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time, I placed myfelf backward, with a defign to furvey them, and pick a fpeculation out of my two com→ panions. Their different figures were fufficient of themfelves to draw my attention. The gentleman was dreffed in a fuit, the ground whereof had been black, as I perceived from fome few spaces that had efcaped the powder, which was incorporated with the greatest part of. his coat: his perriwig, which coft no fmall fum, was after fo flovenly a manner caft over his fhoulders, that it feemed not to have been combed fince the year 1712; his linen, which was not much concealed, was daubed with plain Spanish from the chin to the lowest button, and the diamond upon his finger (which naturally dreaded the water) put me in mind how it sparkled amidst the rubbish of the mine, where it was first discovered. On the other hand, the pretty quaker appeared in all the elegance of cleanlinefs. Not a fpeck was to be found on her. A clear clean oval face, juft edged about with little thin plaits of the pureft cambric, received great advantages from the fhade of her black hood; as did the whiteness of her arms from that fober coloured ftuff, in which he had clothed herself. The plainnefs of her drefs was very well fuited to the fimplicity of her phrafes, all which put together, though they could not give me a great opinion of her religion, they did of her innocence.
This adventure occafioned my throwing together a few hints upon cleanliness, which I fhall confider as one of the half-virtues, as Ariftotle calls them, and fhall recommend it under the three following heads. As it is a mark of politenefs; as it produces love; and as, it bears analogy to purity of mind. Flat .1
Firft, It is a mark of politenefs. It is univerfally agreed upon, that no one, unadorned with this virtue, can go into company without giving a manifeft offence. The eafier or higher any one's fortune is, this duty rises proportionably. The different nations of the world are as much diftinguished by their cleanliness, as by their arts and fciences. The more any country is civilized, the more they confult this part of politenefs. We need but compare our ideas of a female Hottentot with an
English beauty to be fatisfied of the truth of what hath been advanced.
In the next place, cleanlinefs may be faid to be the fofter-mother of love. Beauty indeed most commonly produces that paffion in the mind, but cleanliness preferves it. An indifferent face and perfon, kept in perpetual neatnefs, hath won many a heart from a pretty flattern. Age itfelf is not unamiable, while it is preferved clean and unfullied: like a piece of metal conftantly kept fmooth and bright, we look on it with more pleasure than on a new veffel that is canker'd with ruft.
I might obferve further, that as cleanliness renders us agreeable to others, fo it makes us eafy to ourfelves; that it is an excellent prefervative of health; and that feveral vices, destructive both to mind and body, are inconfiftent with the habit of it. But thefe reflections I fhall leave to the leisure of my readers, and fhall obferve in the third place that it bears a great analogy with purity of mind, and naturally inspires refined fentiments and paffions.
We find from experience, that through the prevalence of cuftom, the most vicious actions lose their horror, by being made familiar to us. On the contrary, those who live in the neighbourhood of good examples, fly from the first appearances of what is fhocking. It fares with us much after the fame manner, as our ideas. Our fenfes, which are the inlets to all the images conveyed to the mind, can only tranfmit the impreffion of such things as ufually furround them. So that pure and unfallied thoughts are naturally fuggefted to the mind, by thofe objects that perpetually encompafs us, when they are beautiful and elegant in their kind.
In the Eaft, where the warmth of the climate makes cleanliness more immediately neceffary than in colder countries, it is made one part of. their religion: the Jewish law (and the Mahometan, which in fome things copies after it) is filled with bathings, purifications, and other rites of the like nature. Though there is the above-named convenient reafon to be affigned for these ceremonies, the chief intention undoubtedly was to typify inward purity and cleannefs of heart by thofe outward
washings. We read feveral injunctions of this kind in the book of Deuteronomy, which confirm this truth; and which are but ill accounted for by faying as fome do, that they were only inftituted for convenience in the defert, which otherways could not have been habitable for fo many years.
I fhall conclude this effay, with a story which I have fomewhere read in an account of Mahometan fuperftitions.
A Dervife of great fanctity one morning had the mis-fortune as he took up a crystal cup, which was confecrated to the prophet, to let it fall upon the ground, and dafh it in pieces. His fon coming in, fometime after, he ftretched out his hand to bless him, as his manner was every morning; but the youth going out ftumbled over the threshold and broke his arm. As the old man wondered at these events, a caravan paffed by in its way from Mecca. The Dervife approached it to beg a bleffing; but as he ftroked one of the holy camels, he received a kick from the beast, that forely bruifed him. His forrow and amazement increased.. upon him, till he recollected that through hurry and inadvertency he had that morning come abroad without washing his hands.
