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case a favoured few are sure to get all the work, and the temple of the Faliscan Juno, a goddess, who, accordiug to

thers, possibly equally good if they had fair play, are inscriptions, bore the title of Quuris (or " of the spear"), and, spolled for want of exercise.

if we may trust the tradition, had young girls immolated The larger hawks may be kept in health and working on her altar. In the Middle Ages the inhabitants of the order for several years—i5 or 20— barring accidents. The Roman town, invited by the impregnable position of the writer has known peregrines, slahcens, ånd goshawks to earlier site, returneil and built the town now known as reach ages between 15 and 20 years. Goshawks, however, Civita Castellana. The ruins they left behind them are never fly well after 4 or 5 seasons, when they will no longer now occupied by the small bamlet of Santa Maria di Falleri. take difficult quarry; they may be used at rabbits as long They consist mainly of the city walls, which stand from 35 as they live. Shaheens may be seen in the East at an to 55 feet high, and are of exeellent architecture and advanced age, killing wild-fowl beautifully. The shaheen strengthened by square towers. Within the ancient area is a falcon of the peregrine type, which does not travel, are the remains of a convent in the Lombard style, and we like the peregrine, all over the world. It appears that the learn from a bull of Benedict IX. that the town continued jerfalcons also may be worked to a good age. Old Simon a separate see from Castellana till 1033. Latham tells us of these birds, --"I myself have known one

Excavations made at Santa Maria di Falleri by Angelo Jannoni of them an excellent Hearnor, and to continue her good. Sebastiani are reported in the Annali dell' Inst. di Cor. Arch. di nessc very near twentie yeeres, or full out that time." Roma, 1860, and the Bullettino 1864, see also Noel Desverger's It is liardly likely that falconry will ever recover such a

L'Etrurie, 1862-64. position as to be reckoned once more among the national FALERNUS ACER, the name of a district in the sports, of England. Yet in these days of breech-loading northern part of Campania. The term bas sometimes a and battue shooting, when even a well-broken retriever is wide and sometimes a restricted signification, being used a rarity, from want of time to see him work or to give him with reference to the whole of the fertile plain between fair play, there are still some sportsmen who are, to quote the Massican (now Mandragone) hills and the river Vulthe words of the authors of our best modern book on fal. | turnus, bat more commonly as denoting that portion conry, in-the dedication of their work, “those who love of the plain lying at the foot of the Massican hills sport for its own sake, and in the pursuit of it are willing between the rivers Vulturnus and Savo, and celebrated for to tread in the footsteps of their forefathers.”

its wines. In the time of Horace these were reputed to bo The work just quoted is Falconry in the British Isles, by Salvin the best of all Italy, but in the time of Pliny their reputation and Broulrick. A work to which we are very largely indebted for had begun to decline, and they were supplanted in general information regarding the past history of falconry and its practice estimation by those produced in the adjoining Ager in foreign countries is Schlegel's Traité de Fauconnerie. This Statanus. Before it passed into the hands of the Romans, magnificent book, in the worıls of a very able writer in the quarterly in 340 B.C., the whole district formed part of the Capuan Review for July 1875, “is a worthy monument of the noble art it describes ; the extent and minuteness of the learned author's anti territory. In 217 B.c. it was desolated by the Carthaginian quarian resources are only equalled by his practical knowledge of general Maharbal. the details of modern usage, and the result is such as may be ex. FALIERO, MARINO (1274-1355), doge of Venice, was pected from such a combination." It contains a very large list of born in 1274. In 1346 he commanded the Venetian forces works on falconry in languages of all the principal countries of the Old World. Other modern works are practical Palconry, by the at the siege of Zara, where, being attacked by Louis the Rev. G. E. Freeman, an exoellent little book; Falconry, its claims, Great of Hungary with a force of 80,000 men, be totally llistory, and Practice, by Freeman and Salvin; Observations on Tlawking, by Sir J. S. Sebright, Bart.; and a pamphlet entitled to abandon all further attempts to raise the siege, which

defeated them, inflicting a loss of 8000, and compelling him Notes on the Falconido uscd in India in Falconry, by Lieutenant, Colonel Delmé Radcliffe. Perhaps the most useful of the old was concluded shortly afterwards by the surrender of the works arc The Booke of Faulouric or Hawking, by George Turber | defenders at discretion. As commander of the Venetian ville, 1575, and The Faulcon's Lure and Cure, by Simon Latham, fleet he also gained several victories and captured Capo 1633.

