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hatchets found in our peat-bogs, afford an being as black as in a peat-bog. The insight into the rude arts and manners of accumulation of vegetable matter going the earliest inhabitants of our island; the on here in a hot climate, over so vast an buried coin fixes the date of the reign of area, is a subject of such high geological some Roman emperor ; the ancient en interest, that I shall relate what I learnt campment indicates the districts once oc- of this singular morass. It is one enorcupied by invading armies, and the former mous quagmire, soft and muddy, except method of constructing military defences; where the surface is rendered partially the Egyptian mummies throw light on the firm by a covering of vegetables and their art of embalming, the rites of sepulture, matted roots; yet, strange to say, instead or the average stature of the human race of being lower than the level of the surin ancient Egypt. This class of memo- rounding country, it is actually higher rials yields to no other in authenticity, than nearly all the firm and dry land but it constitutes a small part only of the which encompasses it, and, to make the resources on which the historian relies, anomaly complete, in spite of its semi-Auid whereas in geology it forms the only kind character, it is higher in the interior than of evidence which is at our command. towards its margin. For this reason we must not expect to The only exceptions to both these stateobtain a full and connected account of ments is found on the eastern side, where, any series of events beyond the reach of for the distance of about twelve or fifteen history. But the testimony of geological miles, the streams flow from slightly elemonuments, if frequently imperfect, pos- vated but higher land, and supply all its sesses at least the advantage of being free abundant and overflowing water. Tofrom all suspicion of misrepresentation. wards the north, the east, and the south, We may be deceived in the inferences the waters flow from the swamp to differwhich we draw, in the same manner as ent rivers, which give abundant evidence, we often mistake the nature and import by the rate of their descent, that the of phenomena observed in the daily Great Dismal is higher than the surroundcourse of nature, but our liability to err ing firm ground. This fact is also conis confined to the interpretation, and, if firmed by the measurements made in this be correct, our information is certain. levelling for the railway from Portsmouth

to Suffolk, and for two canals cut through

different parts of the morass, for the sake THE ISMAL SWAMP.

of obtaining timber. The railway itself,

when traversing the Great Dismal, is literTHERE are many swamps or morasses ally higher than when on the land some in this low, flat region, and one of the miles distant on either side, and is six to largest of these occurs between the towns seven feet higher than where it passes of Norfolk and Weldon. We travelled over dry ground near to Suffolk and Portsseveral miles of its northern extremity on mouth. Upon the whole, the centre of the railway, which is supported on piles. the morass seems to lie more than twelve It bears the appropriate and very expres- feet above the flat country round it. If sive name of the “Great Dismal,” and is the streams which now flow in from the no less than forty miles in length from west, had for ages been bringing down north to south, and twenty-five miles in black fluid mire instead of water, over its greatest width from east to west, the the firm subsoil, we might suppose the northern half being situated in Virginia, ground so inundated as to have acquired the southern in North Carolina. I ob- its present configuration. Some small served that the water was obviously in ridges, however, of land must have existed motion in several places, and the morass in the original plain or basin, for these had somewhat the appearance of a broad now rise like low islands in various places inundated river-plain, covered with all above the general surface. But the kinds of aquatic trees and shrubs, the soil streams to the westward do not bring

a re

down liquid mire, and are not charged to the sun, and thrown out on the bank with any sediment. The soil of the of a canal, where clearings have been swamp is formed of vegetable matter, made, it rots entirely away. Hence it is usually without any admixture of earthly evident that it owes its preservation in particles. We have here, in fact, a dé- the swamp to moisture and the shade of posit of peat from ten to fifteen feet in the dense foliage. The evaporation conthickness, in a latitude where, owing to tinually going on in the wet spongy the heat of the sun and length of the soil during summer cools the air and summer, no peat-mosses like those of generates a temperature resembling that Europe would be looked for under ordi- of a more northern climate, or nary circumstances.

