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St. Petersburg and my family. It has equalled-deeds of divine patriotism that Dutch connections which have generally Athens, and Sparta, and Carthage have supplied it, and our representations in never excelled—we have endured fifteen favour of the Polish Hebrews, a nume- hundred years of supernatural slavery ; rous race, but the most suffering and during which, every device that can de degraded of all the tribes, has not been grade or destroy man has been the destiny very agreeable to the czar. However, that we have sustained and baffled. The circumstances drew to an approximation Hebrew child has entered adolescence between the Romanoffs and the Sidonias. only to learn that he was the Pariah of I resolved to go myself to St. Petersburg. that ungrateful Europe that owes to him I had on my arrival an interview with the the best part of its laws, a fine portion of Russian minister of finance, Count Can- its literature, all its religion. Great poets crin ; I beheld the son of a Lithuanian require a public ; we have been content Jew. The loan was connected with the with the immortal melodies that we sung affairs of Spain ; I resolved on repairing more than two thousand years ago by the to Spain from Russia. I travelled with waters of Babylon and wept. They record out intermission. I had an audience im- our triumphs; they solace our affliction. mediately on my arrival with the Spanish Great orators are the creatures of popular minister, Senor Mendizabel; I beheld one assemblies; we were permitted only by like myself, the son of a Nuovo Christiano, stealth to meet even in our temples. And a Jew of Aragon. In consequence of as for great writers, the catalogue is not what transpired at Madrid, I went straight blank. What are all the school-men, to Paris, to consult the president of the Aquinas himself, to Maimonides ? and as French council ; I beheld the son of a for modern philosophy, all springs from French Jew, a hero, an imperial marshal, Spinoza! But the passionate and creaand very properly so, for who should be tive genius that is the nearest link to military heroes if not those who worship divinity, and which no human tyranny the Lord of hosts?” “And is Soult a He- can destroy, though it can divert it; that brew ?” “ Yes, and several of the French should have stirred the hearts of nations marshals, and the most famous : Massena, by its inspired sympathy, or governed for example-his real name was Manas- senates by its burning eloquence, has seh. But to my anecdote. The conse- found a medium for its expression, to sequence of our consultations was, that which, in spite of your prejudices and some northern power should be applied your evil passions, you have been obliged to in a friendly and mediative capacity. to bow. The ear, the voice, the fancy We fixed on Prussia, and the president of teeming with combinations—the imaginathe council made an application to the tion fervent with picture and emotion, Prussian minister, who attended a few that came from Caucasus, and which we days after our conference. Count Arnim have preserved unpolluted-have endowed entered the cabinet, and I beheld a Prus- us with almost the exclusive privilege of sian Jew. So you see, my dear Coningsby, music; that science of harmonious sounds that the world is governed by very dif- which the ancients recognised as most ferent personages to what is imagined by divine, and deified in the person of their those who are not behind the scenes. most beautiful creation. I speak not of Favoured by nature and by nature's God, the past; though were I to enter into the we produced the lyre of David ; we gave history of the lords of melody, you would you Isaiah and Ezekiel ; they are our find it the annals of Hebrew genius. But Olynthians, our Philippics. Favoured by at this moment even, musical Europe is nature we still remain ; but in exact pro- ours. There is not a company of singers, portion as we have been favoured by not an orchestra in a single capital, that nature, we have been persecuted by man. are not crowded with our children, under After a thousand struggles-after acts of the feigned names which they adopt to heroic courage that Rome has never I conciliate the dark aversion which your
posterity will some day disclaim with add another pain to that which already shame and disgust. Almost every great racks you ; they shall break the breaking composer, skilled musician, almost every heart, and make you turn your changed voice that ravishes you with its transport- face to the wall, and gather up your feet ing strains, spring from our tribes. The into your bed, and pray to be delivered catalogue is too vast to enumerate; too from your tormentors by your God, who illustrious to dwell for a moment on alone knows all. Wherefore, young secondary names, however eminent. man, if you would ensure a peaceful old Enough for us that the three great crea- age, be careful of the acts of each day of tive minds, to whose exquisite inventions your youth ; for with youth the deeds all nations at this moment yield-Ros- thereof are not to be left behind. They sini, Meyerbeer, Mendelssohn-are of are detectives, keener and more unerring Hebrew race; and little do your men of than ever the hand of sensational novelist fashion, your “Muscadins” of Paris, and depicted; they will dog you from the day your dandies of London, as they thrill you sinned till the hour your trial comes into raptures at the notes of a Pasta or a off. You are prosperous, you are great, Grisi, little do they suspect that they are you are ' beyond the world,” as I have offering homage to the sweet singers of heard people say, meaning the power or Israel.”—Coningsby.
the caprice thereof; but you are not beyond the power of events.