d'Istria. He was elected doge 11th September 1354. His FALERII, an ancient and powerful city of Etruria, the reign was short, and it had both a disastrous commencecapital of the Falisci, who occupied the region between ment and a tragic close. Very soon after his election the Soracte and Monte Cimino. The affinity of the Falisci | Venetian fleet was captured by the Genoese, and hardly with the Etrurians is both asserted and denied ; in his had he concluded a four months' truce with Genoa, when toric times Falerii at least appears as a city of Etrarian ä very trivial incident occurred which resulted in his arrest sympathies, and it probably belonged to the Etrurian | and execution. It would appear that, though an able League. It supported the people of Veii against the general and prudent statesman, Faliero possessed a temper Romans, and used its utmost efforts to rouse the other so choleric that when he was provoked reason for a timo Etrurians against the common foe. After the reduction of almost forsook hin. On the occasion of the usual court Veii the Faliscans saw themselves exposed to the fury of: feast on Shrove Thursday, a young nobleman named the Roman arms, and after a siege from Camillus they were Michele Steno, perhaps excited by wine, took some liber. obliged to surrender their city. The episode of the traitor ties with one of the maids of honour, and the doge on schvolmaster and the generosity of the Roman commander that account caused him to be ignominiously expelled from need only be mentioned to be generally remembered. From the hall. Provoked at such a public affront Steno went to this time Falerii continued sometimes at peace, sometimes the hall of audience and wrote on the doge's chair the at war with Rome, till on the conclusion of the first Panic following words- Marini Falieri dalla bella moglie, altri la war it rose in open rebellion ; after a short resistance it gode ed egli la mantiene (Marino Faliero, the husband of the was taken and destroyed, and its inhabitants were forced to beautiful wife; others kiss her, he keeps hier). The author select a site for a new city in a less inaccessible and defen- of the insult was suon discovered and arrested, but the sible position. The Falerii thus founded was enrolled in council sentencing him only to two months' imprisonment, the Horatian tribe, and un ler the triumvirs received a mili- the doge resolved to have adequats revenge, and with this tary colony. The old city continued, probably from its re. view forined a conspiracy to seize all the nobles and leadligious associations, to retain a small population, and this ing citizens, and to make himself (.espot of Venice. The in all likelihood explains the fact that Strabo speaks of two plot being, however, discovered a short time before the day towns, one Faterii and the other Faliscum. Ovid in his fixed on, the doge and principal c'ispirators were arrested, Amores relates how he ascended by a toilsome path to the land were executed on the 17ih April 1355.

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The rolyn of Faliero has formeil the subject of tragedies by Lord (1878) living, and Joliann Muller, established an historical Ryran, by Delavigne, and by Albert Lindner ; and Hoffman has journal under the name of Zeitschrift für deutsche Cultur. employed it to furnish naterials for a romance. It also forms the subject of the libretto of one of Donizetti's operas. Byron geschiehte (4 vols., 1855-59): To this journal he contri. has aldeid to luis tragedy a good many notes on the character of buted a history of German taxation and commerce. On Faliero, and on the incidents of his reign, together with en English | the latter subject he published separately Geschichte (les: translation—nade by F Cohen--of the old Chronicle 2. Mirino deutschen Handels (2 vols., Leipsic, 1859), and Die Ilunsa Faliero. The circunstances of Faliero's plot are related in one of

als deutsche See- und Handelsmacht (Berlı, 1862). In 1862 the letters of Petrarch, who was his contemporary and friend.

he was appointed secretary of the state archives at Dresden, FALK, JOHANN DANIEL (1768-1826), a German author and a little later keeper. He there began the study of end philanthropist, was born at Dantzic, 20th October 1768. Saxon bistory, still devoting his attention chiefly to the ilis parents

, who were in poor circumstances, gave him only listory of commerce and economy. In 1868 be published, a scanty education, and strongly opposed liis desire to enter

at Leipsic, Die Geschichte des kurfürsten August von one of the learned professions; but notwithstanding their Sachsen in volkswirthschaftlicher Beziehung, and in 1869 discouragement he managed not only to make himself Geschichte des deutschen Zollvesens. He died at Dresden, acquainted with the best German writers but also to learn