gion more elevated above the level of In countries like Scotland and Ireland, the sea. where the climate is damp, and the sum- Numerous trunks of large and tall trees mer short and cool, the natural vegetation lie buried in the black mire of the morass. of one year does not rot away during the In so loose a soil they are easily overnext in moist situations. If water flows thrown by winds, and nearly as many into such land it is absorbed, and pro- have been found lying beneath the surface motes the vigorous growth of mosses and of the peaty soil, as standing erect upon other aquatic plants, and when they die, it. When thrown down, they are soon the same water arrests their putrefaction. covered by water, and keeping wet, they But, as a general rule, no such accumula- never decompose, except the sap-wood, tion of peat can take place in a country which is less than an inch thick. Much of like that of Virginia, where the summer's the timber is obtained by sounding a foot heat causes annually as large a quantity or two below the surface, and it is sawn of dead plants to decay as is equal in into planks while half under water. amount to the vegetable matter produced The Great Dismal has been described in one year.

as being highest towards its centre. Here, There are many trees and shrubs in the however, there is an extensive lake of an region of the Pine Barrens (and the same oval form, seven miles long and more may be said of the United States gene- than five wide, the depth where greatest, rally) which, like our willows, flourish fifteen feet; and its bottom, consisting of luxuriantly in water. The juniper trees, mud like the swamp, but sometimes with or white cedar (Cupressus thyoides), stand a pure white sand, a foot deep, covering firmly in the softest part of the quagmire, the mud. The water is transparent, supported by their long tap-roots, and though tinged of a pale brown colour, afford, with many other evergreens, a dark like that of our peat-mosses, and contains shade, under which a multitude of ferns, abundance of fish. This sheet of water reeds, and shrubs, from nine to eighteen is usually even with its banks, on which feet high, and a thick carpet of mosses, a thick and tall forest grows. There is four or five inches high, spring up, and no beach, for the bank sinks perpendiare protected from the rays of the sun. cularly, so that if the waters are lowered When these are most powerful, the large several feet, it makes no alteration in the cedar (Cupressus districha), and many breadth of the lake. other deciduous trees are in full leaf. Much timber has been cut down and The black soil formed beneath this shade, carried out from the swamp by means of to which the mosses and the leaves make canals, which are perfectly straight for annual additions, does not perfectly re- long distances, with the trees on each side semble the peat of Europe, most of the arching over, and almost joining their plants being so decayed as to leave little branches across, so that they throw a more than soft black mud, without any dark shade on the water, which of itself traces of organization. This loose soil is looks black, being coloured as before called sponge by the labourers; and it mentioned. When the boats emerge from has been ascertained that, when exposed the gloom of these avenues into the lake,

the scene is said to be “as beautiful as verted into pure coal, are occasionally fairy land.”

met with, and erect fossil trees are ob. The bears inhabiting the swamp climb served in the overlying strata, terminating trees in search of acorns and gum-berries, downwards in seams of coal.— Travels in breaking off large boughs of the oaks in North America. order to draw the acorns near to them. These same bears are said to kill hogs, and even cows. There are also wild cats, and occasionally a solitary wolf, in the