Whatever you may
they are only biding their [Mrs. J. H. RIDDELL.]
time; and when you are weak and at THE GHOSTS OF LONG AGO. their mercy, when the world you fancied
you were beyond has leisure to hear their The ghosts of the long ago -laid and story and scoff at you, they will come buried, as you fancied, years and years forward and tell all the bitter tale. And since, friends,--though your present sight if you take it one way, you will bluster may fail to discern them, they are and bully, and talk loud, and silence travelling with you still, a ghastly com- society before your face, if you fail to pany. While you drive in your carriage still its tattle behind your back; while if along life's smoothest turnpike-roads, or you take it another way, you will bear the pace, footsore and weary, over the flinty scourging silently, and cover up the marks by-paths of existence, past events are of the lash as best you may, and go home skipping on beside you, mocking, jeering, and close your door, and sit there alone at your profound self-delusion. Shall fleet with your misery, decently and in order, steeds leave them behind ? Shall liveried till you die.—
A Life's Assize. servants keep them at bay? Shall an unsuccessful existence, drawing to a still more unsuccessful close, be able to purchase their forbearance? Nay, invisible
[ANONYMOUS.] now, they shall be visible some day; THE LANGUAGE OF ANIMALS. voiceless, they shall yet find tongues ; despised, they shall rear their head and AMONG the stories in the Arabian hiss at you ; forgotten, they shall reappear Nights which first fixes the attention of with more strength than at their first birth; most people, is that of the merchant who and when the evil day comes, and your understood the language of animals. And power and your energy, and your youth and a delightful story it is. In “ Æsop's your hope, have gone, they shall pour the Fables,” also, where the beasts and the overflowing drop into your cup, they shall birds talk to each other and to mankind, mingle fennel with your wine, they shall no reader, who has a proper faith in what pile the last straw on your back, they shall he reads, is in the least degree surprised render wealth valueless and life a burden; at the sagacity which the animals display they shall make poverty more bitter, and / and put into the most natural language imaginable. The fox did say the grapes
We know that there are many creatures were sour; the wolf did fix an uncon- on the earth which are utterly unconscionable quarrel upon the poor little scious of the existence of man; and we lamb which he wanted to devour; and the might, if we were not too proud, ask ourlion did really express to the man his can- selves, in like manner, if there may not did opinion upon the favouritism of portrait. be many things in the animal creation of painting. At all events, the youthful which man is necessarily unconscious. IfI imagination sees no absurdity in the idea. walk through the woods on a bright sumThis brings me to my subject-Is fable mer's day, or sit under the oaken or entirely wrong in these little matters, and beechen shadows, I am conscious of a have not all animals a language of their tide and tremor of life around me. I hear own? Have not birds a language which the birds singing, twittering, and chatterother birds understand ? and insects ? and ing, each species with its own peculiar for that matter, fishes ? In the pride of note. I hear the bees and the flies our superior knowledge, we assert of our buzzing with more or less vigour, pertiselves that Man is the only animal who nacity, and volume of sound ; while a kindles a fire, cooks food, makes clothes, faint echo comes from the distant pastures and is endowed with the faculty of arti- of the bleating of sheep, the lowing of culate speech. While granting our own cattle, the barking of shepherds' dogs, monopoly of fire-making, cookery, and and the lusty crowing of the cocks in the tailoring, are we quite sure that we do not farm-yard. I ask myself whether all arrogate to ourselves a little too much these various sounds may not be as many superiority when we claim that to us alone languages, perfectly, intelligible to the is accorded the glorious privilege of lan- creatures which speak them to each other, guage ? Philosophers are very dogmatic though unintelligible to me. I know that on the subject. “ However much," says some animals—the dog especially-underProfessor Max Müller, “the frontiers of stand many words that I employ, if I the animal kingdom have been pushed speak emphatically, and that my own dog forward, so that at one time the line of will do what I tell him ; but, if I do not demarcation between animal and man understand what one dog says to another, seemed to depend on a mere fold of the whose fault is it, mine or the dog's? Man brain, there is one barrier which no one may doubtless claim that