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part, to present as examples forms of expression which are correct, rather than those which are exceptionable. By becoming familiar with incorrect forms of speech, one is in danger of falling into the use of them, even though he may wish to follow the rule which condemns them. Language is largely a matter of imitation. Hence we infer the importance of a familiarity with good models.

The labor and the difficulty of preparing a work upon the language like this, in which each part shall be exhibited in its specific distinctness, and the whole in its generic complexity, in such a manner as at once to satisfy the ripe scholar and to attract the learner, can not be readily appreciated. The exactness of certain sciences should not throughout be demanded. Many facts and principles pertaining to the language are indeed settled, but in respect to others, only an approximation to exactness can be expected. Authorities are often divided; those upon whom we rely may have fallen into error, and apparent facts often lead different scholars to opposite conclusions.

The work, such as it is, is offered to the public, in the hope that it may prove a valuable help to those who desire a thorough acquaintance with the origin and history, the structure and laws, the elements and forms of the English language. W. C. F.

Amherst, August, 1850.

CONTENTS.

PART I.

HISTORICAL ELEMENTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER I.

GENERAL RELATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

Page Section

33 15. Numerals...

34 16. Diversities in Languages.....
35 17. Causes of Diversities in Lan-
37
guages
38 18. Study of Language..
39 19.

Connection between Words
and Things...
.... 48
Connection between Language
and History-
Discovery of the lost Meaning
of Words....
Relations of Language to the
Laws of the Mind........ 50
Mutual influence of Language

and Opinion.

Study of the English Language

Section

1. Definition of Language....

2. Origin of Language

3. Growth of Language

4. Birth-place of Language

5. Primitive Language..

6. Value of Language.

7. Permanent Value of Language 40

8. Imperfection of Language..

9. Decay of Language

10. Death of Language..

41 20.

41

42 21.

11. Original Unity of Language. 42 12. Analogies in the Gothic Fam

ily, showing their Affinity. 13. Bopp's Views 14. Miscellaneous Analogies in different Families of the Indo-European Stock....... 44

43

43 23.

22.

CHAPTER II.

Languages..

31. Classification of the Indo-Eu-
ropean Stock....

32. Synthetic and Analytic Lan-
guages..
33. Characteristics of the Indo-
European Languages..... 58

B

24.

58

Page

45

46

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guage.

43. Norman French

44. Greek Family..

45. Romaic Language, or modern

Greek

46 48

49

50

THE CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES.

25. Remarks on Classification... 54 34. Sanscrit Family.
26. Schlegel's Classification... ... ... .... 54 35. Iranian Family.
27. Classification adopted in this 36. Latin Family..
55 37. Italian Language
28. Chinese Stock of Languages. 56 38. French Language.
29. Shemitic Stock of Languages 56 39. Spanish Language
30. Peculiarities of the Shemitic

Work...

40. Portuguese Language

57 41. Wallachian, or Daco-Romano 63 42. Provençal, or Romaunt Lan

58

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... 65

Family...

49. Maso-Gothic

Section

46. Celtic Family.

47. Gothic Family

48. Teutonic Branch of the Gothic

50. High Germanic.

51. Low Germanic

52. Frisian....

Page, Section

65 53. Dutch...

67 54. Old Saxon and the Platt

60. Origin of the Ethnographical

Elements...

CHAPTER III.

THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

68. Language before the coming of the Normans...

69.

Introduction of the Danish El

ement....

70. Introduction of the Anglo-Nor

man Element

61. Introduction of the Celtic El

ement...

62. Classification of the Celtic Elements..

63. Introduction of the Latin Element...

64. Introduction of the AngloSaxon Element...

65. Character of the Anglo-Sax

ons...

66. Names of the immigrating Tribes

67. Objections to the term Anglo

Saxon

Deutsch..

67 55. Scandinavian Branch.
67 56. Slavonic Family.
68 57. Lithuanian Family..
69 58. Finnic Family..
69 59. Armenian Family.....

76

87. Lowland Scotch

88. Dialect of the Northern Coun

ties..

76

77

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93

79. Specimens of Semi-Saxon... 95 83. Recapitulation...

Page

70

quest

76. Transition of the Anglo-Saxon into English.....

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110 91.
110

92. Cockney Dialect. 110 93. American Dialects

71

71

73

73

74

74

CHAPTER IV.

STAGES AND PERIODS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

81.

77. Specimens of Anglo-Saxon.. 93 | 80. Specimens of Old English.. 96 78. Lord's Prayer in Anglo-SaxSpecimens of Middle English 97 on, with a Grammatical 82. Specimens of Modern EnAnalysis... glish....

84

85

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CHAPTER V.

DIALECTS AND PROVINCIALISMS.

84. Dialects and Provincialisms 109 | 89. Dialect of East Anglia, or 85. Existing Diversities of Lanthe Eastern Counties.... 112 guage in England....... 109 90. Dialect of the Southern Coun86. Sources of existing Diversi

ties..

ties.....
Dialect of the Western Coun-
ties.....

101 107

113

115 116

119

Section

94. Classification of American

isms...

95. Local Peculiarities...

CHAPTER VI.

Page Section

Page

96. Specimens of Americanisms 123 120 97. Tendencies of the English Language in America ... 127

122

CHARACTER OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

98. English Language compo- 103. English Grammar and the

site....

Anglo-Saxon...

99. Copiousness.

130
131 104. Stability of the English Lan-
guage...

100. Number of Anglo-Saxon
Words in the English
Language

105. English the universal Lan-
guage..

101. The Kind of Anglo-Saxon
Words

132

106. Prospects of the English
Language
133 107. Historical Analysis......

102. Expressiveness.

132

PART II.

PHONETIC ELEMENTS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

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134

129.

134

135

136

138

148

151

151

152

153

127. Lene and Aspirate
128.

Phonetic Elements not in
the Language
Phonetic Elements not in
some other Languages.. 154
130. Peculiarity of the Magyar
Language
131. Difference of Quality in the
same Element

153

154

154

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CHAPTER II.

THE PHONETIC ELEMENTS IN COMBINATION.
Page Section

Section

132. Pronounceable

Combina

tions.....

133. Unpronounceable Combina

tions....

134. A change of Elements in
Pronunciation

138. Syllables

139. Names of Words from their

156

156

CHAPTER III.

COMBINATIONS IN SYLLABLES.

156

135. Importance of the Fact first
stated.

136. Accumulation of Consonant-
al Elements

137. Combinations not in the Lan-
guage....

CHAPTER IV.

159. Definitions..
160. Euphonic Figures............
161. Grimm's Law of Converti-

bility

162. Law of Convertibility in the
Latin, English, and Ger-

man

160 142. Breath arrested and Breath escaping'..

162 Division into Syllables.. 160 143. Combinations in Words... 162 140. Principles of Division..... 161 144. Monosyllabic Character of 141. Rules of Syllabication..... 161 the English Language... 163

ACCENT.

153. Classic or Syllabic Quan

tity..

154. English or Vowel Quantity 169 158. Relation of Accent to Quan-
155. Two modes of Measurement 169

tity

CHAPTER VI.

EUPHONIC CHANGES.

145. Classical Accent...

146. English Accent..

165 150. Accent on Trisyllables.... 167 165 151. Accent on Polysyllables... 167 147. Rules for English Accent. 166 152. Definition of Emphasis, and 148. Accent on Monosyllables.. 166 statement of its effect on Accent.

149. Accent on Dissyllables.... 166

Page

157

CHAPTER V.

QUANTITY.

| 156. Dependent and Independent 170 169 157. Common Rules

170

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158

158

167

171

177

178

179

180

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