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therefore conclude, that the passion of and beginning of everything that ariseth laughter is nothing else but sudden glory new unto him. And from this passion of arising from a sudden conception of some admiration and curiosity, have arisen not eminency in ourselves, by comparison only the invention of names, but also with the infirmity of others, or with our supposition of such causes of all things as own formerly; for men laugh at the follies they thought might produce them. And of themselves past, when they come sud- from this beginning is derived all philodenly to remembrance, except they bring sophy, as astronomy from the admiration with them any present dishonour. It is of the course of heaven; natural philono wonder, therefore, that men take sophy from the strange effects of the eleheinously to be laughed at or derided; ments and other bodies. And from the dethat is, triumphed over. Laughing with grees of curiosity proceed also the degrees out offence, must be at absurdities and of knowledge amongst men; for, to a man infirmities abstracted from persons, and in the chase of riches or authority (which when all the company may laugh to- in respect of knowledge are but sensugether; for laughing to one's self putteth ality), it is a diversity of little pleasure, all the rest into jealousy, and examination whether it be the motion of the sun or of themselves. Besides, it is vain glory, the earth that maketh the day: or to and an argument of little worth, to think enter into other contemplations of any the infirmity of another sufficient matter strange accident, otherwise than whether for his triumph.

it conduce or not to the end he pursueth. Because curiosity is delight, therefore

also novelty is so; but especially that CURIOSITY AND THE DESIRE novelty from which a man conceiveth an

opinion, true or false, of bettering his OF KNOWLEDGE.

own estate ; for, in such case, they stand FORASMUCH as all knowledge begin- affected with the hope that all gamesters neth from experience, therefore also new have while the cards are shuffling. experience is the beginning of new knowledge, and the increase of experience the beginning of the increase of knowledge. Whatsoever, therefore, happeneth new to

(Joseph ADDISON. 1672–1719.) a man, giveth him matter of hope of

SIR ROGER DE COVERLEY. knowing somewhat that he knew not before. And this hope and expectation of The first of our society is a gentlefuture knowledge from anything that man of Worcestershire, of an ancient happeneth new and strange, is that pas- descent, a baronet, his name Sir Roger sion which we commonly call admira- de Coverley. His great grandfather was tion; and the same considered as appe. inventor of that famous country-dance, tite, is called curiosity, which is appetite which is called after him. All who know of knowledge. As in the discerning of that shire are very well acquainted with faculties, man leaveth all community with the parts and merits of Sir Roger. He beasts at the faculty of imposing names, is a gentleman that is very singular in his so also doth he surmount their nature at behaviour, but -his singularities proceed this passion of curiosity. For when a from his good sense, and are contradicbeast seeth anything new and strange to tions to the manners of the world, only him, he considereth it so far only as to as he thinks the world is in the wrong. discern whether it be likely to serve his However, this humour creates him no turn or hurt him, and accordingly ap- enemies, for he does nothing with sourproacheth nearer to it, or fleeth fronı it: ness or obstinacy, and his being uncon. whereas man, who in most events re- fined to modes and forms makes him but membercth in what manner they were the readier and more capable to please caused and begun, looketh for the cause and oblige all who know him. When he


is in town he lives in Soho Square. It me at a distance. As I have been walkis said he keeps himself a bachelor by ing in his fields I have observed them reason he was crossed in love by a per- stealing a sight of me over a hedge, and verse beautiful widow of the next county have heard the knight desiring them not to him. Before this disappointment, Sir to let me see them, for that I hated to be Roger was what you call a fine gentle stared at. man, had often supped with my Lord I am the more at ease in Sir Roger's Rochester and Sir George Etherege, family, because it consists of sober, staid fought a duel upon his first coming to persons; for as the knight is the best town, and kicked bully Dawson in a pub- master in the world, he seldom changes lic coffee-house for calling him youngster: his servants; and as he is beloved by all but being ill used by the above-mentioned about him, his servants never

