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The Heavy Brigade in advance is drawn
up in two lines. The first line consists
of the Scots Greys, and of their old com-
panions in glory, the Enniskillens; the
second, of the 4th Royal Irish, of the 5th
Dragoon Guards, and of the 1st Royal
Dragoons. The Light Cavalry Brigade
is on their left, in two lines also.
silence is oppressive; between the cannon
bursts one can hear the champing of bits
and the clink of sabres in the valley
below. The Russians on their left drew
breath for a moment, and then in one
grand line dashed at the Highlanders.
The ground flies beneath their horses'
feet; gathering speed at every stride, they
dash on towards that thin red streak topped
with a line of steel. The Turks fire a
volley at eight hundred yards, and run.
As the Russians come within six hundred
yards, down goes that line of steel in
front, and out rings a rolling volley of
Minié musketry. The distance is too
great; the Russians are not checked, but
still sweep onward through the smoke,
with the whole force of horse and man,
here and there knocked over by the shot
of our batteries above. With breathless
suspense every one awaiting the bursting
of the wave upon the line of the Gaelic
rock; but ere they come within a hundred
and fifty yards, another deadly volley
flashes from the levelled rifle, and carries
death and terror into the Russians. They
wheel about, open files right and left,
and fly back faster than they came.
"Bravo, Highlanders! well done!
shouted the excited spectators; but events
thicken. The Highlanders and their
splendid front are soon forgotten, men
scarcely have a moment to think of this
fact, that the 93rd never altered their
formation to receive that tide of horsemen.
"No," said Sir Colin Campbell, "I did
not think it worth while to form them
even four deep!" The ordinary British
line, two deep, was quite sufficient to
repel the attack of these Muscovite cava-
Our eyes were, however, turned
in a moment on our own cavalry. We
saw Brigadier-general Scarlett_ride along
in front of his massive squadron. The
Russians-evidently corps d'élite-their

light-blue jackets embroidered with silver lace, were advancing on their left, at an easy gallop, towards the brow of the hill. A forest of lances glistened in their rear, and several squadrons of gray-coated dragoons moved up quickly to support them as they reached the summit. The instant they came in sight the trumpets of our cavalry gave out the warning-blast which told us all that in another moment we should see the shock of battle beneath our very eyes. Lord Raglan, all his staff and escort, and groups of officers, the Zouaves, French generals and officers, and bodies of French infantry on the height, were spectators of the scene as though they were looking on the stage from the boxes of a theatre. Nearly every one dismounted and sat down and not a word was said. The Russians advanced down the hill at a slow canter, which they changed to a trot, and at last nearly halted. Their first line was at least double the length of ours-it was three times as deep. Behind them was a similar line, equally strong and compact. They evidently despised their insignificantlooking enemy; but their time was come. The trumpets rang out again through the valley, and the Greys and Enniskilleners went right at the centre of the Russian cavalry. The space between them was only a few hundred yards; it was scarce enough to let the horses " gather way, nor had the men quite space sufficient for the full play of their sword-arms. The Russian line brings forward each wing as our cavalry advances, and threatens to annihilate them as they pass on. Turning a little to their left, so as to meet the Russian right, the Greys rush on with a cheer that thrills to every heart-the wild shout of the Enniskilleners rises through the air at the same instant. As lightning flashes through a cloud, the Greys and Enniskilleners pierce through the dark masses of Russians. The shock was but for a moment. There was a clash of steel and a light play of sword-blades in the air, and then the Greys and the redcoats disappear in the midst of the shaken and quivering colums. In another moment we see them emerging and


