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Lansdell, Rev. Henry, D.D. Smith, Rev. Frederick John, M.A. Lockwood, Charles Barrett, Stebbing, Rev. Thomas Roscoe F.R.C.S.
Rede, M.A. Love, Augustus Edward Hough, Stewart, Professor Charles, M.A.
M.R.C.S. Lydekker, Richard, B.A.
Stirling, William, M.D. McConnell, James Frederick Parry, Stuart, Professor T. P. Ander
Swan, Joseph Wilson.
F.C.S. Matthey, Edward, F.C.S.
Truman, Edwin Thomas, M.R.C.S. Minchin, Professor George M., M.A. Tuke, Daniel Hack, M.D. Mott, Frederick Walker, M.D. Ulrich, Professor George Henry Notter, James Lane, Surgeon- Frederick, F.G.S. Lieut.-Col.
Veley, Victor Hubert, M.A. Ord, William Miller, M.D.
Waterhouse, James, Colonel. Penrose, Francis Cranmer, M.A. Webb, Francis William, M.Inst. Power, William Henry.
Whymper, Edward, F.R.G.S.
Windle, Bertram Coghill Allen, Salomons, Sir David, M.A.
M.D. Scott, Alexander, M.A.
Woodward, Horace Bolingbroke, Scott, Dukinfield Henry, M.A. F.G.S. Seebohm, Henry, F.L.S.
Wynne, William Palmer, D.Sc.
The following Papers were read :
I. “Preliminary Note on Bilateral Degeneration in the Spinal
Cord of Monkeys (Macacus sinicus) following Unilateral
(From the Pathological Laboratory of University College, London.) Having for some time been engaged in an investigation of the question as to how far the fibres of each pyramid descend both halves of the spinal cord, I am in a position to state that in the bonnet monkey (Macacus sinicus) the following arrangement prevails.
Method of Investigation.—The animal being etherised, and the left hemisphere of the brain exposed by a single trephine hole (sometimes enlarged afterwards), a small portion of the excitable area of the motor cortex was selected as detailed below, the selection being confirmed in each case by electrical stimulation. A small piece of the cortex, about 0:4 cm. square, constituting the focus of the movement observed, was removed, care being taken to remove also a little of the underlying corona radiata to be sure that no cortex was left. The wounds healed, without exception, within 24 hours by first intention. Beyond slight paresis, which generally disappeared in 24 hours, no symptoms were observed to result from the excision. Professor Horsley kindly did the operations for me. After three weeks the animals were killed, the brain and cord hardened in Müller's solution, and stained in osmic acid after the method of Marchi.
Results of Investigations. Three foci of representation were selected for excision, the left hemisphere being chosen in every case (vide Method of Investigation).
I. Focus for the movements of the thumb.
II. Focus for the movements of the hallux. The course taken by the descending degenerated fibres was as follows:
I. Hallux Focus removed.-In this case the lesion consisted of the removal of about 16 sq. mm. of cortex between the superior precentral sulcus and the fissure of Rolando, and bounded below by the level of the superior frontal sulcus.
Degenerated fibres were found in both lateral columns of the cord, the large majority being on the right side. The degenerated fibres were scattered throughout the entire area of the crossed or lateral pyramidal tract, not being restricted to any special part of it, though it might be said they were a little more dense posteriorly. Throughout the cervical, dorsal, and lumbar regions the total number of degenerated fibres was not diminished, though, of course, relatively increased in the lower cord. In the pons and medulla the degeneration was entirely confined to the left pyramidal tract (the side of the lesion). At the decussation in the upper cervical region the degenerated tract divided; about one-third going to the lateral column of the same side, the remaining two-thirds crossing to the lateral tract on the opposite side. In the upper cervical region there were a very few degenerated fibres remaining in the direct tract (anterior column), and below the middle of the cervical enlargement none could be seen.