The Story of ABDALLAH and BALSORA. [Guard. No. 167.]
HE following ftory is lately tranflated out of an Arabian manufcript, which I think has very much the turn of an oriental tale; and as it has never bore been printed, I question not but it will be highly acceptable to my reader.
The name of Helim is ftill famous through all the eaftern parts of the world. He is called among the Perfians, even to this day, Helim the great phyfician. He was acquainted with all the powers of fimples, understood all the influences of the ftars, and knew the fecrets that were engraved on the feal of Solomon the JL S
fon of David. Helim was alfo governor of the Black Palace, and chief of the phyficians to Alnarefchin the great king of Perfia.
Alnarefchin was the moft dreadful tyrant that ever reigned in this country. He was of a fearful, suspicious, and cruel nature, having put to death upon very flight jealoufies and furmifes, five and thirty of his queens, and above twenty fons whom he fufpected to have confpired against his life. Being at length wearied with the exercife of fo many cruelties in his own family, and fearing left the whole race of Caliphs fhould be entirely loft, he one day fent for Helim and spoke to him after this manner. "Helim," faid he, "I have long "admired thy great wisdom, and retired way of living. "I fhall now fhew thee the entire confidence which I place in thee. I have only two fons remaining, "who are as yet but infants. It is my defign that "thou take them home with thee, and educate them "" as thy own. Train them up in the humble unam"bitious purfuits of knowledge. By this means fhall "the line of Caliphs be preferved, and my children "fucceed after me, without afpiring to my throne "whilst I am yet alive." The words of my lord the king fhall be ever obeyed, faid Helim.. After which he bowed, and went out of the King's prefence. He then received the children into his own house, and from that time bred them up with him in the ftudies of knowledge and virtue. The young princes loved and refpected Helim as their father, and made fuch improvements under him, that by the age of one and twenty they were inftructed in all the learning of the Eaft. The name of the eldest was Ibrahim, and of the youngeft Abdallah. They lived together in fuch a perfect friendship, that to this day it is faid of intimate friends, that they live together like Ibrahim and Abdallah. Helim had an only child, who was a girl of a fine foul, and a most beautiful perfon. Her father omitted nothing in her education, that might make her the most accomplished woman of her age. As the young princes were in a manner excluded from the rest of the world, they frequently converfed with this lovely virgin, who had
been brought up by her father in the fame courfe of knowledge and of virtue. Abdallah, whofe mind was of a fofter turn than that of his brother, grew by degrees fo enamoured of her converfation, that he did not think he lived, when he was not in company with his beloved Balfora, for that was the name of the maid. The fame. of her beauty was fo great, that at length it came to the ears of the king, who pretending to vifit the young princes his fons, demanded of Helim the fight of Balfora his fair daughter. The king was fo inflamed with her beauty and behaviour, that he fent for Helim the next morning, and told him it was now his defign_to recompenfe him for all his faithful fervices; and that in order to it, he intended to make his daughter queen of Perfia. Helim, who knew very well the fate of all those unhappy women who had been thus advanced, and could not but be privy to the fecret love which Abdallah bore his daughter; "Far be it," fays he, "the king of Perfia to contaminate the blood of the "Caliphs, and join himself in marriage with the daugh
ter of his phyfician." The king, however, was fo impatient for fuch a bride, that without hearing any excufes, he immediately ordered Balfora to be fent for into his prefence, keeping the father with him, in order to make her fenfible of the honour which he defigned her. Balfora, who was too modeft and humble to think her beauty had made fuch an impreffion on the king, was a few moments after brought into his prefence as he had commanded.
She appeared in the king's eye as one of the virgins of paradife. But upon hearing the honour which he intended her, the fainted away, and fell down as dead at his feet. Helim wept, and after having recovered her out of the trance into which fhe was fallen, reprefented to the king, that fo unexpected an honour was too great to have been communicated to her all at once; but that, if he pleafed, he would himself prepare her for it. The king bid him take his own way, and dir miffed him. Balfora was conveyed again to her father's house, where the thoughts of Abdallah renewed her affliction every moment; infomuch that at length the L 6 fell