dashing on with diminished numbers, and
in broken order, against the second line,
which is advancing against them as fast
as it can to retrieve the fortune of the
It was
a terrible moment.
"God help them! they are lost!" was
the exclamation of more than one man,
and the thought of many. With unabated
fire the noble hearts dashed at their
enemy. It was a fight of heroes. The
first line of Russians, which had been
smashed utterly by our charge, and had
fled off at one flank and towards the cen-
tre, were coming back to swallow up our
handful of men. By sheer steel and
sheer courage Enniskillener and Scot
were winning their desperate way right
through the enemy's squadrons, and
already grey horses and redcoats had ap-flood of smoke and flame, through which
peared right at the rear of the second
mass, when, with irresistible force, like
one bolt from a bow, the 1st Royals, the
4th Dragoon Guards, and the 5th Dra-
goon Guards, rushed at the remnants of
the first line of the enemy; went through
it as though it were made of pasteboard;
and, dashing on the second body of
Russians as they were still disordered by
the terrible assault of the Greys and their
companions, put them to utter rout.
This Russian horse, in less than five
minutes after it met our dragoons, was
flying with all its speed before a force cer-
tainly not half its strength. A cheer burst
from every lip in the enthusiasm,
officers and men took off their caps and
shouted with delight, and thus keeping
up the scenic character of their position,
they clapped their hands again and

ketry and rifles. They swept proudly
past, glittering in the morning sun in all
the pride and splendour of war. We
could scarcely believe the evidence of our
senses! Surely that handful of men are
not going to charge an army in position?
Alas! it was but too true-their despe-
rate valour knew no bounds, and far
indeed was it removed from its so-called
better part-discretion. They advanced
in two lines, quickening their pace as they
closed towards the enemy.
A more
fearful spectacle was never witnessed than
by those who, without the power to aid,
beheld their heroic countrymen rushing to
the arms of death. At the distance of
1200 yards, the whole line of the enemy
belched forth, from thirty iron mouths, a


THE whole brigade scarcely made one effective regiment according to the numbers of continental armies; and yet it was more than we could spare. As they rushed towards the front, the Russians opened on them from the guns in the redoubt on the right, with volleys of mus

hissed the deadly balls. Their flight was marked by instant gaps in our ranks, by dead men and horses, by steeds flying wounded or riderless across the plain. The first line is broken; it is joined by the second; they never halt or check their speed an instant. With diminished ranks, thinned by those thirty guns, which the Russians had laid with the most deadly accuracy, with a halo of flashing steel above their heads, and with a cheer which was many a noble fellow's death-cry, they flew into the smoke of the batteries, but ere they were lost from view, the plain was strewed with their bodies and with the carcasses of horses. They were exposed to an oblique fire from the batteries on the hills on both sides, as well as to a direct fire of musketry. Through the clouds of smoke we could see their sabres flashing as they rode up to the guns and dashed between them, cutting down the gunners as they stood. We saw them riding through the guns, as I have said; to our delight we saw them returning, after breaking through a column of Russian infantry, and scattering them like chaff, when the flank fire of the battery on the hill swept them down, scattered and broken as they were. Wounded men and dismounted troopers flying towards us told the sad tale-demigods could not have done what we had failed to do. At the very moment when

they were about to retreat, an enormous having usages very similar to those o mass of lancers was hurled on their flank. modern Europe; and such was the reColonel Shewell, of the 8th Hussars, saw spect shown to women, that precedence the danger, and rode his few men straight was given to them over men, and the at them, cutting his way through with wives and daughters of kings succeeded fearful loss. The other regiments turned to the throne like the male branches of and engaged in a desperate encounter. the royal family. Nor was this privilege With courage too great almost for cred- rescinded, even though it had more than ence, they were breaking their way once entailed upon them the troubles of through the columns which enveloped a contested succession; foreign kings them, when there took place an act of often having claimed a right to the atrocity without parallel in the modern throne through marriage with an Egypwarfare of civilised nations. The Rus- tian princess. It was not a mere insian gunners, when the storm of cavalry fluence that they possessed, which women passed, returned to their guns. They saw often acquire in the most arbitrary their own cavalry mingled with the eastern communities; nor a political imtroopers who had just ridden over them, portance accorded to a particular indiand, to the eternal disgrace of the Russian vidual, like that of the Sultana Valideh, name, the miscreants poured a murderous the queen-mother at Constantinople; it volley of grape and canister on the mass was a right acknowledged by law, both of struggling men and horses, mingling in public and private life. They knew friend and foe in one common ruin! It that unless women were treated with was as much as our heavy cavalry brigade could do to cover the retreat of the miserable remnants of that band of heroes as they returned to the place they had so lately quitted in all the pride of life. At thirty-five minutes past eleven not a British soldier, except the dead and dying, was left in front of these bloody Muscovite guns.