[The Right Hon. BenjaMIN DISRAELI.) morass. That the ancient seams of coal were

THE HEBREW RACE. produced for the most part by terrestrial You never observe a great intellecplants of all sizes, not drifted but growing tual movement in Europe in which the on the spot, is a theory more and more Jews do not greatly participate. The generally adopted in modern times; and first Jesuits were Jews: that mysterious the growth of what is called sponge in Russian diplomacy which so alarms Westsuch a swamp, and in such a climate as ern Europe is organised and principally the Great Dismal, already covering so carried on by Jews ; that mighty revolumany square miles of a low level region, tion which is at this moment preparing in bordering the sea, and capable of spread- Germany, and which will be, in fact, a ing itself indefinitely over the adjacent second and greater reformation, and of country, helps us greatly to conceive the which so little is as yet known in England, manner in which the coal of the ancient is entirely developing under the auspices carboniferous rocks may have been formed. of Jews, who almost monopolise the proThe heat, perhaps, may not have been fessorial chairs of Germany. Neander, excessive when the coal measures origi- the founder of spiritual Christianity, and nated, but the entire absence of frost, who is regius professor of divinity in the with a warm and damp atmosphere, may university of Berlin, is a Jew. Benary, have enabled tropical forms to flourish in equally famous, and in the same univerlatitudes far distant from the line. Huge sity, is a Jew. Wehl, the Arabic proswamps in a rainy climate, standing above fessor of Heidelberg, is a Jew. Years the level of the surrounding firm land, ago, when I was in Palestine, I met a and supporting a dense forest, may have German student who was accumulating spread far and wide, invading the plains, materials for the history of Christianity, like some European peat-mosses when and studying the genius of the place; a they burst, and the frequent submergence modest and learned man. It was Wehl ; of these masses of vegetable matter be then unknown, since become the first neath seas or estuaries, as often as the Arabic scholar of the day, and the author land sank down during subterranean of the life of Mahommed. But for the movements, may have given rise to the German professors of this race, their deposition of strata of mud, sand, or name is Legion. I think there are more limestone, immediately upon the veget. than ten at Berlin alone. I told you just able matter. The conversion of succes- now that I was going up to town to-morsive surfaces into dry land, where other row, because I always made it a rule to swamps supporting trees may have formed, interpose when affairs of state were on the might give origin to a continued series of carpet. Otherwise, I never interfere. I coal measures of great thickness. In hear of peace and war in newspapers, but some kinds of coal the vegetable texture I am never alarmed, except when I am is apparent throughout under the micro- informed that the sovereigns want treascope; in others, it has only partially sure; then I know that monarchs are disappeared; but even in this coal, the serious. A few years back we were flattened trunks of trees of the genera applied to by Russia. Now, there has Lepidodendron Sigillaria, and others, con- | been no friendship between the court of St. Petersburg and my family. It has equalled-deeds of divine patriotism that Dutch connections which have generally Athens, and Sparta, and Carthage have supplied it, and our representations in never excelled—we have endured fifteen favour of the Polish Hebrews, a nume- hundred years of supernatural slavery ; rous race, but the most suffering and during which, every device that can de degraded of all the tribes, has not been grade or destroy man has been the destiny very agreeable to the czar. However, that we have sustained and baffled. The circumstances drew to an approximation Hebrew child has entered adolescence between the Romanoffs and the Sidonias. only to learn that he was the Pariah of I resolved to go myself to St. Petersburg. that ungrateful Europe that owes to him I had on my arrival an interview with the the best part of its laws, a fine portion of Russian minister of finance, Count Can- its literature, all its religion. Great poets crin ; I beheld the son of a Lithuanian require a public ; we have been content Jew. The loan was connected with the with the immortal melodies that we sung affairs of Spain ; I resolved on repairing more than two thousand years ago by the to Spain from Russia. I travelled with waters of Babylon and wept. They record out intermission. I had an audience im- our triumphs; they solace our affliction. mediately on my arrival with the Spanish Great orators are the creatures of popular minister, Senor Mendizabel; I beheld one assemblies; we were permitted only by like myself, the son of a Nuovo Christiano, stealth to meet even in our temples. And a Jew of Aragon. In consequence of as for great writers, the catalogue is not what transpired at Madrid, I went straight blank. What are all the school-men, to Paris, to consult the president of the Aquinas himself, to Maimonides ? and as French council ; I beheld the son of a for modern philosophy, all springs from French Jew, a hero, an imperial marshal, Spinoza! But the passionate and creaand very properly so, for who should be tive genius that is the nearest link to military heroes if not those who worship divinity, and which no human tyranny the Lord of hosts?” “And is Soult a He- can destroy, though it can divert it; that brew ?” “ Yes, and several of the French should have stirred the hearts of nations marshals, and the most famous : Massena, by its inspired sympathy, or governed for example-his real name was Manas- senates by its burning eloquence, has seh. But to my anecdote. The conse- found a medium for its expression, to sequence of our consultations was, that which, in spite of your prejudices and some northern power should be applied your evil passions, you have been obliged to in a friendly and mediative capacity. to bow. The ear, the voice, the fancy We fixed on Prussia, and the president of teeming with combinations—the imaginathe council made an application to the tion fervent with picture and emotion, Prussian minister, who attended a few that came from Caucasus, and which we days after our conference. Count Arnim have preserved unpolluted-have endowed entered the cabinet, and I beheld a Prus- us with almost the exclusive privilege of sian Jew. So you see, my dear Coningsby, music; that science of harmonious sounds that the world is governed by very dif- which the ancients recognised as most ferent personages to what is imagined by divine, and deified in the person of their those who are not behind the scenes. most beautiful creation. I speak not of Favoured by nature and by nature's God, the past; though were I to enter into the we produced the lyre of David ; we gave history of the lords of melody, you would you Isaiah and Ezekiel ; they are our find it the annals of Hebrew genius. But Olynthians, our Philippics. Favoured by at this moment even, musical Europe is nature we still remain ; but in exact pro- ours. There is not a company of singers, portion as we have been favoured by not an orchestra in a single capital, that nature, we have been persecuted by man. are not crowded with our children, under After a thousand struggles-after acts of the feigned names which they adopt to heroic courage that Rome has never I conciliate the dark aversion which your