Ist March 1876. French and English. After attending for some time thic FALKIRK, a municipal and parliamentary burgh and gymnasiun of his native town, he entered the university of niarket-town of Scotland, in the county of Stirling, 25 ) Halle with the view of studying theology, but preferring, miles W. by N. from Edinburgh by rail, is situated on a on second thoughts, a non-professional life, he gave up his declivity which overlooks the expanse of fertile country thcological studies and went to live at Weimar. There he called the Curse of Falkirk. The town consists of one wide published o volume of satires which procured him the street, with a number of narrow streets and lanes branching notice and friendship of Wieland, and admission into the off from or running parallel to it. The houses are generally literary circles of the city. On the invasion of Germany lofty and well built. The parish church, erected in 1811, by the Frencb, Falk juined the army, and so distinguished has a fine steeple 130 feet light. There are also places of himself at the battle of Jena that the duke of Weimur worship for the Free Church, United Presbyterians, Iude. created bin a counsellor of legativn. In 1813 lic pendents, and Roman Catholics. Continuous lines of succeeded in establishing a society for friends in necessity, houses connect Falkırk with the villages of Grahamston and about the same time he fouuded an institute for the and Bainsford, and extend thence to Carron, which lics. care and education of neglected and orphan children, which about two miles N. of the town, and is celebrated for its: in 1829 was changed into a free public schvol. The first

iron-works. Though Falkirk is not itself a manufacturing literary efforts of Falk took the form chiefly of satirical town, yet in the neighbourhood there are extensive works. poetry, and gave promise of greater future excellence of various kinds. In addition to the Carron iron works than was ever completely fulfilled, for as his later picces there is the Falkırk foundry at Bainsford, and several large were directed more against individuals than the general collieries, distilleries, flour-mills, &c. The three trysts or vices and defects of society, they gradually degenerated cattle fairs held at Falkirk annually, on the 20 Tuesday in quality. In 1804 he published a comedy entitled and Wednesday of August, the 2d Monday and Tuesday Amphitryon, which met with some success, and a tragedy of September, and the 2d Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesentitled • Prometheus, which, although in many places day of October, are the largest in Scotland, -the last being deficient in rhythm and melody, and in form more philo- the largest of the three. Population of parliamentary sophical than dramatic, yet contains many fine thoughts burgh in 1871, 95 17; of burgl and suburbs, 11,312. expressed in language truly poetical. From 1797 to 1803

Falkirk is a town of considerable antiquity, and appears to have he published a kind of satirical almanac entitled Taschen- been a place of some note in the early part of the lith century; bark für Freunde des Scherzes und der Satire. In this Its original name was Eglishbreckk, which signifies the “speckled publication he wrote a description of the hospitals of Berlin elurch," in allusion, it is supposed, to the colour of the stones, and under the satirical title of Denkwürdigkeiten der Berliner Falkirk and

the Carron a battle was fought on the 224 Jul 1298;

translated by Buchanan vuriun saccllum. In the valley betweco. Cherute auf das Jahr 1797, which led to the appointment of between the Scotch under Wallace and the English under Edward is committee to inquire into their management, and finally 1., in which the former were defeated, and two of their chieftains, to their reform. In 1806 Falk founded a critical journal Sir Jolin Graham

and Sir John Stewart, slain. Their graves aro under the title of Elysium und Tartarus. He also contri

still pointed out in the churchyard · that of Graham has a monu.

inent with an inscription which has been several times renewed. buted largely to contemporary journals. He enjoyed the On a moor a little to the S. W of the town a battle was.fought aequaintance and intimate friendship of Goetue, and lis on 17th January 1746, between the royal forces and those of the of both under the title Goethe aus näherm persönlichen / fell Sir Robert Mopro of Foulis, and his brother Dr Monro, whose Umgange dargestellt, Leipsic, 1832.

monument is to be seen in tlic churchyard In the vicinity traces Falk died 14th

of the Roman wall are still visible. Falkirk was made a burgh of February 1826.