care for widow, he was very serious for a year and leaving him; by this means his domestics a half; and though, his temper being are all in years, and grown old with their naturally jovial, he at last got over it, master. You would take his valet-de. he grew careless of himself, and never chambre for his brother; his butler is dressed afterward. He continues to wear grey-headed, his groom is one of the a coat and doublet of the same cut that gravest men that I have ever seen, and were in fashion at the time of his repulse, his coachman has the looks of a privy which, in his merry humours, he tells us councillor. You see the goodness of the has been in and out twelve times since he master even in his old house-dog, and in first wore it. He is now in his fifty-sixth a grey pad that is kept in the stable with year, cheerful, gay, and hearty; keeps a great care and tenderness, out of regard good house both in town and country; a for his past services, though he has been great lover of mankind; but there is such useless for several years. a mirthful cast in his behaviour, that he I could not but observe, with a great is rather beloved than esteemed.

deal of pleasure, the joy that appeared in His tenants grow rich, his servants the countenances of these ancient dolook satisfied, all the young women pro- mestics upon my friend's arrival at his fess love to him, and the young men are country-seat. Some of them could not glad of his company. When he comes refrain from tears at the sight of their old into a house he calls the servants by their master; every one of them pressed fornames, and talks all the way upstairs to ward to do something for him, and a visit. I must not omit that Sir Roger seemed discouraged if they were not emis a justice of the quorum, that he fills ployed. At the same time the good old the chair at a quarter-sessions with great knight, with a mixture of the father and abilities, and three months ago gained the master of the family, tempered the universal applause by explaining a pas. inquiries after his own affairs with several sage in the Game Act.

kind questions relating to themselves. Having often received an invitation This humanity and good nature engages from my friend Sir Roger de Coverley, everybody to him, so that when he to pass away a month with him in the pleasant upon any of them, all his family country, I last week accompanied him are in good humour, and none so much thither, and am settled with him for some as the person whom he diverts himself time at his country-house, where I intend with : on the contrary, if he coughs, or to form several of my ensuing specula- betrays any infirmity of old age, it is easy tions. Sir Roger, who is very well ac- for a stander-by to observe a secret conquainted with my humour, lets me rise cern in the looks of all his servants. and go to bed when I please, dine at his My worthy friend has put me under own table or in my chamber, as I think the particular care of his butler, who is a fit, sit still and say nothing without bid- very prudent man, and, as well as the ding me be merry. When the gentlemen rest of his fellow-servants, wonderfully of the country come to see him, he shows | desirous of pleasing me, because they have often heard their master talk of me in all that time asked anything of me for as of his particular friend.

himself, though he is every day soliciting My chief companion, when Sir Roger me for something in behalf of one or is diverting himself in the woods or the other of my tenants, his parishioners. fields, is a venerable man who is ever There has not been a lawsuit in the with Sir Roger, and has lived at his parish since he has lived among them; if house in the nature of a chaplain above any dispute arises, they apply themselves thirty years. This gentleman is a person to him for the decision; if they do not of good sense and some learning, of a acquiesce in his judgment, which I think very regular life and obliging conversa- never happened above once or twice at tion; he heartily loves Sir Roger, and most, they appeal to me. At his first knows that he is very much in the old settling with me, I made him a present knight's esteem, so that he lives in the of all the good sermons which have been family rather as a relation than a de printed in English, and only begged of pendent. .