think now,

posterity will some day disclaim with add another pain to that which already shame and disgust. Almost every great racks you ; they shall break the breaking composer, skilled musician, almost every heart, and make you turn your changed voice that ravishes you with its transport- face to the wall, and gather up your feet ing strains, spring from our tribes. The into your bed, and pray to be delivered catalogue is too vast to enumerate; too from your tormentors by your God, who illustrious to dwell for a moment on alone knows all. Wherefore, young secondary names, however eminent. man, if you would ensure a peaceful old Enough for us that the three great crea- age, be careful of the acts of each day of tive minds, to whose exquisite inventions your youth ; for with youth the deeds all nations at this moment yield-Ros- thereof are not to be left behind. They sini, Meyerbeer, Mendelssohn-are of are detectives, keener and more unerring Hebrew race; and little do your men of than ever the hand of sensational novelist fashion, your “Muscadins” of Paris, and depicted; they will dog you from the day your dandies of London, as they thrill you sinned till the hour your trial comes into raptures at the notes of a Pasta or a off. You are prosperous, you are great, Grisi, little do they suspect that they are you are ' beyond the world,” as I have offering homage to the sweet singers of heard people say, meaning the power or Israel.”—Coningsby.

the caprice thereof; but you are not beyond the power of events.

Whatever you may

they are only biding their [Mrs. J. H. RIDDELL.]

time; and when you are weak and at THE GHOSTS OF LONG AGO. their mercy, when the world you fancied

you were beyond has leisure to hear their The ghosts of the long ago -laid and story and scoff at you, they will come buried, as you fancied, years and years forward and tell all the bitter tale. And since, friends,--though your present sight if you take it one way, you will bluster may fail to discern them, they are and bully, and talk loud, and silence travelling with you still, a ghastly com- society before your face, if you fail to pany. While you drive in your carriage still its tattle behind your back; while if along life's smoothest turnpike-roads, or you take it another way, you will bear the pace, footsore and weary, over the flinty scourging silently, and cover up the marks by-paths of existence, past events are of the lash as best you may, and go home skipping on beside you, mocking, jeering, and close your door, and sit there alone at your profound self-delusion. Shall fleet with your misery, decently and in order, steeds leave them behind ? Shall liveried till you die.—

A Life's Assize. servants keep them at bay? Shall an unsuccessful existence, drawing to a still more unsuccessful close, be able to purchase their forbearance? Nay, invisible

[ANONYMOUS.] now, they shall be visible some day; THE LANGUAGE OF ANIMALS. voiceless, they shall yet find tongues ; despised, they shall rear their head and AMONG the stories in the Arabian hiss at you ; forgotten, they shall reappear Nights which first fixes the attention of with more strength than at their first birth; most people, is that of the merchant who and when the evil day comes, and your understood the language of animals. And power and your energy, and your youth and a delightful story it is. In “ Æsop's your hope, have gone, they shall pour the Fables,” also, where the beasts and the overflowing drop into your cup, they shall birds talk to each other and to mankind, mingle fennel with your wine, they shall no reader, who has a proper faith in what pile the last straw on your back, they shall he reads, is in the least degree surprised render wealth valueless and life a burden; at the sagacity which the animals display they shall make poverty more bitter, and / and put into the most natural language

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