II. Thumb Focus removed.-In this case the lesion consisted of a similar removal of cortex at a poirt just above the lower end of the intra-parietal sulcus, and between it and the fissure of Rolando, and, consequently, just behind the inferior genu of the fissure of Rolando (Beevor and Horsley). As in the case of the hallux focus, degeneration was also confined to the pyramidal tracts of the same side (left) as the lesion, throughout the pons and medulla. At the decussation of the pyramids there was also a slight division of the degenerated fibres, but in this case a few fibres only (less than one in ten) went to the lateral column of the same (left) side of the cord. There
may have been two or three degenerated fibres left in the direct tract after the decussation, but this could not be positively stated. In the cervical and upper dorsal regions the degenerated fibres gradually decreased in number. At the level of the second dorsal there were a very few degenerated fibres still left in each lateral column. At the third dorsal they had entirely disappeared.
It seems probable, from these observations, that a second decussation lower down in the cord-recrossing-does not occor, and that the bi-lateral degeneration observed by Pitres, Sherrington, Langley, Muratoff, and others is a genuine bi-lateral descent of fibres from one hemisphere.
II. “On the Relations of the Secular Variation of the Magnetic
Declination and Inclination at London, Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena and Ascension Island, as exhibited on the Magnetarium." By HENRY WILDE, F.R.S. Received
February 19, 1894. In a paper which was read before the Royal Society in June, 1890, I showed that the principal phenomena of terrestrial magnetism and the secular changes in its horizontal and vertical components could be explained on the assumption of an electro-dynamic substance (presumably liquid or gaseous) rotating within the crust of the earth in the plane of the ecliptic, and a little slower than the diurnal rotation. By means of some electro-mechanism, new to experimental science, which I termed a magnetarium, the period of backward rotation of the internal electro-dynamic sphere required for the secular variations of the magnetic elements on different parts of the earth's surface was found to be 960 years, or 22:5 minutes of a degree annually. It was also demonstrated that the inclination of the axes of the electro-dynamic and terrestrial globes to each other of 20° 30', was the cause of the inequality of the declination periods about the same meridian in the northern and southern hemispheres; as in. stanced in the short period of outward westerly declination at London, and the long period of outward westerly declination at the Cape of Good Hope and St. Helena.
The object of the present communication is, firstly, to make a more direct comparison of the declination periods at London and at the Cape of Good Hope than was set forth in my former paper; and, secondly, to show a further agreement between the indications of the magnetarium and the results of recent observations of the dip and declination at the Island of Ascension.
The rate of backward rotation of the internal electro-dynamic sphere, as I have said, is 22:5 minutes = 0.375° annually. Now, the period of the westerly march of the declination needle at London from zero in the year 1657 to its maximum of 24° 30' in the year 1817 is 160 years; therefore, 0•375° x 160 = 60° of differential rotation of the internal sphere. Again, the westerly march of the needle at the Cape of Good Hope from the year 1609 to its maximum of 30° in the year 1881 is 272 years. Therefore, 0•3750 x 272 = 102° of differential rotation of the internal sphere. Hence, 60° : 160 years :: 102° : 272 years; the outward westerly declination periods at London and the Cape of Good Hope respectively, as shown by observation and on the magnetarium. Subjoined are tables of the declination and inclination at London, the Cape of Good Hope, and on the magnetarium for the same epochs.
Table I.-Secular Changes of the Declination and Inclination
1657 1665 1672 1692 1723 1748 1773 1787 1795 1805 1813 1815 1818 1820 1830 1858 1860 1865 1870 1875 1881 1887
74 42 N.
Table II.-Secular Changes of the Declination and Inclination at
London on the Magnetarium.
1657 1673 1689 1705 1721 1737 1753 1769 1785 1801 1817 1833 1849 1865 1881 1897 1913 1945 1977 2009 2041 2073 2105 2137
• bo 6 00 W. 10 00 15 00 17 30 19 30 21 30 22 30 23 30 24 00 24 30 24 00 23 30 22 30 22 00 21 30 20 30 18 30 16 30 13 30 10 30 7 30 4 00 W. 0 00
1723 1736 1752 1768 1784 1800 1816 1832 1848 1864 1880 1896 1912 1928 1944 1960 1976 2008 2040 2072 2104 2136 2168 2200
12 18 24 30 36
48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 108 120 132 144 156 168 180
12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 108 120 132 144 156 168 180
14 36 N. 74 00 73 30 73 00 72 30 71 30 70 30 69 30 68 30 67 30 66 30 65 30 64 00 62 30 61 00 59 30 58 30 56 00 54 00 52 00 50 30 50 00 49 30 4900 N.