him that every Sunday he would proI have observed in several of my nounce one of them in the pulpit. Acpapers that my friend Sir Roger, amidst cordingly he has digested them into such all his good qualities, is something of a a series that they follow one another humourist; and that his virtues as well as naturally, and make a continued system imperfections are, as it were, tinged by a of practical divinity.— The Spectator. certain extravagance which makes them particularly his, and distinguishes them from those of other men. This cast of mind, as it is generally very innocent in A SUNDAY IN THE COUNTRY. itself, so it renders his conversation highly I AM always very well pleased with agreeable and more delightful than the a country Sunday, and think, if keeping same degree of sense and virtue would holy the seventh day were only a human appear in their common and ordinary institution, it would be the best method colours. As I was walking with him that could have been thought of for the last night, he asked me how I liked the polishing and civilising of mankind. It good man whom I have just now men- is certain the country people would soon tioned: and without staying for my degenerate into a kind of savages and answer, told me that he was afraid of barbarians, were there not such frequent being insulted with Latin and Greek at returns of a stated time, in which the his own table ; for which reason he de- whole village meet together with their sired a particular friend of his at the uni- best faces, and in their cleanliest habits, versity to find him out a clergyman rather of to converse with one another upon difplain sense than much learning, of a good ferent subjects, hear their duties explained aspect, a clear voice, a sociable temper, to them, and join together in adoration of and, if possible, a man that understood a the Supreme Being, Sunday clears away little of backgammon. • My friend,” the rust of the whole week, not only as it says Sir Roger, "found me out this gen- refreshes in their minds the notions of retleman, who, besides the endowments re- ligion, but as it puts both the sexes upon quired of him, is, they tell me, a good appearing in their most agreeable forms, scholar, though he does hot show it. I and exerting all such qualities as are apt have given him the parsonage of the to give them a figure in the eye of the parish; and, because I know his value, village. A country fellow distinguishes have set upon him a good annuity for himself as much in the churchyard, as a life. If he outlives me, he shall find that citizen does upon the 'Change, the whole he was higher in my esteem than perhaps parish politics being generally discussed he thinks he is. He has now been with in that place, either after sermon or before me thirty years; and though he does not the bell rings. know I have taken notice of it, has never My friend Sir Roger, being a good churchman, has beautified the inside of general good sense and worthiness of his his church with several texts of his own character make his friends observe these choosing. He has likewise given a hand- little singularities as foils that rather set some pulpit-cloth, and railed in the com- off than blemish his good qualities. munion-table at his own expense. He As soon as the sermon is finished, has often told me, that at his coming to nobody presumes to stir till Sir Roger his estate, he found his parishioners very is gone out of the church. The knight irregular : and that in order to make them walks down from his seat in the chancel kneel, and join in the responses, he gave between a double row of his tenants, that every one of them a hassock and a Com- stand bowing to him on each side; and mon Prayer Book; and at the same time every now and then inquires how such a employed an itinerant singing-master, one's wife, or mother, or son, or father who goes about the country for that pur- do, whom he does not see at church; pose, to instruct them rightly in the tunes which is understood as a secret reprimand of the Psalms, upon which they now very to the person that is absent. much value themselves, and indeed outdo The chaplain has often told me, that most of the country churches that I have upon a catechising day, when Sir Roger ever heard.

has been pleased with a boy that answers As Sir Roger is landlord to the whole well, he has ordered a Bible to be given to congregation, he keeps them in very good him next day for his encouragement, and order, and will suffer nobody to sleep in sometimes accompanies it with a flitch of it besides himself; for if by chance he has bacon to his mother. Sir Roger has likebeen surprised into a short nap at ser- wise added five pounds a year to the mon, upon recovering out of it, he stands clerk's place; and, that he may encourage up and looks about him, and if he sees the young fellows to make themselves peranybody else nodding, either wakes them fect in the church service, has promised himself, or sends his servants to them. upon the death of the present incumbent, Several other of the old knight's particu- who is very old, to bestow it according to larities break out upon these occasions. merit. Sometimes he will be lengthening out a The fair understanding between Sir verse in the singing Psalms, half a minute Roger and his chaplain, and their mutual after the rest of the congregation have concurrence in doing good, is the more done with it; sometimes, when he is remarkable, because the very next village pleased with the matter of his devotion, is famous for the differences and contenhe pronounces Amen three or four times tions that arise between the parson and in the same prayer; and sometimes stands the 'squire who live in a perpetual state up when everybody else is upon their of war. The parson is always preaching knees, to count the congregation, or see if at the 'squire, and the 'squire, to be reany of his tenants are missing.