Larony in 1600, and in 1646 a burgh of regality. In 1715, by the See Johannes Pulls Erinncrungsbläller aus Briesen und Tauc.

forfeiture of the earl of Linlithguw, its superiority was vested in bakeri, gesammelt von defscn Tochter Rosalie Falk, Weimar, 1863.

the crown, but it did not become a municipal burgh till the passing FALKE, Johann Friedrich Gottlieb (1823-1876), a

of the Reform Act of 1832. when it also obtained the privilege, in

conjunction with Airdrie, Lanaik, Hamilton, and Linlithgow, of German historian, was born at Ratzeburg, 20th April 1823. returning a member to parliames, He entered the university of Erlangen in 1843, and soon

FALKLAND, a royal burgh of Scotland, county of Fife, thereafter began to devote his attention to the history of is situated at the N foot of the East Lomond Hill

, 22 le German language and literature. In 1849 he went in miles N.n.w. of Edinburgh. It consists of a single street the capacity of tutor to Munich, where he remained five with some cross lancs, the houses being in many cases years, and diligently availed himself of the use of the thatched and of an antique and primitive appearance

. Copernment library for the purpose of prosecuting his his The inhabitants are engaged chiefly in weaving and flax

recical studies. In 1855 he was appointed secure this the spinning. Falkland is noted for its royal"palace, originally German museum at Nuremberg, and in 1859 keeper of the

a stronghold of the Macduffs, earls of Fifo, but forfeited to nanuscripts. With the aid of the manuscript collections the crown in 1421. The palace was greatly

enlarged and in the museum he now turned his attention chiedy to politi improved by James V., who died there in 1542, and was cal history, and, along with his brother Jacob, who is still also the favourite residence of James VI., on account of the


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F AL fine park and the abundance of deer. The east side of the, dilapidated stone dykes. Two fine inlets, Berkeley Sound building was accidentally burnt in the reign of Charles II., and Port Willian, run far into the land at the northand the park was rmned during the time of Cromwell, eastern extremity of the island. Port Louis, until lately when the fine caks were cut down in order to build a fort the seat of government, is at the head of Berkeley Sound, at Perth. In one of the dungeons David, dluke of Rothesay, but the anchorage there baving been found rather too ex. eldest son of Robert III., was starved to death by the posed, about the year 1814 a town was laid out, and the duke of Albany (the king's brother) and the earl of necessary public buildings were crected on Stanley Harbour, Douglas in 1402 In 1715 the famous Rob Roy gar: an admirably sheltered recess within Port William. risoned the palace, and laid the burgh and vicinity under Above Stanley Harbour the land slopes up for a bundred contribution. The palace till recently was allowed to fall feet or so to a low ridge, beyond which what is called there into decay, but what remained of it has been renovated, and the camp” (campo) extends nearly level for many miles. is now occupied as a dwelling house. The western front The little town of Stanley is built along the shore of the has two round towers, simnilar to those at Holyrood, and harbour and stretches a short way up the slope; it has a the southward range of buildings is ornamented vitla niches population of 600 or 700 inhabitants. The houses are and statues, which impart to it a close resemblance to the mostly square, whitewashed, and grey-slated, much like "Perpendicular style of the semi-ecclesiastical architecture of those of one of the newer small towns in the West HighEngland. Falkland was constituted a royal burgh by lands of Scotland. The Government bouse puts one 10 James II. in 1458, and its charter was renewed by James mind of a Shetland or Orkney manse, stone-built, slated, VI. in 1595. Population of the burgh, 1144 ; of the burgh and grey, without the least shelter. The Government and suburbs, 1283.

barrack, occupied by an officer and a company of marines, FALKLAND, VISCOUNT. See Cary, Lucius.

is a rather imposing structure in the middle of the town, FALKLAND ISLANDS (French, Malouines , Spanish, and there is a neat little Episcopal church. Many of the Malvinas), a group of islands in the South Atlantic, belong houses belonging to the agents of the Falkland Islands ing to Britain, and lying about 250 miles E. of the nearest | Company, and to the representatives of several private point in the mainland of South America, between the firms, have very pretty greenhouses attached to them, the parallels of 51° and 52° 45' S. and the meridians of 57° gay groups of fuchsias and pelargoniums of all the best 20' and 61° 46' W. The islands are about 200 in number, home varieties contrasting pleasantly with the barrenness but only two are of considerable size; the largest of these, without. East Falkland, is 95 miles in extreme length, with an In 1845 Mr S. Lafone, a wealthy cattle and hide meraverage width of 40 miles, and the smaller, West Falkland, chant on the river Plate, obtained from Government a grant is 80 miles long, and about 25 miles wide. The area of of the southern portion of the island, a peninsula East Falkland is about 3000 square miles, and that of West 600,000 acres in extent, and possession of all the wild Falkland 2000. Most of the others are mere islets, the cattle on the island for a period of six years, for a payment largest 16 miles long by 8 miles wide. The two principal of .£10,000 down, and £20,000 in ten years from January 1, islands are separated by Falkland Sound, a narrow strait | 1852. In 1851 Mr Lafone's interest in Lafonea, as the from 18 to 24 miles in width, running nearly due north | peninsula has since been called, was purchased for £30,000 and south (magnetic). The coast-line of both islands is by a company chartered in London for the purpose of turn

