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the margins of rivers, of lakes, and of the ing anything to say; and with walking, sea itself. These are so happy that they without knowing where to go. And, know not what to do with themselves. prior to both these, I am disposed to Their attitudes, their vivacity, their leaps believe that the waking-hours of infancy out of the water, their frolics in it are agreeably taken up with the exercise which I have noticed a thousand times of vision, or perhaps, more properly with equal attention and amusement—all speaking, with learning to see. conduce to show their excess of spirits, But it is not for youth alone that the and are simply the effects of that excess. great Parent of creation hath provided. Walking by the sea-side in a calm even- Happiness is found with the purring cat ing upon a sandy shore and with an no less than with the playful kitten ; in ebbing tide, I have frequently remarked the arm-chair of dozing age, as well as in the appearance of a dark cloud, or rather either the sprightliness of the dance or a very thick mist, hanging over the edge the animation of the chase. To novelty, of the water, to the height, perhaps, of to acuteness of sensation, to hope, to half a yard, and of the breadth of two or ardour of pursuit, succeeds what is, in no three yards, stretching along the coast inconsiderable degree, an equivalent for as far as the eye could reach, and always them all, “perception of ease." Herein retiring with the water. When this is the exact difference between the young cloud came to be examined, it proved to and the old. The young are not happy be nothing else than-so much space filled but when enjoying pleasure ; the old are with young shrimps in the act of bound. happy when free from pain. And this ing into the air from the shallow margin constitution suits with the degrees of of the water, or from the wet sand. If animal power which they respectively any motion of a mute animal could ex: possess. The vigour of youth was to be press delight, it was this ; if they had stimulated to action by impatience of meant to make signs of their happiness, rest; whilst to the imbecility of age, they could not have done it more intelli- quietness and repose become positive gibly. Suppose then, what I have no gratifications. In one important step the doubt of, each individual of this number advantage is with the old. A state of to be in a state of positive enjoyment; ease is, generally speaking, more attainwhat a sum, collectively, of gratification able than a state of pleasure. A constiand pleasure have we here before our tution, therefore, which can enjoy ease, view!

is preferable to_that which can enjoy The young of all animals appear to me only pleasure. This same perception of to receive pleasure simply from the ease oftentimes renders old age a conexercise of their limbs and bodily facul- dition of great comfort, especially when ties, without reference to any end to be riding at its anchor after a busy or temattained, or any use to be answered by pestuous life. It is well described by the exertion. A child, without knowing Rousseau to be the interval of repose and anything of the use of language, is in a enjoyment between the hurry and the high degree delighted with being able to end of life. How far the same cause speak. Its incessant repetition of a few extends to other animal natures, cannot articulate sounds, or perhaps of the single be judged of with certainty. The apword which it has learned to pronounce, pearance of satisfaction with which most proves this point clearly. Nor is it less animals, as their activity subsides, seek pleased with its first successful endea- and enjoy rest, affords reason to believe vours to walk, or rather to run- which that this source of gratification is apprecedes walking-although entirely igno- pointed to advanced life under all or rant of the importance of the attainment most of its various forms.

In the species to its future life, and even without apply- with which we are best acquainted, ing it to any present purpose. A child namely, our own, I am far, even as an is delighted with speaking, without hav- observer of human life, from thinking that youth is its happiest season, much the falsehood. It is upon this principle less the only happy one. Natural that, by the laws of war, it is allowed to Theology.

deceive an enemy by feints, false colours,

spies, false intelligence, or the like; but WHAT CONSTITUTES A LIE.

by no means in treaties, truces, signals of

capitulation or surrender : and the difA LIE is a breach of promise ; for ference is, that the former supposes hoswhoever seriously addresses his discourse tilities to continue, but the latter are to another, tacitly promises to speak the calculated to terminate or suspend them. truth, because he knows the truth is In the conduct of war there is no place expected. Or the obligation of veracity for confidence between the contending may be made out from the direct ill parties; but in whatever relates to the consequences of lying to social happiness. termination of war, the most religious Which consequences consist either in fidelity is expected, because without it some specific injury to particular indi. wars could not cease, nor the victors be viduals, or in the destruction of that secure but by the destruction of the vanconfidence which is essential to the in- quished. tercourse of human life ; for which latter Many people indulge in serious disreason a lie may be pernicious in its course a habit of fiction and exaggerageneral tendency, and therefore criminal, tion, in the accounts they give of themthough it produce no particular or visible selves, of their acquaintance, or of the mischief to any one.