venged on the parson, never comes to I was yesterday very much surprised church. The 'squire has made all his to hear my old friend, in the midst of the tenants atheists and tithe-stealers, while service, calling out to one John Matthews the parson instructs them every Sunday in to mind what he was about, and not dis- the dignity of his order, and insinuates to turb the congregation. This John Mat- them, in almost every sermon, that he is thews, it seems, is remarkable for being a better man than his patron. In short, an idle fellow, and at that time was kick- matters are come to such an extremity, ing his heels for his diversion. This that the 'squire has not said his prayers authority of the knight, though exerted either in public or private this half-year; in that odd manner which accompanies and the parson threatens him, if he does him in all the circumstances of life, has a not mend his manners, to pray for him in very good effect upon the parish who are the face of the whole congregation. not polite enough to see anything ridicu- Feuds of this nature, though too fre. lous in his behaviour; besides that the I quent in the country, are very fatal to the ordinary people; who are so used to be the appointed place, after having very dazzled with riches, that they pay as much officiously assisted him in making up his deference to the understanding of a man of pack, and laying it upon his shoulders. an estate as of a man of learning; and are There were, however, several persons very hardly brought to regard any truth, who gave me great diversion. Upon this how important soever it may be, that is occasion, I observed one bringing in a preached to them, when they know there fardel, very carefully concealed under an are several men of five hundred a year old embroidered cloak, which, upon his who do not believe it. — The Spectator. throwing it into the heap, I discovered to

be poverty. Another, after a great deal

of puffing, threw down his luggage, which, THE MOUNTAIN OF MISERIES. upon examining, I found to be his wife.

There were multitudes of lovers, saddled It is a celebrated thought of Socrates, with very whimsical burdens, composed of that if all the misfortunes of mankind darts and flames; but, what was very odd, were cast into a public stock, in order to though they sighed as if their hearts would be equally distributed among the whole break under these bundles of calamities, species, those who now think themselves they could not persuade themselves to cast the most unhappy, would prefer the share them into the heap when they came up to they are already possessed of, before that it; but, after a few vain efforts, shook which would fall to them by such a di- their heads, and marched away as heavy vision. Horace has carried this thought laden as they came. The truth of it is, I a great deal further (Sat. i. l. 1, ver. 1), was surprised to see the greatest part of which implies, that the hardships or mis- the mountain made up of bodily deformifortunes we lie under are more easy to us ties. But what most of all surprised me, than those of any other person would be, was a remark I made, that there was not in case we could change conditions with a single vice or folly thrown into the him.

whole heap; at which I was very much As I was ruminating upon these two astonished, having concluded within myremarks, and seated in my elbow chair, self that every one would take this opporI insensibly fell asleep; when on a sudden tunity of getting rid of his passions, premethought there was a proclamation made judices, and frailties. by Jupiter, that every mortal should bring I took notice in particular of a very in his griefs and calamities, and throw them profligate fellow, who, I did not question, together in a heap. There was a plain ap- came loaden with his crimes; but upon pointed for this purpose. I took my stand searching into his bundle, I found that, in the centre of it, and saw, with a great instead of throwing his guilt from him, deal of pleasure, the whole human species he had only laid down his memory. He marching one after another, and throwing was followed by another worthless rogue, down their several loads, which imme- who flung away his modesty instead of diately grew up into a prodigious moun- his ignorance. tain, that seemed to rise above the clouds. When the whole race of mankind had

There was a certain lady of a thin airy thus cast their burdens, the phantom shape, who was very active in this so- which had been so busy on this occasion, lemnity. She carried a magnifying glass in seeing me an idle spectator of what passed, one of her hands, and was clothed in a loose approached towards me. I grew uneasy flowing robe, embroidered with several at her presence, when of a sudden she held figures of fiends and spectres, that dis- her magnifying glass full before my eyes. covered themselves in a thousand chi- I no sooner saw my face in it, but was merical shapes, as her garments hovered startled at the shortness of it, which now in the wind. There was something wild appeared to me in its utmost aggravation. and distracted in her looks. Her name The immoderate breadth of the features was Fancy. She led up every mortal to made me very much out of humour with

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