ing the islands to more account.

The headquarters of the Falkland Island Company are now at Stanley, where their colonial manager resides, while their grazing and boiling-down operations are carried out in different parts of the islands. The development of the undertaking has necessitated the establishment of stores and workshops at Stanley, and now ships can be repaired and provided in every way, much better and more cheaply there than at any of the South American ports, -a matter of much importance, seeing that a greater amount of injury is done annually to shipping passing near Cape Horn by

severe weather than in any other locality in the world. Port Shephe Coorge!

The average number of vessels entering Stanley Harbour in Seaworld

the year is about 50, with an aggregate tonnage of 20,000

tons. Of this number about one-fourth arrive in distress and Map of the Falkland Islands.

are repaired at Stanley. Next to Stanley the most imdeeply indented, and many of the bays and inlets form portant place on East l'alkland is Port Darwin on Choiseul secure and well-protected harbours. East Falkland is Sound, —a station of the Falkland Island Company, a almost bisected by two deep fiords, Choiseul and Brenton village chiefly of Scottish shepherds with a little iror Sounds, which leave the northern and southern portions church with schoolhouse attached, and a Presbyteriar connected only by an isthmus a mile and a balf wide. clergyman and a competent schoolmaster. West FalkThe northern portion is billy, and is crossed by a rugged land is more hilly near the east island; the principal mounrange, the Wickham Heights, running east and west, tain range, the Hornby Hills, runs north and south parallel and rising in some places to a height of nearly 2000 with Falkland Sound. Mount Maria, at the back of Port feet. The remainder of the island consists chiefly of low Howard, is 2270 feet high. In 1867 there were no settlers undulating ground, a mixture of pasture and morass, with on the west island, and Government issued a proclamatiou inany shallow freshwater tarns, and small streams running offering leases of grazing stations on very moderate terms. in all the valleys. The general appearance of the country in 1868 all the available land was occupied, producing an is tame and uninteresting, not unlike one of the outer annual revenue of about £1350. Some good houses have Hebrides. The general colouring is dark brownish-green, lately been built at Port Stephens, Mr Dean's station on relieved along the strike of the hills by veins of white West Falkland. quartzite den uded by the wearing away of softer rocks on The Falkland Islands were first seen by Davis in the both sides, and left projecting on the mountain slopes like year 1592, and Sir Richard Hawkins sailed along their



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north sbore in 1594. In 1598 Sebald de Wert, a Dutch- ! from that of the north of Europe: cellular plants enter but
man, visited them, and called then the Sebald Islands, a little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely
name which they still bear on some of the Dutch maps. of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the
Captain Strong sailed through between the two principal cominon crowberry of the Scottish bills with red berries,
islands in 1690, and called the passage Falkland Sound, and called by the Falklanders the. “diddle-dee” berry; of
' from this the group afterwards took its English name. In Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves

