Ingratamque pari signorum ex ordine quandam Symmetriam sed præcipua in contraria semper Signa volunt duci transversa, ut diximus antè.* Summa igitur ratio signorum habeatur in omni 275 Composito; dat enim reliquis pretium, atque vigorem.

Non ita naturæ astanti sis cuique revinctus,

Hanc præter nihil ut genio studioque relinquas;
Nec sine teste rei natura, artisque magistra,

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*Page 43, Rule xiii.

4. XIX. Nature to be accommodated to Genius.

XIX. Natura genio accommodanda.

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