extraordinary things which they have There are falsehoods which are not seen or heard ; and so long as the facts lies ; that is, which are not criminal ; as, they relate are indifferent, and their 1. Where no one is deceived, which is narratives though false are inoffensive, it the case in parables, fables, novels, jests, may seem a superstitious regard for truth tales to create mirth, ludicrous embellish- to censure them merely for truth's sake. ments of a story, where the declared But this liberty in conversation defeats design of the speaker is not to inform but its own end. Much of the pleasure, and to divert; compliments in the subscrip- all the benefit of conversation depends tion of a letter ; a servant's denying his upon our own opinion of the speaker's master ; a prisoner's pleading not guilty; veracity, for which this rule leaves no an advocate asserting the justice, or his foundation. The faith, indeed, of a belief of the justice, of lient's cause. hearer must be extremely perplexed, who In such instances no confidence is de- considers the speaker, or believes that stroyed, because none was reposed; no the speaker considers himself, as under promise to speak the truth is violated, no obligation to adhere to truth, but because none was given. 2. When the according to the particular importance of person to whom you speak has no right what he relates. to know the truth, or, more properly, But beside and above both these where little or no inconveniency results reasons, white lies always introduce from the want of confidence in such cases; others of a darker complexion. I have as where you tell a falsehood to a mad- seldom known any one who deserted man for his own advantage ; to a robber, truth in trifles, that could be trusted in to conceal his property; to an assassin, matters of importance. Nice distinctions to defeat or divert him from his purpose. are out of the question upon occasions The particular consequence is by the like those of speech, which return every supposition beneficial ; and as to the hour. general consequence, the worst that can The habit, therefore, of lying, when happen is, that the madman, the robber, once formed, is easily extended to serve the assassin will not trust you again, which the designs of malice or interest; like all is sufficiently compensated by the im- habits, it spreads indeed of itself. As mediate benefit which you propose by there may be falsehoods which are not


lies, so there may be lies without literal been dignified by wisdom, bravery, or or direct falsehood; as when the literal virtue. The man is little to be envied and grammatical signification of a sen- whose patriotism would not gain force on tence is different from the popular and the plains of Marathon, or whose piety customary meaning, It is the wilful would not grow warmer among the ruins deceit that makes the lie ; and we wil- of Iona.- Journey to the Hebrides. fully deceive when our expressions are not true in the sense in which we believe the hearer to apprehend them : besides (OLIVER GOLDSMITH. 1728-1774.] that, it is absurd to contend for any sense

THE LOVE OF LIFE. of words in opposition to usage ; for all senses are founded upon usage, and upon AGE, that lessens the enjoyment of life, nothing else. Or a man may act a lie, increases our desire of living. Those as by pointing his finger in a wrong dangers which, in the vigour of youth, we direction when a traveller inquires of him had learned to despise, assume his road; or when a tradesman shuts up terrors as we grow old. Our caution inhis windows to induce his creditors to creasing as our years increase, fear believe that he is abroad: for to all moral becomes at last the prevailing passion of purposes, and therefore as to veracity, the mind, and the small remainder of speech and action are the same ; speech life is taken up in useless efforts to keep being only a mode of action.

off our end, or provide for a continued Or, lastly, there may be lies of omis- existence. sion. A writer of English history, who, Strange contradiction in our nature, in his account of the reign of Charles and to which even the wise are liable ! the First, should wilfully suppress any If I should judge of that part of life evidence of that prince's despotic mea- which lies before me by that which I have sures and designs, might be said to be a already seen, the prospect is hideous. liar ; for by entitling his book a History Experience tells me that my past enjoy, of England, he engages to tell the whole ments have brought no real felicity, and truth of the history, or at least all that sensation assures me that those I have he knows of it.-Ibid.