1763 the islands were taken possession of by the French, are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of
who established a colony at Port Louis on Berkeley Sound; Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold;
they were, however, expelled by the Spaniards in 1767 or and of some sedges and plants, such as Astelia
1768. In 1761 Commodore Byron took possession on the pumila, Guimardia australis, and Bostkovia grandiflora.
part of England on the ground of prior discovery, and his There is an intention of establishing a work in Stanley for
doing so was nearly the cause of a war between England and converting the peat into patent compressed fuel.
Spain, both countries having armed fleets to contest the Two vegetable productions of the Falklands, the “ balsam
barren sovereignty. In 1771, however, Spain yielded the bog" and the “tussock grass," have beeh objects of curi-
islands to Great Britain by convention. As they had not osity and interest ever since the first accounts of the islands
been actually colorized by England, the republic of Buenos reached'us. In many places the low grourids look at a little
Ayres claimed the group in 1820, and formed a settlement distance as if they were scattered over with large grey
at Port Louis which promised to be fairly successful, but boulders, three or four to six or eight feet across. To
owing to some misunderstanding with the Americans it was heighten the illusion many of these blocks are covered with
destroyed by the latter in 1831. After all these vicissitudes lichens, and bands of grass grow in soil collected in crevices,
the British flag was once more hoisted at Port Louis in just as they would in little rifts in rocks. These boulder.
1833, and since that time the Falkland Islands have been like masses are single plants of Bolax-glebaria, an umbelli.
a regular British colony under a governor, and the seat of ferous plant. The Tuinps of balsam-bog are quite hard and
3 colonial bishopric. The population of the Falkland nearly-smooth, and only when looked at closely are they
Islands is at present about 125.), by far the greater number seen to be covered with small hexagonal markings like the
being English and Scottish, wită a few Buenos-Ayrean calices of a weathered piece of coral. These are the circlets,

The number of children on the school-roll in of leaves and the leaf-buds terminating a multitude of steng 1876 was 127: The exports now consist almost entirely which have gone on growing with extreme slowness and of wool and tallow, with a few hides. The rearing of 'branching dichotomonsly for an unknown length of time, cattle is rapidly giving place to sheep-farming, which is possibly for centuries, ever since the plant started as a single found to pay better

. There are now upwards of 200,000 shoot from a seed. The growth is so slow, șind the condensa. Shcep on the islands, and they yield heavy fleeces of wool tion from constant brauching is so great, that the block of fine quality. In 1876 the value of exports amounted to becomes as hard as the boulder which it so much resembles, £37,121, of which wool vales account for £25,453. A and it is difficult to cut a shaving from the surface with a process adopted a few years ago by the Falkland Island sharp knife. Under the unfrequent condition of a warın company of boiling down the carcases of sheep for tallow day with the sun shining, a pleasant aromatic odour may

likely to prove successful, and to add another valuable be perceived where the plants abound, and a pale yellow
- sport. The trade in sealskins, which was at one time of astringent gum exudes from the surface, wbich is used by
asteat value, is now almost at an end, and there is also a the shepherds as a vulnerary. The "tussock grass," Dactylis
kredt falling off in the export of oil, the whales and seals cæspitosa, is a wonderful and most valuable natural produc-
* lich were, at one time very numerous, particularly about tion, which, owing to the introduction of stock into the
"ost Falkind, having almost entirely left the coasts. islands, will probably ere long become extinct. It is a

The Falkland Islands correspond very nearly in latitude reed-like grass, which grows in dense tufts from six to ten
in the southern hemisphere with Middlesex in the northern, feet high from stool-like root-crowns. The leaves and
but the conditions of climate are singularly different.

The stems are most excellent fodder, and are extremely attract." temperature is very equable, the average of the two mid-ive to cattle

, but the lower parts of the stems and the summer months being about 47° Fabr., and that of the two crowns of the roots have a sweet nutty flavour which midwinter months 37° Fahr. The sky is almost constantly makes them irresistible, and cattle and pigs, and all ofercast

, and rain falls, mostly in a drizzle and in frequent creatures herbivorous and omnivorous, crop the tussocks to showers, on about 250 days in the year.

The rainfall is the ground, when the rain getting into the crowns rots the not great, only about 20 iûches, but the mean humidity for roots. The work of extermination has proceeded rapidly, the year is 80, saturation being '100. Owing to the absence and now the tussock grass is confined to patches in a of sunshine and summer heat, and the constant fog and rain, narrow border round the shore and to some of the outlying mabeat will not ripen, barley and cats can scarcely be said islands. The land fauna of the Falklands is very scanty. to do so, and the common English vegetables will not pro A large wolf-like fox, which seems to be indigenous, was duce seed in the gardens. Still the inhabitants seem to get common nearly accustomed to their moist, -chilly surroundings, and the Some herds of cattle and horses run wird, but these were

of The Falkland Islands form essentially a part of Patagonia, rous rabbits, and the much less numerous hares. Land: plateau, and their fora is much the same as that of Antarctic. Fuegia. Sea-birds are very abundant, and, probably from

are connected by an elevated submarine birds are few in number, and are mostly strays from South America. The trees which forin denise forest and , the islands having been comparatively lately people, they scrub in southern Patagonia and in Fuegia are absent, and

are singularly tame. Se ral species of , wild geese, some ragweed (Senecio candicans) which attains in some places a on the islands is a gigantic woolly of them very good eating, fly about in large flocks, and arg

so fearless at will by three to four feet. A hall-shrubby veronica (1. tangling their wings with a form of the “bolas” made witla part of the "camp” is formed of peat, which in some places

on the west island. The greater a pair of the knuckle-bones of an ox. B of great age and depth, and at the bottom of the bed very