[SIR JOHN GARDINER WILKINSON.] THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. THE early part of Egyptian monumental history is coeval with the arrivals of Abraham and of Joseph, and the exodus of the Israelites; and we know from the Bible what was the state of the world at that time. But then, and apparently long before, the habits of social life in Egypt were already what we find them to have been during the most glorious period of their career; and as the people had already laid aside their arms, and military men only carried them when on service, some notion may be had of the very remote date of Egyptian civilization. In the treatment of women, they seem to have been very far advanced beyond other wealthy communities of the same era,

respect, and made to exercise an influence over society, the public_standard would soon be lowered, and the manners and morals of men would suffer; and in acknowledging this, they pointed out to women the very responsible duties they had to perform to the community. It has been said that the Egyptian priests were only allowed to have one wife, while the rest of the community had as many as they chose; but, besides the improbability of such a licence, the testimony of the monuments accords with Herodotus in disproving the statement, and each individual is represented in his tomb with a single consort. Their mutual affection is also indicated by the fond manner in which they are seated together, and by the expressions of endearment they use to each other, as well as to their children.

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ridiculous or unhappy." The profession | transmission. It leads also to this fatal themselves have yet to learn the secret of conclusion-namely, that if the mother co-operation; they have to put away had the preponderating influence over the internal jealousies; they have to claim for themselves, as poor Goldsmith, after his fashion very loudly did, that defined position from which greater respect, and more frequent consideration in public life, could not long be withheld; in fine, they have frankly to feel that their vocation, properly regarded, ranks with the worthiest, and that, on all occasions, to do justice to it, and to each other, is the way to obtain justice from the world. If writers had been thus true to themselves, the subject of copyright might have been equitably settled when attention was first drawn to it; but while Defoe was urging the author's claim, Swift was calling De Foe a fellow that had been pilloried, and we have still to discuss as in formâ pauperis the rights of the English author.

The true remedy for literary wrongs must flow from a higher sense than has at any period yet prevailed in England of the duties and responsibilities assumed by the public writer, and of the social consideration and respect that their effectual discharge should have undisputed right to claim. The world will be greatly the gainer, when such time shall arrive, and when the biography of the man of genius shall no longer be a picture of the most harsh struggles and mean necessities to which man's life is subject, exhibited as in shameful contrast to the calm and classic glory of his fame. With society itself rests the advent of that time.

[G. H. LEWES.]


THE maternal influence is popularly credited with the preponderance. "All remarkable men have remarkable mothers," is a current saying. But this hasty and empirical generalisation is no truer than such generalisations usually are. It is disproved by fact. It is dis

organisation of the child, the race would be in perpetual degeneration; just as the white man's superior organisation is gradually lost when a few white men intermarry with a preponderating black race. The whole question of hereditary transmission is at present beyond the scope of science. We know that form, feature, temperament, idiosyncrasy, acquired habit, diseases, anomalies of structure, and duration of life, are transmitted to offspring; but the law of transmission is still hidden from us. Certain qualities are transmitted from parents to children in so direct a manner as to strike the least observant eye; on the other hand, it often happens that the transmitted quality is masked by the presence of some different quality, and only reappears in the second or third generation. New combinations also take place. Still, we can say with safety that whenever a child exhibits any remarkable aptitude, we may detect that aptitude in one or both of his parents, or grand-parents. Thus it is that observation detects families illustrious through several generations; and families also which, through many generations, transmit idiocy and imbecility. That "talent runs in families we are taught by examples, such as the "wit of the Sheridans," and the "esprit des Mortemarts." Nor am I aware of any musical genius springing from a family in which, during two generations, musical aptitude was not remarkable. It is necessary to include two generations, because among the curious phenomena of hereditariness there is the phenomenon of atavism, in which children resemble their ancestors, but do not resemble their progenitors.-Life of Goethe.


