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° STATE OF LABOR ÎN EUROPE:
REPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES CONSULS
SEVERAL COUNTRIES OF EUROPE
RATES OF WAGES; COST OF LIVING TO THE LABORERS; PAST AND
IN RESPONSE TO
A CIRCULAR FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE REQUESTING
INFORMATION UPON THESE SUBJECTS;
A LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY OF STATE TRANSMITTING THESE REPORTS TO
THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
46TH CONGRESS, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
1st Session. s
STATE OF LABOR IN EUROPE.
THE SECRETARY OF STATE,
Reports from United States consuls in relation to the state of labor in
MAY 20, 1879.-Referred to the Committee on Education and Labor and ordered to
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, May 17, 1879. SIR: In compliance with section 208 of the Revised Statutes, I have the honor to submit herewith reports from the consuls of the United States in Europe on labor and labor statistics in their several districts, covering the following principal subjects: Rates of wages; cost of living to the laborers; past and present rates compared; present condition of trade; business habits and systems; character of paper money, the amount in circulation, and the relative value of paper money and coin to each other.
These reports are in response to a labor circular—a copy of which will be found immediately preceding said reports in this volume-issued by this Department under date of April 11, 1878.
These reports, covering, as they do, the labor question in all its aspects, in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Italy, Holland, Spain, and Switzerland (which, with the United States, may be said to comprise the world of educated and progressive labor), embrace so vast and interesting a field of investigation, that, in order to exhibit as directly as possible the salient points relating to the several districts, I have arranged them into national groups, thereby presenting a compact yet comprehensive view of the present state of labor in the various countries of Europe, and at the same time a comparison between labor, in those countries and in the United States.