« EelmineJätka »
The large effects which can be attributed to the ring-grouping of atoms, to the iso-linkage, to double-linkage, and to changes in the condition of oxygen in its compounds, as well as the smaller effects due to the accumulation of atoms of halogen in a molecule, render evident the quantitative influence of constitution.
2. Of the remaiuing substances the chlormethanes, tetrachlorethylene, ethylidene chloride and carbon bisulphide give deviations from the calculated values on account of constitutive influences not allowed for in obtaining the fundamental constants.
3. The alcohols and water exhibit no agreement with the calculated values. The mode in which deviations vary indicates, in the case of the alcohols, that the disturbing factor is related to their chemical nature.
The results obtained from the consideration of molecular viscosity work at equal slope, are of precisely the same nature as those discussed under molecular viscosity.
The fundamental constants are as follows:
Fundamental Viscosity Constants (molecular viscosity work at
Slope 0:0,323, in ergs x 10).
The substances which give deviations from the calculated values fall into two classes. In the first the deviations are to be attributed to chemical constitution, inasmuch as similar disturbing effects may be detected in the magnitudes of other physical properties which afford no evidence of being influenced by molecular complexity.
In the second are substances like the acids, water, and the alcohols, for which the disturbing factor is, no doubt, molecular complexity.
The question of the generality of the results obtained is next discussed.
It is evident:
1. That over snch temperature ranges as the observations extend the results obtained at a particular value of the slope may be regarded as general for all liquids, with the exception of the alcohols, for which the relationships vary slightly as the slope alters. A general expression connecting the viscosity coefficient with the slope is given.
2. It is further indicated, from comparisons made by the use of slopes which varied from liquid to liquid, and which were chosen according to definite systems, that in the present state of the question equal slope is the most suitable condition at which to compare the viscosities of different liquids.
With respect to the relationships existing between the magnitudes of the comparable temperatures of equal slope, it appears :
1. That these vary in a regular way with the chemical nature of the substances, except in the case of liquids like benzene and propylene dibromide, giving viscosity curves which are abnormal when compared with those of their homologues.
2. The temperature relationships may also be regarded as general and thus independent of the value of the slope, except in the case of the alcohols, which, in this respect, as in that of viscosity at equal slope, are anomalous.
The rest of the memoir is concerned with the discussion of certain general conclusions regarding physicochemical comparisons; and it finally deals with other possible methods of obtaining and comparing viscosity magnitudes.
Presents, February 22, 1894. Transactions. Adelaide :-Royal Society of South Australia. Transactions. Vol. XVII. Part. 2. 8vo. Adelaide 1893.
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“Note on some changes in the Blood of the General Circula
tion consequent upon certain Inflammations of acute and local Character." By C. S. SHERRINGTON, M.D., F.R.S., Lecturer on Physiology, St. Thomas's Hospital, ProfessorSuperintendent of the Brown Institution, London. Received December 11, 1893,-Read December 14, 1893.
[PLATE 1.] In result of an acute inflammatory process of even limited local extent alterations, that have been long recognised, take place in the blood of the general circulation. These alterations are (1) hyperinosis, or increased yield of fibrin ; (2) leucocytosis, or numerical increase of leucocytes.
Of all the phenomena of inflammation the most fundamental, apart from the local degeneration of the involved tissue, is, without doubt, abnormal exudation of intravascular fluid. The latter process must produce changes in the blood in general circulation, as well as in that in the vascular area locally disturbed. It is these general hænic changes incident on local inflammation with which my experiments deal, especially with certain features of the inflammatory leucocy, tosis.
I. METHODS. The inflammatory lesion I have established by trauma of one or other kind, induced generally by thermal means. When the seat chosen for the lesion has been in the limb, the procedure has been as follows.
The animal being deeply anæsthetised, the nerves to the limb harė been carefully severed, in order to destroy sensation in the limb. Then the main artery to the limb (femoral or brachial) has been occluded by digital compression, and the extremity of the member immersed in water at 52° C. for five minutes. The limb has then been wiped dry, the animal allowed to recover from anæsthesia, and replaced in its stall.
The blood was examined at least once before establishment of the lesion. Afterwards a series of examinations were made, and these, with records of body-temperature and respiration, furnish the chief observations obtained from the experiments.
When the site of the lesion has been in an abdominal organ the same general plan has been followed, except that, as a rule, no nerve has been severed. Sponges steeped in 0:6 per cent. aqueous NaCl solu. tion at 52° C. were applied for five minutes to a knuckle of intestine, brougbt to a small incision in the linea alba ; the gut was then carefully replaced, and the wound closed, the whole performed with strict precautions for asepsis. In several instances, instead of the above plan, mechanical trauma was employed in the form of ligation of the knuckle of intestine. In several experiments where inflammation, primarily of a mucous surface, was requisite, use was made of specific chemical irritants in the form of cathartics administered by the stomach ; but I have for the present endeavoured to avoid the use of chemical and bacterial irritants.
For the examination of the blood "drop" methods have been used throughout; the withdrawal of even quite small quantities of blood from the circulation induces rapid alteration in the circulating blood itself. By "drop" methods this source of error is avoided. More. over “ drop" methods have the advantage of not necessitating any binding down or tying of the animal, and it has by several authorities* been shown that these fixations of the animal, especially when continued over longish periods, induce of themselves severe changes in the composition of the blood. The animals employed have been the dog and cat, and occasionally the rabbit. The drop of blood required for examination has been almost always taken from the pinna of the ear.
For the counting of corpuscles I have used a selected pair of previously tested Thoma-Zeiss "counters.” The instruments are guaranteed to vary in capacity by less than 1 per cent. of the capacity of each, i.e., by less than 0·001 mm.. My pair showed no difference measurable under the magnification of the Zeiss Objective D. I have therefore discarded enumerations which have not tallied on the two counters within 10 per cent. I have not used the Thoma-Zeiss pipette, but one by Hawksley, containing no bead, and of a different shape from the Thoma-Zeiss pipette. Objec
• Cf. especially Lówit, 'Studien zur Physiologie u. Pathologie des Blutes u. der Lymphe,' p. 9, &c.