felt are stronger than those which are yet to come. Yet experience and sensation in vain persuade ; hope, more powerful

than either, dresses out the distant pros[SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D. 1709-1784.] pect in fancied beauty; some happiness, CLASSIC GROUND.

in long perspective, still beckons me to

pursue ; and, like a losing gamester, every We were now treading that illustrious new disappointment increases my ardour island which was once the luminary of to continue the game. the Caledonian regions, whence savage Our attachment to every object around clans and roving barbarians derived the us increases in general from the length of benefits of knowledge and the blessings our acquaintance with it. “I would not of religion. To abstract the mind from all choose,” says a French philosopher, “to local emotion would be impossible if it see an old post pulled up with which I were endeavonred, and would be foolish had been long acquainted.” A mind long if it were possible. Whatever withdraws habituated to a certain set of objects inus from the power of our senses, whatever sensibly becomes fond of seeing them ; makes the past the distant, or the future, visits them from habit, and parts from predominate over the present, advances them with reluctance.

From hence prous in the dignity of thinking beings. Far ceeds the avarice of the old in every kind from me and my friends be such frigid of possession ; they love the world and philosophy as may conduct us indifferent all that it produces ; they love life and and unmoved over any ground which has all its advantages, not because it gives them pleasure, but because they have which to surprise, yet still we love it ; known it long

destitute of every enjoyment, still we love Chinvang the Chaste, ascending the it; husband the wasting treasure with inthrone of China, commanded that all creasing frugality, and feel all the poigwho were unjustly detained in prison nancy of anguish in the fatal separation. during the preceding reigns should be set -Essays. free. Among the number who came to thank their deliverer on this occasion there appeared a majestic old man, who,

[BISHOP BERKELEY. 1684-1753.] falling at the emperor's feet, addressed LUXURY THE CAUSE OF him as follows: “Great father of China,

NATIONAL DECAY. behold a wretch, now eighty-five years old, who was shut up in a dungeon at the FRUGALITY of manners is the nourishage of twenty-two. I was imprisoned ment and strength of bodies politic. It though a stranger to crime, or without is that by which they grow and subsist, being even confronted by my accusers. until they are corrupted by luxury,—the I have now lived in solitude and darkness natural cause of their decay and ruin. Of for more than fifty years, and am grown this we have examples in the Persians, familiar with distress. As yet, dazzled Lacedæmonians, and Romans: not to with the splendour of that sun to which mention many later governments which you have restored me, I have been have sprung up, continued a while, and wandering the streets to find out some then perished by the same natural friend that would assist, or relieve, or re- causes. But these are, it seems, of no member me; but my friends, my family, use to us: and, in spite of them, we are and relations are all dead, and I am for- in a fair way of becoming ourselves gotten. Permit me then, O Chinvang, another useless example to future ages. to wear out the wretched remains of life Simplicity of manners may be more in my former prison; the walls of my easily preserved in a republic than a dungeon are to me more pleasing than monarchy; but if once lost, may be the most splendid palace; I have not sooner recovered in a monarchy, the long to live, and shall be unhappy except I example of a court being of great efficacy, spend the rest of my days where my either to reform or to corrupt a people ; youth was passed—in that prison from that alone were sufficient to discountewhence you were pleased to release me. nance the wearing of gold or ilver, either

The old man's passion for confinement in clothes or equipage, and if the same is similar to that we all have for life. were prohibited by law, the saving so We are habituated to the prison, we look much bullion would be the smallest round with discontent, are displeased benefit of such an institution; there being with the abode, and yet the length of our nothing more apt to debase the virtue captivity only increases our fondness for and good sense of our gentry of both the cell. The trees we have planted, the sexes than the trifling vanity of apparel, houses we have built, or the posterity we which we have learned from France, and have begotten, all serve to bind us closer which hath had such visible ill conseto earth, and imbitter our parting. Life quences on the genius of that people. sues the young like a new acquaintance ; Wiser nations have made it their care to the companion, as yet unexhausted, is at shut out this folly by severe laws and once instructive and amusing ; its com- penalties, and its spreading among us can pany pleases, yet for all this it is but forebode no good, if there be any truth little regarded. To us, who are declined in the observation of one of the ancients, in years, life appears like an old friend ; that the direct way to ruin a man is to its jests have been anticipated in former dress him up in fine clothes. conversation ; it has no new story to make But we are doomed to be undone. us smile, no new improvement with Neither the plain reason of the thing,