The Falkland Islands consist entirely, so far as we know
at present, of the older
Upper Silurian, slightly metamorphosed and a good den.


colony is remarkably healthy.

with which they

one of the largest plants

decussata) is found

crumpled and distorted, in the low grounds clay slate and spent in travel, along with the Russian Cuit Ostermann soft sandstone, and on the ridges hardened sandstone pass. Tolstoi, visiting Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Cyprus, Rbodes, ing into the conspicuous wbito quartzites. There do not Constantinople, Greece, und Naples. On his return he was seem to be any minerals of value, and the rocks are not elected in 1835 a member of the Royal Bavarian Academy such as to indicate any probability of their discovery. of Sciences, but lic soon after left the country again on Galena is found in small quantity, and in some places it account of political troubles, and spent the greater part of contains a large percentage of silver. The dark bituminous the next four years with Count Tolstoi at Geneva. Conlayers of clay slate, which occur intercalated among the stantinople, Trapezunt, Athos, Macedonia, Thessaly, and quartzites, have led, here as elsưwhere, to the hope of com. Greece were visited by him during 1840-41; and after some ing upon a sean of coal, but it is entirely contrary to years' residence in Munich le returned in 1847 to the East, experience that coal of any value should be found in rocks and travelled through parts of Palestine, Syria, and Asia of that age.

Minor. The political changes in Bavaria invited him home Most of tho valleys in the Falklands are occupied by pale in 1848, and he was appointed professor of history in the glistening masses which at a little distance have very much Munich university, and inade a member of the national the look of some of the sinaller Swiss glaciers. Examined congress at Frankfort-on-the- Maine. He there joined the a little more closely these are found to be vast accumula. left proppusition party, and in the following year he accomtions of blocks of quartzite, irregular in form, but having a panied the ruinp-parliament to Stuttgart, a course of action tendency to a rule diamond shape, from two to eight or ten which naturally led to his expulsiou from his professorate. or twenty feet in length, and half as much in width, and of During the winter of 1849-50 he was obliged to live in a thickness corresponding with that of the quartzite ridges Switzerland to escape arrest, but the amnesty of April 1850 on the bills above The blocks are angular, like the frag enabled him to return to Munich. He died April 26, ments in a breccia, and rest irregularly one upon the other, 1861. His contributions to the history of Greece in the sipported in all positions by the angles and edges of those Middle Ages are of great value, and though his theory bineath The whole mass looks as if it were, and no that the Greeks of the present day are almost pure djubt it is, slowly sliding down the valley to the sea. Slavonians, with hardly a drop of true Greek blood in their These "stone rivers ” are looked upon with great wonder veins, has not been accepted in toto by other investigators, by the shifting population of the Falklands, and they are it has served to modify the opinions of even his greatest shown to visitors with many strange speculations as to their opponents. A criticism of his views will be found in Hopi's mode of formation. Their origin is not far to seek. The Geschichte Griechenlands (reprinted from Ersch-and Gruber's hard beds of quartzite are denuded by the disintegration Encycl.), and in Finlay's History of Greece in the Midille of the softer layers Their support being removed they | Ages. break away in the direction of natural joints, and the His works arc-Geschichte des Kaiserthums Traperunt, Munich, fragments fall down the slope upon the vegetable soil. 1827 ; Geschichte der Halbinsel Morca im Millclalter, Stuttgart, This soil is spongy, and, undergoing alternate contractiou 1830-1836; Ueber die Entstchung der Neugriechen, Stuttgart, 1835; and expansion from being alternately comparatively dry Trapezunts," Munich, 1843, in 'Abhandl. der. hist. Classe der K.