he has a larger has yet ventured to touch – the barrier of vocabulary than the inferior creation. He language. The professor proceeds to has wants more numerous, ideas more quote Lord Monboddo and John Locke. abundant ; hopes, fears, recollections, and The first says that “ as yet no animal has aspirations, unknown perhaps to their been discovered in the possession of lan- limited intelligence, and must consequently guage, not even the beaver, who of all have a language more copious than theirs. the animals we know, that are not like Language keeps pace with knowledge, the ourang-outang, of our own species, intelligence, and imagination. A Shakecomes nearest to us in sagacity.” Locke speare may require fourteen thousand says, The power of abstracting is not at words to express all his thoughts, and tell all in brutes; and the having of general all his marvellous stories ; a scientific ideas is that which puts a perfect distinc- writer, obliged to be accurate, may retion between man and brutes. For it is quire a few thousand more ; a modern evident we observe no footsteps in these gentleman, of average education, may of making use of general signs for univer- manage to express all his wants, wishes, sal ideas; from which we have reason to and emotions, and carry on the usual imagine that they have not the faculty of intercourse of life and society, with four abstracting or making general ideas, since thousand; while an ordinary peasant in they have no use of wordsorof other general some of our rural districts sometimes gets signs.” Are not these philosophers a on satisfactorily to himself, his family, little too confident ?
and his associates, with about five hun.
dred, and can manage to transact all his friend the dog, may be susceptible of a business with his horse in half a dozen. great variety of meanings, according to And as it does not follow that we can the tone and accentuation he gives to truly call such a peasant a man without a those fundamental words or syllables of language, even when speaking to his his language, or the number of repetitions horse, neither does it follow in the case of either of the “bow or the "wow?" a quadruped, that may have but four or Sometimes, when a dog barks, he will five, or even but one word or sound to omit the '«c bow” altogether, and say, express its meaning, that such quadruped wow ! Wow ! wow ! ” very sharply and is without a language which its fellow- rapidly; and it can be scarcely supposed quadrupeds may understand ? A single that so very intelligent a creature has no sound, with a rising or a falling accent, or reason for this little change in its customary a stronger or weaker emphasis, may ex. phraseology. Mr. Max Miiller positively press different meanings; and the same states that “no animal thinks, and no sound, repeated, twice, thrice, or four animal speaks, except man. Every one times, with the rising or the falling accent who has made a friend of an animal—and at the first, second, third, or fourth repe- there are few who have not-must distition, may contain a whole vocabulary pute the first part of this assertion. When for the simple creatures who emit and a dog is presented with a bone after he understand the sound, and whose wants has had his dinner and satisfied his hunand emotions are as circumscribed as ger, he thinks the bone is too good to be their speech.
rejected, and it would be wise in him to Professor Max Müller supplies us with put it into a place of safety, to be ready an illustration in point. He says that in when required, just as a man puts his the Chinese, the Annamitic, and likewise money in the bank. Accordingly, he in the Siamese and Burmese languages, takes his opportunity to go into the garden one single sound does duty in this way and bury it; and, if watched in the profor a great variety of meanings. “Thus," cess, will dig it up again with his nose, he says, in Annamitic, "ba,' pronounced and carry it off to a safer spot. Is not with the grave accent, means a lady or an this thinking ? When I put on my hat ancestor'; pronounced with a sharp ac- and overcoat, and take my walking stick cent, it means the favourite of a prince; from its accustomed place in the hall, my pronounced with the semi-grave accent, dog thinks, and speedily knows, that I it means what has been thrown away; am going out; and very plainly asks me, pronounced with the grave circumflex, it not only by the sudden sparkling of his means what is left of a fruit after the juice expressive eyes and the wagging of his has been squeezed out; pronounced with equally expressive tail, but by a succession no accent, it means three ; pronounced of joyous barks and yelps, whether I with the ascending or interrogative accent, mean to take him along with me; and, if it means a box on the ear. Thus, I refuse the request, very plainly exBa, Bà, B1, Bá
presses his sorrow for my decision.