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nor the experience of past ages, nor the cepts of truth sink deep in thy heart, so examples we have before our eyes, can shall the charms of thy mind add lustre to restrain us from imitating, not to say sur- the elegance of thy form ; ạnd thy beauty, passing, the most corrupt and ruined like the rose it resembleth, shall retain its people in those very points of luxury sweetness when its bloom is withered. that ruined them. Our gaming, our In the spring of thy youth, in the mornoperas, our masquerades, are, in spite ing of thy days, when the eyes of men of our debts and poverty, become the gaze on thee with delight, and nature wonder of our neighbours. If there be whispereth in thine ear the meaning of any man so void of all thought and com- their looks ; ah! hear with caution their mon-sense, as not to see where this must seducing words ; guard well thy heart, end, let him but compare what Venice nor listen to their soft persuasions. Rewas at the league of Cambray, with what member that thou art made man's reasonit is at present, and he will be convinced able companion, not the slave of his pashow truly those fashionable pastimes are sion; the end of thy being is not merely calculated to depress and ruin a nation. to gratify his loose desire, but to assist

It is not to be believed, what influence him in the toils of life, to soothe him with public diversions have on the spirit and thy tenderness, and recompense his care manners of a people. The Greeks wisely with soft endearments. Who is she that saw this, and made a very serious affair winneth the heart of man, that subdueth of their public sports. For the same him to love, and reigneth in his breast ? reason, it will, perhaps, seem worthy the Lo! yonder she walketh in maiden sweetcare of our legislature to regulate the ness, with innocence in her mind and public diversions, by an absolute pro- modesty on her cheek. Her hand seeketh hibition of those which have a direct employment, her foot delighteth not in tendency to corrupt our morals, as well gadding abroad. She is clothed with neatas by a reformation of the drama ; which, ness, she is fed with temperance : humility when rightly managed, is such a noble and meekness are as a crown of glory entertainment, and gave those fine lessons circling her head. On her tongue dwelof morality and good sense to the Athen- leth music, the sweetness of honey floweth ians of old, and to our British gentry from her lips. Decency is in all her above a century ago ; but for these last words ; in her answers are mildness and ninety years, hath entertained us, for the truth. Submission and obedience are the most part, with such wretched things as lessons of her life, and peace and happispoil, instead of improving, the taste and ness are her reward. Before her steps manners of the audience. Those who are walketh prudence, and virtue attendeth at attentive to such propositions only as may her right hand. Her eyes speaketh softfill their pockets, will probably slight ness and love ; but discretion with a these things as trifles below the care of sceptre sitteth on her brow. The tongue the legislature. But I am sure all honest, of the licentious is dumb in her presence, thinking men must lament to see their the awe of her virtue keepeth him silent. country run headlong into all those luxu- When scandal is busy, and the fame of rious follies, which, it is evident, have her neighbour is tossed from tongue to been fatal to other nations, and will un- tongue; if charity and good-nature open doubtedly prove fatal to us also, if a not her mouth, the finger of silence resteth timely stop be not put to them.-Essays. on her lips. Her breast is the mansion of

odness; and therefore she suspecteth no

evil in others. Happy were the man that [ROBERT DODSLEY. 1703—1764.] should make her his wife ; happy the

child that shall call her mother. She A TRUE WOMAN. presideth in the house, and there is

peace; Give ear, fair daughter of love, to the she commandeth with judgment, and is instructions of prudence, and let the pre- obeyed. She ariseth in the morning, she

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