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32. The study of Chronology, Geography, and History is one of the most natural delights of the human mind.
33. It is to the science of Chronology that we know how long it is since the creation of the world, and that Adam and Eve dwelt in Paradise, &c.; as it also enables us truly to state the beginning and end of the reigns of princes, the births and deaths of eminent persons, the revolutions of empires and kingdoms, &c. ; without which, history would be little better than a heap of confusion, destitute of light, order, or beauty.
34. History gives an account of all things that have happened; Chronology, the time when; and Geography, the place where
35. Cosmography. Cosmography is a description of the universe, including the earth and infinite space. It naturally divides itself into two parts, geography and astronomy.
36. It is by trade or commerce that we participate in the productions of all other countries.
37. Of all the countries, the English and the Dutch have had for some time past the superiority in point of trade. As to England, the convenience and multitude of its ports, the goodness of its commodities, and the industry and ingenuity of its workmen, are not to be equalled in the world.
35. Conimerce. Commerce is the art of changing one commodity for another; that is, the buying of, or selling to, other nations, or by way of exchange, in order to profit by the same.
39. Ethics or Monals is the doctrine of manners; its object is the exercise of right reason in all our affairs and actions, and the end of which is to make us good and happy. 40. Whence it may be defined a right manner of thinking, in order to obtain human felicity: or a science, whereby a man is directed to conduct his will and actions thereof so as to live well and happy.
41. Geography. Geography is that science which makes us acquainted with all the known places in the world, and its distribution into land and water. It also teaches us the limits and boundaries of countries, and their peculiarities, natural and political.
42. Chronology and Geography are properly called the eyes of History. And without a competent knowledge of Geography, neither Chronology, History, nor Politics, can be understood; nor is it possible to have a just idea either of Navigation or Commerce : consequently then, in this country, it most particularly becomes an object of education, and should always precede the study of those sciences.
43. Geometry. Geometry is that science which treats of lines, surfaces, and solids, and is the doctrine of extension and magnitude in general.
44. Hence a line, an angle, a circle, and, in short, figures of
every size and shape, come under the subject of Geometry.
45. What has length and breadth only, is termed a superficies ; such as the admeasurement of a board, table, field or country, to determine its contents in feet, yards, acres, &c.
46. What has length, breadth, and thickness, is termed a solid : and whatever size or figure it may be, whether a log of wood, à pyramid, or a globe. Geometry is able to to ascertain its number of cubical inches, yards, or miles.
47. Grammar. Grammar is the art of speaking aud writing any language with correctness and propriety.
It is very necessary that every one should study the rules of grammar, particularly those of his own tongue; for to be ignorant of the rules of grammar, no one can express his ideas correctly, nor perfectly understand the ideas of others.
Idroduction to the Arts and Sciences,
48. An-ti"-qui-ty, s. (pro. an-tik-e-ty,) old times, those times or
periods which have long preceded the present.
Ex-ter'-nal.ly, ad. outwardly.
In ter-nal-ly, ad. inwardly. 58. Pri'-mi-tive, a. first or original.
Su-per-na"-tu-ral-ly, ad. in a manner beyond or above the coma
mon course of nature, 64. Sub'-tle, a. (pro, sut-lle,) deceitful. *74. Men'-tal, a. existing in, or belonging to the mind.
Ra"-ti-on-al, a. agreeable to reason, judicious. 76, Gra"-vi-ty, s. the power or virtue by which bodies naturally
tend to the centre. (Seriousness, modesty.) 83. Vi"-si-on, s. the act or faculty of seeing. 84. Mir'-ror, s. a looking-glass, or any thing which represents objects
by reflection, Prism, s. a mathematical glass used in experiments on light
and colours, 89. In-ves'-ti-gate, v. to search out; to trace or find out by reason. 32. Fic-ti"-ti-ous, a. imaginary, opposed to real. 97. Jus'-tice, s. the virtue whereby we give every one their due,
inflict punishment on those who deserve it, and acquit the
innocent after a fair trial. Be-ne"-vo-lence, s. kindness, a disposition to do good, In’-dus-try, s. diligence, a constant application of the unind, or
exercise of the body.
E-co”-no-my, s. the act of prudently managing affairs, good
management. 98. Im'-age, s. a representation. A picture drawn in the fancy,
48. History. History is that science which acquaints us with the transactions and characters of mankind, from the remotest antiquity to the present time, and gives us a knowledge of the most distant nations as well as that of our own.
49. It is of the greatest use to kings, princes, and persons of quality, because, being born to govern others, they ought to have a more perfect knowledge of politics and morality, of which history gives a great many examples.
50. The study of history is very useful to every one, for most people, whether in trade or civil life, are concerned to know the origin of nations, the beginning of monarchies, their revolutions and duration, and the manners and customs of every people ; for it is to history that we must look for the rise and decay of states, the method that led to their glory, and the miscarriages that brought them to their ruin.
51, History is divided into ANCIENT and MODERN, SACRED and PROFANE.
52. Ancient History relates to ages long past, generally from the creation of the world to the birth of our Saviour ; and the Modern, from the birth of our Saviour to the
53. Sacred History is that contained in the Scriptures ; and which was written by holy men inspired by God; to teach mankind that he sustains and governs all things, and deals out blessings to all people that love, fear, and obey him; and brings judgment and destruction on those who disobey his commands.
54. Profane History is that which was composed by persons who wrote what they had either seen, heard, or read, concerning the rise or fall of nations, and the acts of men famous for their virtue, or infamous for their crimes.
55. Languages. Language is the art of communicating our thoughts from one to another, either in speaking or writing.
56. To speak is to manifest externally, by certain signs which men have agreed upon, the ideas or thoughts that are combined internally in the mind.
57. Those signs (being sounds) are given to us by nature, which are mechanically produced by the organs of speech.
58. It is generally supposed that the Hebrew* was the primitive language, formed by God himself, and supernaturally communicated to the first man, Adam. The only remains of that tongue is the Old Testament.
59. Language or speech is represented by, or formed from, the characters or letters of the alphabet, which are sufficient for all the languages that ever did or ever will exist. This being a curious inquiry, it is well worth the attention of the studious.
69. The characters or letters of the alphabet were first invented by Memnon, king of Æthiopia,f about 1822 years before Christ, whence they were carried into Phenicia,f and there formed into a written language by Cadmus, who, in the year 1493 before Christ, took the Phenician alphabet into Greece, where he founded the city of Thebes, whence sprung the Greek language.
* The writings of the Old Testament are the only writings left of that language.
A large country of Africa, now called Abyssinia. $. A province of Syria in Asiatic Turkey, being the country in which was situated the Holy Land, &c. It is much celebrated for the invention of letters and navigation.
§ Part of European Turkey.