Mr. Max Müller says elsewhere in his is said to mean, if properly pronounced. lecture, that “ language and thought are * Three ladies gave a box on the ear to inseparable." If this statement be correct, the favourite of the prince.'
it follows from his own showing, that if In our own and in several European we can prove the possession of a faculty languages identical sounds have various for thinking in the members of the infemeanings ; the English" box” being one rior creation, we must admit that they example, and the French “sang,
may possess a language which they may “sans,
cent,” another. If we con- thoroughly understand, and which may sider this subject without a prejudice, be quite sufficient for the expression of may we not see reason to think that the their limited ideas. It is difficult to be“Bow ! wow ! wow !” of our estimable I lieve that the crow has not two or three,
and the nightingale at least a dozen notes the lex non scripta of their community in its voice, and that these notes may not, which calls for reprobation or punishin their interchange, reiteration, and ment. . At all events, something marvelsuccession, expresses ideas with which lously like a trial takes place, with a judge crows are familiar, and whole poems or or presiding officer, and the whole comhistories, such as nightingales love to tell munity for the jurors. The prisoner, and repeat to one another; and that any looking dejected, penitent, and woebeone of the many notes in the sweet song gone, is perched in the middle. A series of the skylark may not, according to its of caw-cawings ensues, which, as Lord accentuation, or even to its place in the Dundreary might say, no fellow can gamut, express as many shades of mean- understand," but which cannot be othering as the Annamitic "ba" of which Mr. wise than intelligible to the sachems and Max Müller discourses.
members of the corvine tribe-or why Most people who are gifted with the should the sounds be uttered ?- and faculty of observing, and blessed with the which, protracted sometimes for twenty privilege of enjoying, the sights and or thirty minutes, or even for an hour, sounds of nature, and who have either results in a decision of some kind. If resided in, or been frequent visitors to, the the defendant flies away comfortably with country, must at one time or other have the judge and jury at the conclusion of the remarked the actions and behaviour of council, we have a right to suppose that crows and rooks, or, in the quaint lan- he has been acquitted. If, on the conguage of the old Scottish poet, Alexander trary, as often happens, the whole tribe Montgomery, must have listened to, and pounce upon him with beak and claw, and been “deaved with the din
peck him to death, screeching and caw“And jargon of the jangling jays,
cawing all the while, we must suppose, on The craiking craws, and keckling kays." the same principle, that he has been No one who has at all studied the habits found guilty of some crime or otherof these birds will think it a very daring perhaps of being hopelessly unwell-senassertion that the cry or sound of “caw" tenced to death, and executed accordingly. may be as susceptible of a variety of If there be thought in these matters meanings as the Annamitic “ba,” or the among the birds, is it not right, even acEnglish “ box,” or the French “sang, cording to the theory of Mr. Max Müller or the canine “bow-wow !”—and that and the other philosophers, to suppose its duplication into “caw! caw !” or that there is language also ? And if a into a still greater number of repetitions, stray rook or crow happened to make its is not without a purpose and signification way into the Central Criminal Court as intelligible to the birds which utter as while a trial was pending, and perched to those which hear them. The rooks himself, like Edgar Poe's raven, on the and crows have often been observed to top of a bookcase or the cross-beam of a hold public meetings of all the individuals door, and listened attentively to the in the tribe or colony-male and female pleadings, to the examination of the wit-to debate on matters of importance. nesses, and the judge's charge, without As far as we know and can understand understanding a word that was said, would the objects of these assemblages, the tribe Mr. Crow or Mr. Rook be justified, if he is summoned to decide whether a sickly could get back to his comrades in the bird is so sickly as to be beyond hope of woods, in asserting that men had no artirecovery, and therefore to be put out of culate language ? its misery, they having no doctors among If, descending in the scale of creation them; whether an interloper from a from the quadrupeds and birds that emit neighbouring colony has not violently or sounds which are perfectly audible to surreptitiously endeavoured to establish themselves and us—whatever those sounds himself among them ; or whether he has may mean-to that lower world of insect not committed some other offence against I life which emits little and sometimes no