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non-acceptance and its consequences.

(d.) Where the drawee is bankrupt, presentment may be made

to him or to his trustee : (e.) Where authorised by agreement or usage, a presentment

through the post office is sufficient. (2.) Presentment in accordance with these rules is excused, and a bill may be treated as dishonoured by non-acceptance(a.) Where the drawee is dead, or is a fictitious person or a

person not having capacity to contract by bill : (6.) Where after the exercise of reasonable diligence, such pre

sentment cannot be effected : (c.) Where, although the presentment has been irregular,

acceptance has been refused on some other ground. (3.) The fact that the holder has reason to believe that the bill, on presentment, will be dishonoured does not excuse

presentment. Non-acceptance. 42.1.) When a bill is duly presented for acceptance and is

not accepted within the customary time, the person presenting it must treat it as dishonoured by non-acceptance. If he do not, the holder shall lose his right of recourse against the drawer and

indorsers. Dishonour by 43.-(1.) A bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance

(a.) when it is duly presented for acceptance, and such an

acceptance as is prescribed by this Act is refused or can

not be obtained; or (6.) when presentment for acceptance is excused and the bill is

not accepted. (2.) Subject to the provisions of this Act, when a bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance, an immediate right of recourse against the drawer and indorsers accrues to the holder, and no

presentment for payment is necessary. Duties as to 44.-(1.) The holder of a bill may refuse to take a qualified qualified acceptances.

acceptance, and if he does not obtain an unqualified acceptance may treat the bill as dishonoured by non-acceptance.

(2.) Where a qualified acceptance is taken, and the drawer or an indorser has not expressly or impliedly authorised the holder to take a qualified acceptance, or does not subsequently assent thereto, such drawer or indorser is discharged from his liability on the bill.

The provisions of this sub-section do not apply to a partial acceptance, whereof due notice has been given. Where a foreign bill has been accepted as to part, it must be protested as to the balance.

(3.) When the drawer or indorser of a bill receives notice of a qualified acceptance, and does not within a reasonable time express his dissent to the holder he shall be deemed to have assented thereto.

45.–Subject to the provisions of this Act a bill must be duly payment

a

Rules as to presentment for

a

presented for payment. If it be not so presented the drawer and indorsers shall be discharged.

A bill is duly presented for payment which is presented in accordance with the following rules :(1.) Where the bill is not payable on demand, presentment

must be made on the day it falls due. (2.) Where the bill is payable on demand, then, subject to the

provisions of this Act, presentment must be made within a reasonable time after its issue in order to render the drawer liable, and within a reasonable time after its

indorsement, in order to render the indorser liable. In determining what is a reasonable time, regard shall be

had to the nature of the bill, the usage of trade with regard to similar bills, and the facts of the particular

case.

(3.) Presentment must be made by the holder or by some

person authorised to receive payment on bis behalf at a reasonable hour on a business day, at the proper place as hereinafter defined, either to the person designated by the bill as payer, or to some person authorised to pay or refuse payment on his behalf if with the exercise of

reasonable diligence such person can there be found. (4.) A bill is presented at the proper place(a.) Where a place of payment is specified in the bill and the

bill is there presented. (6.) Where no place of payment is specified, but the address of

the drawee or acceptor is given in the bill, and the bill

is there presented. (c.) Where no place of payment is specified and no address

given, and the bill is presented at the drawee's or acceptor's place of business if known, and if not, at his

ordinary residence if known. (d.) In any other case if presented to the drawee or acceptor

wherever he can be found, or if presented at his last

known place of business or residence. (5.) Where a bill is presented at the proper place, and after

the exercise of reasonable diligence no person authorised to pay or refuse payment can be found there, no further

presentment to the drawee or acceptor is required. (6.) Where a bill is drawn upon, or accepted by two or more

persons who are not partners, and no place of payment

is specified, presentment must be made to them all. (7.) Where the drawee or acceptor of a bill is dead, and no

place of payment is specified, presentment must be made to a personal representative, if such there be, and with the exercise of reasonable diligence he can be found.

O

а

Excuses for delay or non

payment.

non-payment.

(8.) Where authorised by agreement or usage a presentment

through the post office is sufficient.

46.-(1.) Delay in making presentment for payment is excused presentment for when the delay is caused by circumstances beyond the control of

the holder, and not imputable to his default, misconduct, or negli-
gence. When the cause of delay ceases to operate presentment
must be made with reasonable diligence.

(2.) Presentment for payment is dispensed with, -
(a.) Where, after the exercise of reasonable diligence present-

ment, as required by this Act, cannot be effected.
The fact that the holder has reason to believe that the bill

will, on presentment, be dishonoured, does not dispense

with the necessity for presentment. (6.) Where the drawee is a fictitious person. (c.) As regards the drawer where the drawee or acceptor is not

bound, as between himself and the drawer to accept or pay the bill, and the drawer has no reason to believe that

the bill would be paid if presented. (d.) As regards an indorser, where the bill was accepted or made

for the accommodation of that indorser, and he has no

reason to expect that the bill would be paid if presented.