“Originalsragniente, Chroniken, u. s. w., zur Geschichte des K. and saturated with moisture, allows the lieavy blocks to

Bayerisch Aknd. 1. IViss; Fragmente aus dem Orient, Stuttgart, slip down by their own weight into the valley, where they 1845 ; Denkschrift über Golgotha und das heilige Grab, Munich, become piled up, the valley stream afterwards removing the 1852, and Das Podte Meer, 1853– both of which had appeared in soil fro:n among and over them They certainly present a

the Abhanallungon of the Academy; Das Albanesische Blcment in

Gricchenland, III, parts, in the Alhandl. for 1860-1866. After very striking phenomenon

his death there appeared at Leipsic in 1861, under the editorship See Perpetz, Journal historique d'une voyage faite aur ilcs Ma. of A. Thomas, three volumes of Gesammelte Werke, containing louines en 1763 cl 1764, Berlin, 1767 ; S. Johnson, Thoughts on the

Ncuc Fragmente aus dem Oricnt, Kritische Versuche, and Studien late Transıutions respecting Falklandt's Islands, 1771 ; T Falkner,

und Erinnerungen aus meincm Lcben. A sketch of his life will Description of Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, 1774 ; B. l'en. also be found in L. Steub, Herbsttage in Tyrcl, Munich, 1867. rose, Account of the last Expedition to Port Egmont in the Falkland I sluus, 1777 Obserrations on the forciblc occupation of Malvinas FALLOPIUS, or FALLOPIO, GABRIELLO (1523–1562), by the British Government in 1833, Buenos Ayres, 1833 ; Recla.

one of the greatest anatomists of his time, was a native of macion el Gobierno de las prorinias Unidos de la Plata contra el uc S. M Britamca sobre. In sovcrania y possesion de las Islas Mal.

Modena. He studied medicine at Ferrara, and, after a vinas, London, 1811 : Fitzroy, Narrative of the survcying voyage | European tour, became teacher of anatomy in that city. of HMS Adventure and Beagle, 1839, Darwin, Voyage of a He thence removed to Pisa, and from Pisa, at the instance Na'uralist round the World, 1845 ; S. B. Sullivan, Description of Cosmo I., grand-duke of Tuscany, to Padun, where, of the Falkland Islands, 1849; W Hadfield, Brazil, the Falkland Islanis &r., 1854, W Parker Snow, I'uo years' cruise off the

besides the chairs of anatomy and surgery and of botany, Tierra del Fucgo. th. Palkland Islands, &c., 1857 ; Sir Wyville | be held the office of superintendent of the new botanical Thomson. l’oyage of the Challenger, 1877.

(C. W T.) garden. He died October 9, 1562: Only one treatise by FALLMERAYER, JAKOB Puilipp (1791-1861), a Fallopius appeared during his lifetime, namely the Observa- . (jerman traveller and historical investigator, best known tiones Anatomicre, Venice, 1561. His collective works, for his opinions in regard to the ethnology of the modern Opera genuina omnia, were published at Venice in 1584. Greeks, was born, the son of a poor peasant, at Tschötsch, For an account of the services which Fallopius rendered to near Brixen iv Tyrol, 10th December 1791. In 1809 lie anatomical science, see ANATOMY, vol. i. p. 809. absconded froin the cathedral school at Brixen and repaired FALL RIVER, a city of the United States, Massachusetts, to Salzburg, where he studied theology, the Semitic is situated on Mount Hope Bay, the north-east arm of Janguages, and history. At the university of Landshut, to Narraganset Bay, 46 miles S. of Boston. The Fall river, which be next removed, he at first applied himself to juris- which here joins the Taunton, has a descent of 130 feet in prudence, but soon again devoted his exclusive attention to less than half a mile, and its great water-power was at an history and philology. During the Napoleonic wars the still early period of much advantage for the development of the youthful student fursook bis books, joined the Bavarian in- manufactures of the town, but most of the mills are now Tantry in 1813, took part in a battle near Hanau, and accom- driven by steain. The town is well built, and many of the panied bis regiment to France. Receiving his discharge in streets are finely adorned with trees. The harbour on 1818, he was successively engaged as teacher and professor in Taunton river is safe and easy of access, and has depth of the gymnasium at Augsburg, and in the pro-gymnasium and water sufficient for the largest ships. Fall River bas a lyceum at Landshut. "The three yenrs from 1831 to 1834 he I large coasting trade, end is engage in the whale and otber

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