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deaths during the three years 1880–82 aggregated 418,214. The information collated by Dr. Ogle on occupational mortality is reproduced in a condensed form in the appendix.*

The high rate of mortality exhibited among the hatters has been noticed in all industrial countries. In a paper read, by Dr. J. W. Stickler, of Orange, New Jersey, before the Essex County Medical Society, on “Hatters' Consumption," it is stated, that:

“In the past, mercurial poisoning was very common among hatters, and even at the present day it is not infrequent. It, however, usually succumbs to proper treatment, and does not lead directly to the death of the patient. There is another disease, which is not only very common among the hatters, but is also very fatal to life. The disease to which I refer is pulmonary phthisis. I at first thought that there was no causative relation between the making of hats and the type of disease in question, but when I questioned the patients, I ascertained that in almost every instance the disease devoloped after work was begun in the shops. The majority of " finishers ” who develope consumption become exhausted and incapacitated for active and regular work before thirty. In fact the disease makes such rapid progress when it shows itself in hatters from eighteen to twenty-five years of age, that it generally terminates fatally before the patient reaches thirty. It is true that a small number reaches middle life before the disease seriously impairs their strength, and it is also a fact that a certain number do not develope consumption till they have passed the meridian of life; and when this is the case, they sometimes linger fifteen or twenty years before they die. But the rule is, that pulmonary consumption manifests itself at an early age, in hatters, and proves fatal in from five to ten years."

Such facts, supported as they are by the most impartial evidence of statistics, are really deplorable, especially so when we consider that the workers in these industries are cut off from life in the very blossom of age, before it is ripe, and that the production of the wealth of which they are most capable at the fullest period of their lives and of their greatest power is irretrievably lost to the State. Life, as has been said, has a pecuniary value, and viewed from the standpoint of monetary loss alone, national pride, national policy, national economy, humanity, patriotism-all these feelings should be actively enlisted in a combined effort to lessen this sacrifice of money as represented by the lives of men.*

*See also a very excellent little work on the “Elements of Vital Statistics," by Dr. Arthur Newsholme, recently published.

The Register. General of England, as has already been noticed, has formulated tables on the basis of the death returns, to show the comparative healthfulness of the various trades and professions. But it is admitted, that "the mean age of death of people in different businesses after all furnishes very erroneous indications, as it is affected so much by the ages at which people enter and leave, and by the increase or decrease of employment, as well as by the salubrity or insalubrity of any particular profession." Yet even these data, unsatisfactory as they may be, are unavailable here. And while the works of many eminent scientists, both in this country and Europe, who in the course of their professional labors have observed the effects of different occupations on those engaged in them, especially the diseases to which such operatives are peculiarly subject, have been of immense practical value, we are not aware that any extended effort has as yet been made to determine the actual duration of the active trade-life of the workmen in the various employments. This phase of the industrial question heretofore has received little attention, but is one of immense moment to the wage-worker, who, if still alive, will sooner or later find himself unable to continue at work in competition with younger men. Perhaps not more than 45 to 50 years of age, and still in comparative good health, with an expectation of life of from 20 to 25 years, he is, by reason of some slight physical impairment, unfitted to follow a trade in which he has spent the best of his early days to become efficient. He finds, too, that such contingencies have not been provided against, any assumed law of political economy, that remuneration is determined by the dangerous and disagreeable character of employment, to the contrary notwithstanding.

*The Register-General's report for 1881 states that "there is nothing in a series of annual reports issued by this office that came out more distinctly and unmistakably than the wonderful effect which the sanitary operations of the last decade have had in Baving human life * Doubtless the money thus expended has been enormous in amount. There can be no real doubt, however, that the saving effected in life was the direct product of the money and labor expended in sanitary improvements. * less than 392,749 persons, who under the old regime (before 1872) would have died (in Great Britain) were, as a matter of fact, still living at the close of 1881. Add to these saved lives the avoidance of at least four times as many attacks of non fatal illness, and we have the total profits as yet received from our sanitary expenditure."

* No

What then is the duration of the active trade or working life of workmen ?

With the view of obtaining at least an approximate answer to this yet unsolved problem, the Bureau during the year began an investigation, which necessarily has been largely experimental, and covers but a small part of our industrial activity, but the results attained seem fully to justify its further prosecution. The inquiry has taken in three of our most important industries, namely, glassblowing, pottery and hatting. The chief difficulty which presented itself at the start, was to determine the line of inquiry to be followed, owing to the absence of known previous efforts in this direction. After consultation with those who have given the matter attention, the conclusion was reached that information showing the age at which a workman began to work at his trace, his present age, the age at which he began to decline, that is, grow less active, or became incapacitated, and the total number of years actually at work, formed the basis for a correct estimate of the duration of his trade life. This information was obtained by means of the following blank, placed in the hands of competent agents, who caused it to be filled out by individuals engaged in the three industries mentioned :

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4. Your age........................ Age when you began to work at your trade .....................

5. Have you wor' ed consecutively at your trade since you started?............ If not, name the

years when not wor! ing, and give the reasons......

6. Number of years actually engaged at your trade .......

7. Was the occupation of your father the same as that which you follow?........

8. How long did he follow the trade? ..........

9. At what age did your father die?.....

10. At what age did you begin to decline at your trade?..........

11. How were you first affected!....

12. At what age did you bocome incapacitated for work at your trade? ..........

13. What are the diseases peculiar to your trade?......

14. Have you suffered from any disease contracted at your trade? .......... If so, what?.........

Give any facts within your knowledge relating to the number of years worked by those who

have quit the trade, or have died..

........

16. Remarks relating to the sanitary condition of the factory in which you wors, and, also, whether

any changes could be made that would improve it.

Full replies were received from 4,739 journeymen, of 21 years and upwards, actively engaged in the occupations enumerated, namely, glass workers, 1,040; hatters, 2,577; and potters, 1,122. This number comprises a very considerable proportion of the workmen employed in the respective industries in New Jersey, substantially all the glass and hatting journeymen in the State, and those in the Trenton potteries. The data are therefore considered sufficiently complete to make deductions from the returns summarized in the tables reproduced below reliable. An analysis of these tables furnishes some very interesting and instructive facts. The variation in the age at which workers begin their trades is noticeable, because this necessarily affects their present age as well as the period of actual trade life. Between 16 and 18

Between 16 and 18 years of age seems to have been the usual starting period in all but a few of the trades: 62 per cent of the green glass bottle and vial blowers, 82 per cent of the hat finishers, 79 per cent. of the makers; while 96 per cent of the pressers and 59 per cent. of the kilnmen in the pottery industry began work at 18 years of age or under. On the other hand we find that all but a fraction of the master shearers (glass workers) entered on their trade life at a comparatively late period; and so with the window-glass workers, especially blowers, only II per cent. of whom began at 18 years of age or under. In regard to the several branches of pottery, it is to be observed that the bulk of the older operatives learned their respective trades in England, at a time when boys were apprenticed at a much earlier age than is now the practice in this country-a fact which has to that extent affected the average age-period here considered. The large proportion of foreign born workers is very noticeable in the pottery as well as hatting business; while the reverse is true in the glass industries.

The average present age of the pressers employed in the Trenton potteries is but 30.5, nearly 76 per cent. being under 35 years ; not much more than one-half are 30 years old. It is reasonable to presume that soon after the latter age, these workmen in this branch have reached the meridian of their trade life, and that at 35 they already have begun perceptibly to drop out of the trade. The 455 pressers have been at work, on an average, 15.7 years, which may therefore be considered not far from the duration of a presser's trade

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