(e.) By waiver of presentment, express or implied. Dishonour by 47.-(1.) A bill is dishonoured by non-payment (a) when it is

duly presented for payment and payment is refused or cannot be obtained, or (b) when presentment is excused and the bill is overdue and unpaid.

(2.) Subject to the provisions of this Act, when a bill is dishonoured by non-payment, an immediate right of recourse against

the drawer and indorsers accrues to the holder. Notice of dishonour and

48. Subject to the provisions of this Act, when a bill has been

dishonoured by non-acceptance or by non-payment, notice of notice.

dishonour must be given to the drawer and each indorser, and any drawer or indorser to whom such notice is not given is discharged; provided that

(1.) Where a bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance, and notice of dishonour is not given, the rights of a holder in due course subsequent to the omission, shall not be prejudiced by the omission.

(2.) Where a bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance and due notice of dishonour is given, it shall not be necessary to give notice of a subsequent dishonour by non-payment unless the bill shall in the meantime have been accepted.

49. Notice of dishonour in order to be valid and effectual must be given in accordance with the following rules :(1.) The notice must be given by or on behalf of the holder,

or by or on behalf of an indorser who, at the time of giving it, is himself liable on the bill.

effect of non

Rules as to notice of dishonour.

(2.) Notice of dishonour may be given by an agent either in

his own name, or in the name of any party entitled to

give notice whether that party be his principal or not. (3.) Where the notice is given by or on behalf of the holder,

it enures for the benefit of all subsequent holders and all prior indorsers who have a right of recourse against

the party to whom it is given. (4.) Where notice is given by or on behalf of an indorser

entitled to give notice as herein before provided, it enures for the benefit of the holder and all indorsers

subsequent to the party to whom notice is given. (5.) The notice may be given in writing or by personal com

munication, and may be given in any terms which sufficiently identify the bill, and intimate that the bill has

been dishonoured by non-acceptance or non-payment. (6.) The return of a dishonoured bill to the drawer or an

indorser is, in point of form, deemed a sufficient notice

of dishonour. (7.) A written notice need not be signed, and an insufficient

written notice may be supplemented and validated by verbal communication. A misdescription of the bill shall not vitiate the notice unless the party to whom

the notice is given is in fact misled thereby. (8.) Where notice of dishonour is required to be given to any

person, it may be given either to the party himself, or

to his agent in that behalf. (9.) Where the drawer or indorser is dead, and the party

giving notice knows it, the notice must be given to a personal representative, if such there be, and with the

exercise of reasonable diligence he can be found. (10.) Where the drawer or indorser is bankrupt, notice

may be given either to the party himself or to the

trustee. (11.) Where there are two or more drawers or indorsers who

are not partners, notice must be given to each of them, unless one of them has authority to receive such notice

for the others. (12.) The notice may be given as as the bill is dis

honoured, and must be given within a reasonablo time

thereafter. In the absence of special circumstances notice is not deemed

to have been given within a reasonable time, unless — (a.) where the person giving and the person to receive notice

reside in the same place, the notice is given or sent off in time to reach the latter on the day after the dishonour

of the bill. (6.) where the person giving and the person to receive notice

soon

reside in different places, the notice is sent off on the day after the dishonour of the bill, if there be a post at a convenient hour on that day, and if there be no such

post on that day then by the next post thereafter. (13.) Where a bill when dishonoured is in the hands of an

agent, he may either give himself notice to the parties liable on the bill, or he may give notice to his principal. If he give notice to his principal, he must do so within the same time as if he were the holder, and the principal upon the receipt of such notice has himself the same time for giving notice as if the agent had been an

independent holder. (14.) Where a party to a bill receives due notice of dis

honour, he has after the receipt of such notice the same period of time for giving notice to antecedent

parties that the holder has after the dishonour. (15.) Where a notice of dishonour is duly addressed and

posted, the sender is deemed to have given due notice of dishonour, notwithstanding any miscarriage by the

post office. Excuses for non- 50.-(1.) Delay in giving notice of dishonour is excused where notice and delay. the delay is caused by circumstances beyond the control of the

party giving notice, and not imputable to his default, misconduct,
or negligence. When he cause of delay ceases to operate the
notice must be given with reasonable diligence.

(2.) Notice of dishonour is dispensed with-
(a.) When, after the exercise of reasonable diligence, notice as

required by this Act cannot be given to or does not

reach the drawer or indorser sought to be charged : (6.) By waiver express or implied. Notice of dishonour may

be waived before the time of giving notice has arrived,

or after the omission to give due notice : (c.) As regards the drawer in the following cases, namely,

(1) where drawer and drawee are the same person, (2) where the drawee is a fictitious person or a person not having capacity to contract, (3) where the drawer is the person to whom the bill is presented for payment, (4) where the drawee or acceptor is as between himself and the drawer under no obligation to accept or pay the

bill, (5) where the drawer has countermanded payment: (d.) As regards the indorser in the following cases, namely,

(1) where the drawee is a fictitious person or a person not having capacity to contract and the indorser was aware of the fact at the time he indorsed the bill, (2) where the indorser is the person to whom the bill is presented for payment, (3) where the bill was accepted or made for his accommodation.

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