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farther than the grave. What I ask is, I hope, no vio. Jation of it. She died soon after, and was interred according to her request.
Their tombs are still to be feen, with a fhort Latin inscription over them to the following purpose :
Here lye the bodies of father Francis and fifter Constance. They were lovely in their lives, and in their deaths they were not divided.
On Oeconomy. [Spectator, No 114.]
fect upon our fortunes which good breeding has upon our conversations. There is a pretending behaviour in both cases, which instead of making men esteemed, renders them both miserable and contemptible. We had yesterday at Sir Roger's a set of country gentlemen, who dined with them : and after dinner the glass was taken, by those who pleased, pretty plentifully, Among others I observed a person of a tolerable good aspect, who seemed to be more greedy of liquor than any of the company, and yet, methought, he did not taste it with delight. As he grew warm, he was fufpicious of every thing that was said; and as he advanced towards being fuddled, his humour grew worse. At the same time his bitterness seemed to be rather an inward disfatisfaction in his own mind, than
dillike he had taken to the company. Upon hearing his name, I knew him to be a gentleman of a confiderable fortune in this county, but greatly in debt. Whạt gives the uvhappy man this peevithness of spirit, is, that his estate is dipped, and is eating out with usury; and yet he has not the heart to sell any part of it. His proud ftomach, at the cost of restless nights, constant inquietades, danger of affronts, and a thousand nameless inconveniencies, preserves this canker in his fortune, rather than it shall be said he is a man of fewer hundreds a year than he has been commonly reputed, Thus he endures the torment of poverty, to avoid the name
of being less rich. If you go to his house, you see great plenty ; but served in a manner that shews it is all unnatural, and that the master's mind is not at home. There is a certain waste and carelesiness in the air of every thing, and the whole appears but a covered indigence, a magnificent poverty. That neatness and chearfulness, which attends the table of him who lives within compass, is wanting, and exchanged for a libertine way of service in all about him.
This gentleman's conduct, though a very common way of management, is as ridiculous as that officer's would be, who had but few men under his command, and should take the charge of an extent of country ra. ther than of a small pass. To pay for, personate, and keep in a man's hand, a greater estate than he really has, is of all others the most unpardonable vanity, and must in the end reduce the man who is guilty of it to dishonour. Yet if we look round us in any county of Great Britain, we shall see many in this fatal error ; if that may be called by so soft a name, which proceeds from a false shame of appearing what they really are, when the contrary behaviour would in a mort time advance them to the condition which they pretend to.
Laertes has fifteen hundred pounds a year; which is mortgaged for fix thousand pounds; but it is impoflble to convince him that if he fold as much as would pay off that debt, he would save four shillings in the pound, which he gives for the vanity of being the reputed maiter of it. Yet if Laertes did this, he would perhaps be easier in his own fortune ; but then Irus, a fellow of yesterday, who has but twelve hundred a year, would be his equal. Rather than this fall be, Laertes goes on to bring well-born beggars into the world, and every twelvemonth charges his estate with at least one year's rent more by the birth of a child.
Laertes and Iris are neighbours, whose way of living are an abomination to each other. Irus is moved by the fear of poverty, and Laertes by the thame of it. Though the motive of action is of fo near affinity in both, and may be resolved into this, “ that to each of “ chem poverty is the greatest of all evils,” yet are their manners very widely different. Shame of poverty makes Laertes launch into unnecefl'ary equipage, vain expence, and lavish entertainments ; fear of poverty makes Irus allow himself only plain neceffaries, appear without a servant, fell his own corn, attend his labourers, and be himself a labourer. Shame of poverty makes Laertes go every day a step nearer to it; and fear of poverty
up Irus to make every day some further progress from it.
These different motives produce the excesses which men are guilty of in the negligence of and provision for themselves. Usury, stock-jobbing, extortion, and oppression, have their feed in the dread of want; and vanity, riot, and prodigality, from the shame of it: but both these excesses are infinitely below the pursuit of a reasonable creature. After we have taken care to command so much as is necessary for maintaining ourselves in the order of men fuitable to our character, the care of superfuities is a vice no less extravagant, than the neglect of necessaries would have been before.