THE relation of the Desert to its mcproved by what is known of hereditary dern inhabitants is still illustrative of its


ancient history. The general name by
which the Hebrews called "the wilder-
ness," including always that of Sinai, was
"the pasture.
Bare as the surface of
the Desert is, yet the thin clothing of
vegetation, which is seldom entirely with-
drawn, especially the aromatic shrubs on
the high hillsides, furnish sufficient sus-
tenance for the herds of the six thousand
Bedouins who constitute the present
population of the peninsula.


"Along the mountain ledges green,
The scatter'd sheep at will may glean
The Desert's spicy stores."
So were they seen following the daughters
or the shepherd-slaves of Jethro. So
may they be seen climbing the rocks, or
gathered round the pools and springs of
the valleys, under the charge of the
black-veiled Bedouin women of the pre-
sent day. And in the Tiyâha, Towâra,
or Alouin tribes, with their chiefs and
followers, their dress, and manners, and
habitations, we probably see the likeness
of the Midianites, the Amalekites, and
the Israelites themselves in this their
earliest stage of existence. The long
straight lines of black tents which cluster
round the Desert springs, present to us,
on a small scale, the image of the vast
encampment gathered round the one
sacred tent which, with its coverings of
dyed skins, stood conspicuous in the
midst, and which recalled the period of
their nomadic life long after their set-
tlement in Palestine. The deserted vil-
lages, marked by rude enclosures of stone,
are doubtless such as those to which the
Hebrew wanderers gave the name of
"Hazeroth," and which afterwards fur-
nished the type of the primitive sanctuary
at Shiloh. The rude burial-grounds,
with the many nameless headstones, far
away from human habitation, are such
as the host of Israel must have left behind
them at the different stages of their pro-
gress at Massah, at Sinai, at Kibroth-
hattaavah, "the graves of desire." The
salutations of the chiefs, in their bright
scarlet robes, the one "going out to
meet the other," the "obeisance," the
"kiss "
on each side of the head, the
silent entrance into the tent for consulta-

tions, are all graphically described in the encounter between Moses and Jethro. The constitution of the tribes, with the subordinate degrees of sheiks, recommended by Jethro to Moses, is the very same which still exists amongst those who are possibly his lineal descendantsthe gentle race of the Towâra.


NOTHING can be more unfounded than the objection which has been taken, in limine, by persons, well meaning perhaps, certainly narrow minded, against the study of natural philosophy-that it fosters in its cultivators an undue and overweening selfconceit, leads them to doubt of the immortality of the soul, and to scoff at revealed religion. Its natural effect, we may confidently assert, on every wellconstituted mind, is, and must be, the direct contrary. No doubt the testimony of natural reason, on whatever exercised, must of necessity stop short of those truths which it is the object of revelation to make known; but while it places the existence and principal attributes of a Deity on such grounds as to render doubt absurd and atheism ridiculous, it unquestionably opposes no natural or necessary obstacle to further progress: on the contrary, by cherishing as a vital principle an unbounded spirit of inquiry and ardency of expectation, it unfetters the mind from prejudices of every kind, and leaves it open and free to every impression of a higher nature which it is susceptible of receiving, guarding only against enthusiasm and self-deception by a habit of strict investigation, but encouraging, rather than suppressing, everything that can offer a prospect or a hope beyond the present obscure and unsatisfactory state. The character of the true philosopher is to hope all things not unreasonable. He who has. seen obscurities which appeared impenetrable in physical and mathematical science suddenly dispelled, and the most barren and unpromising fields of inquiry con

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