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if we are precluded from the exercise of reason in Religion, and are not "to tie the study of the natural sciences and religion together," we can have no hope of finding God in Nature, or of discriminating between the grossest superstition of the age and country in which we are born and the Religion of the Universe. Sir John Lubbock bears his testimony “ that without science true religion is impossible.” Faraday, however, was not without precedent. “ The most enlightened theologians of the Catholic Church — Pascal, Malebranche, Bossuet, and Fenelon, received what they called Catholic doctrines, and mysterious dogmas to which no principles of reason could be applied. Some even said that the more the mysteries shocked the reason and the conscience, the more devoutly they were to be believed.” stition,” says Lord Bacon, 6 wise men follow fools; and arguments are fitted to practice in a reversed order.” Again, the Duke of Argyll (Contemporary Review, May, 1871): "I do not know that the discoveries of modern science, great as they have been, and much as they are vaunted, have contributed anything towards the solution of the final problems of all human speculation. These, in so far as mere speculation is capable of dealing with them, seem to remain very much where the great intellects of the ancient world found them and left them.” Surely Science, with those who, unlike Faraday, think it right to use it, has taken many of these problems out of the field of mere speculation. It has tested more than one Revelation, and shown that the sun no more goes round the earth in Ethics than in Physics, however in the one case, as in the other, appearances may deceive us.
The length of time that life has existed on the earth. Difficulty of
fixing dates. The earth originally a fiery mist. Cooling down.
What has become of the heat? Heat a "mode of motion,” which
has merely changed its form : all the phenomena in the universe
consist but in these changes of form or transformation of energy.
Heat the least condensed form of force-mind the most condensed.
Sun-force and earth-force. Unity of force ; all force the force of
some unknown Spiritual Essence. Prof. Tyndall and the earth's
atmosphere. The sun's atmosphere, and the composition of the
sun, planets, and stars. Earliest form of life. “To draw nutrition,
propagate and rot,” the earliest functions differentiated. Scale of
Being. The difference between highest and lowest one of degree,
not of kind. Sensibility, Mind, or Consciousness. Connection with
the nervous system, which increases in weight and complexity as
mental power and energy increase. Each creature has a world of
its own proportionate to its powers of feeling. Inferiority of man's
mental faculties, in some respects, to insects and other animals.
Unity of sensibility in the network of nerve spread over the whole
world. Matter and Spirit mere names for groups of phenomena.
Wonderful constitution of matter.
Man probably one hundred thousand years old, and one hundred
Morality the science of man's duties; it concerns the why and the
how, or the principles and practice. THE PRINCIPLES OF MORALITY.
All action the result of pre-existent persistent force. No difference
therefore in actions themselves ; the differences purely subjective.
We are conscious of the action of the mind and of the will, but
unconscious of the forces that govern both. Statistics prove these
forces to act as much in accordance with law in the moral as in the
physical world. No spontaneous act of will, and free-will a delusion.
Actions good or bad, not in themselves, but as they tend to promote
the general well-being, or greatest happiness of the whole sensitive
creation. A future state of rewards and punishments only carrying
Utilitarianism into another world. The Intuitionist—the source of
his error in the fact that none of our faculties seek happiness
directly, but have other ends, from which happiness results. Con-
science, an instinct based upon transmitted experience of utility,
requires the guiding hand of Reason to adapt it to present conditions.
Each age has had its own standard of right. No such things as
sin and evil-only pain and pleasure ; the pain the necessary guar-
dian of the pleasure. Natural Selection, or the preservation of the
fittest, the doctrine of Utilitarianism in its last form. Objections
to Darwinism. The Natural Law and the right to live. The
Causes of Pauperism and the Remedies.
THE PRACTICE OF MORALITY requires that we should make all as
happy as possible. Our wants point to our duties. Happiness
found in the legitimate and constant use of all our faculties.
Christian and Roman morals. Lecky on European morals. Moral
science a pure system of dynamics ; the action of the will always
representing the strongest force, and as the strongest force is
always dependent upon the largest organs, a man's conduct must
depend upon the balance of his organisation. The Civil Service
Examination furnishes no test of character: only of intellectual
power and aptitudes. Petition of Sir George S. Mackenzie to
Lord Glenelg on the classification of criminals upon these prin-
ciples. Lunacy and vice the same, and require the same treat-
Our own consciousness all that is known to us, and external objects
are known only as they appear in this consciousness. Our road
lies, therefore, from metaphysics to physics, and not from physics
to metaphysics, for the world is created in the mind by our “forms
of thought,” which “forms” are dependent upon the structure of
the brain. It is this consciousness, a mere succession of thoughts
and feelings, that we call our mind, and it is induced by the mo-
lecular action of the brain upon force passing through it. Force
is inseparable from the entity to which it belongs ; it is not matter,
matter only conditions it; it is not motion, but the cause of motion.
The natural forces are correlates—that is, they all pass readily into
each other. Force, therefore, is One, and that of which it is the
force, a Unity-Universal Mind, conscious or automatic. Thus in
the correlation of force we have one great heart-beat of the
Absolute Existence : “ Being underlying all modes and forms of
The feelings and faculties by which the religious world is created.
Early history of religion. The Hebrew and Christian God. Super-
stition. Atheism preferable to Calvinism. Lecky on the Christian
Hell, and on persecution as the legitimate consequence.
Shakers, who have no children, alone consistent. Old creeds pass-
ing away. Trimming. Religious language metaphorical. The
Theological Universe. Anthropomorphism. A new reformation
wanted. Buddha. The Wahhabee, or purest doctrine of Moham-
medanism. Man a Cosmos. God and Nature inseparable-God is
Nature, not in Nature, and the Laws of Nature are His modes of
action—the manifestation of His Attributes. The Eternal Sacred-
ness of the universe, and of all life in it; contains, therefore, the
germ of the new reformation. It is the tutored mind, not the
“untutored,” that “sees God in clouds and hears Him in the wind."
Prayer. The coming religion. Worship.
SECTION_DEATH. Life and Death the mere synthesis and analysis
of nature's laboratory. The old and useless bodies are always being
ground up to make into new and improved ones. Nothing is lost,
unless it be the dreams and recollections of man in his grub state.
Where energy disappears, it merely changes its form. Nothing
really dies, for death is always the parent of life elsewhere,—the
energy is passed on; the life of the aggregate being the death of
the atoms; so much eloquence, so much of the body resolved
into carbonic acid, water, and urea." The Soul-whence ? and
when? and where? The difficulties attending the retention of our
Identity and Personality after death. The Author writes his