Certain it is, that they are both out of nature, when she is followed with reason and good sense. It is from this reflection that I always read Mr. Cozvley with the greatest pleasure : his magnanimity is as much above that of other considerable men, as his understanding; and it is a true diftinguishing spirit in the elegant author who published his works, to dwell so much upon the temper of his mind, and the moderation of his des fires : by this means he has rendered his friend as amiable as famous. That state of life which bears the face of poverty with Mr. Cowley's Great Vulgar, is admirably described ; and it is no small fatisfaction to those of the same turn of desire, that he produces the authority of the wiseft men of the best age of the world to strengthen his opinion of the ordinary pursuits of mankind.
It would, methinks, be no ill maxim of life, if, according to that ancestor of Sir Roger, whom I lately mentioned, every man would point to himself what fum he would resolve not to exceed. He might, by this means, cheat himself into a tranquillity on this fide of
that expectation, or convert what he should get above it to nobler uses than his own pleasures or necessities. This temper of mind would exempt a man froin an ignorant envy of refless men above him, and a more inexcusable contempt of h: ppy men below him. This would be failing by some compass, living with some defign: but to be eternally bewildered in prospects of future gain, and putting on unnecessary armour against improbable blows of fortune, is a mechanic being which has not good sense for its direction, but is carried on by a sort of acquired infinĉt towards things below our confideration and unworthy our esteem. It is possible that the tranquillity I now enjoy at Sir Roger's may have created in me this way of thinking, which is lo abstracted from the common relish of the world: but as I am now in a pleasing arbour, surrounded with a beautiful landskip, I find no inclination so strong as to continue in these mansions, fo remote from the oftentatious scenes of life; and am at this present writing, philofopher enough to conclude with Mr. Cowley,
If e'er ambition did my fancy cheat
[Guardian, No. 153.}
more imperceptibly, and covers itself under more disguises, than pride. For my own part, I think if there is any passion or vice which I am wholly a stranger to, it is this, though, at the fame time, perhaps this very judgment which I form of myself, proceeds in some meafure from this corrupt principle.
I have been always wonderfully delighted with that sentence in holy writ, “ Pride was not made for man." There is not indeed any single view of human nature urder its present condition, which is not fufficient to extinguish in us all the secret seeds of pride; and, on
the contrary, to sink the soul into the lowest state of humility, and what the school-men call self-annihilation. Pride was not made for man, as he is,
1. A finful,
There is nothing in his understanding, in his will, or in his present condition, that can tempt any considerate creature to pride or vanity.
These three very reasons why he should not be proud, are notwithstanding the reasons why he is so. "Were not he a finful creature, he would not be subject to a passion which rises from the depravity of his nature; were he not an ignorant creature, he would see that he has nothing to be proud of; and were not the whole species miserable, he would not have those wretched objects of comparison before his eyes, which are the occafions of his passion, and which make one man value himself more than another.
A wise man will be contented that his glory be deferred till such time as he shall be truly glorified; when his understanding shall be cleared, his will rectified, and his happiness assured ; or, in other words, when he shall be neither finful, nor ignorant, nor miserable.
If there be any thing which makes human nature appear ridiculous to beings of superior faculties, it must be pride. They know so well the vanity of those imaginary perfections that swell the heart of man, and of those little fupernumerary advantages, whether in birth, fortune, or title, which one man enjoys above another, that it must certainly very much astonish, if it does not very much divert them, when they see a mortal puffed up, and valuing himself above bis neighbours on any of these accounts, at the same time that he is obnoxious to all the common calamities of the species.
To set this thought in its true light, we will fancy, if you please; that yonder mole-hill is inhabited by reasonable creatures, and that every pismire (his shape and
way of life only excepted) is endowed with human passions. How should we smile to hear one give us an account of the pedigrees, distinctions, and titles that