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It is generally agreed that the full classification of Lloyd's Register, namely, 100 AI, represents the highest attainable in practical shipping design, construction and upkeep. Therefore it is not required that a vessel classed by Lloyd's Register, shall for the purposes of this clause, be of the full character, i.e., it is not necessary that it bears the prefixed Maltese Cross, signifying that it was constructed under supervision of the surveyors of Lloyd's Register. In the case of all vessels classified by other classification authorities the clause requires that the class be without any modification, i.e., the vessel must have been built under

survey.

The clause embraces liners (excluding chartered) and other vessels (including chartered) not over 20 years old and bearing the Lloyd's Register characteristic 100 A1, or the highest character assigned by the British Corporation (Glasgow), Bureau Veritas (France), Norske Veritas (Norwegian Record), American Record, or the Registro Italiano (Italian).

Other steam or power vessels, iron or steel, held covered at a premium to be arranged. Wooden, composite (wooden vessels with metal framing) and concrete vessels also so held covered provided that notice be given immediately on receipt of advices. In the case of concrete vessels the premium would be prohibitive.

Institute Maintenance of Class Clause.

This makes any statement of the class of a vessel a warranty that she is so classed at the inception of the risk and shall remain so classed during the currency of the policy. It is to be understood that where the class of a vessel is temporarily lost by reason of a casualty the warranty will not operate to the disadvantage of the assured whilst the vessel is undergoing repairs necessary to reinstate her class. Its utility is evidenced where at time of acceptance of risk a vessel is unclassed.

Combined Policy.

Companies use their own policy forms, which in general closely resemble the Lloyd's S.G. Form, and the Combined Policy represents an attempt to evolve a standard form acceptable to all companies. It has been approved by the Institute of London Underwriters, but is unlikely to be universally adopted. Companies are unwilling to forego their individuality, but if an assured desires to obtain the subscriptions of several companies on one policy form, he may use the combined policy and underwriters who have agreed to subscribe this document will fall in with his wishes. The meanings of the various clauses are as discussed under Lloyd's S. G. form of policy.

Frozen Meat Clauses.

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There is no need for the very large number of these sets cause undue dismay, for the differences between the various sets are mostly superficially discernible, being largely indicated in the respective titles.

The interests covered are as follows :—

Frozen mutton, lamb, beef, veal and pork :

U.K. AI.

U.K. A2.

U.K. DI.

U.K. D2.

Cont. Ar.

Cont. A2.

Cont. DI.

Cont. D2.

S. Africa BI.

S. Africa B2.

S. Africa D1.

S. Africa D2.

A3.

A4.

Rabbits, hares, poultry, game and kidneys:

U.K. CI.

U.K. C2.
U.K. EI.

U.K. E2.

Cont. CI.
Cont. C2.

Cont. EI.

Cont. E2.
S. Africa CI.

S. Africa C2.

S. Africa E1.

S. Africa E2.

Frozen mutton, lamb, beef, veal and pork, also rabbits, hares, poultry, game and kidneys:

U.K. F.

U.K. G.

U.K. H.

Cont. F.

Cont. G.

Cont. H.

S. Africa F.

S. Africa G.
S. Africa H.

Duration of Risk.

In the majority of cases the essential differences lie in the time of attachment and cessation of the risk.

Thus in all the clauses that have a "I" in their titles, e.g., U.K. A1, the risk commences on the entry of the interest into cooling (chilled meat) and/or freezing (frozen meat) chambers. In the case of all the "2" clauses and

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the "A3 and " 'A4 sets, the risk commences on the

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loading of the meat on board the vessel, but in the case of "U.K. A2," Cont. A2," and A4 clauses transit from the works to the vessel may be covered by payment of an additional premium of 1s. od. per cent.

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In all cases, unless previously terminated, the risk continues during the voyage, but the time at which the risk ceases after arrival differs materially under the various clauses as indicated below :—

On board the vessel or in cold store after arrival: 60 days (not more than 30 days of which to be on board)

U.K. AI.

U.K. A2.

10 days

U.K. CI.

U.K. C2.

U.K. DI.

U.K. D2.

U.K. EI.

U.K. E2.

Cont. CI.

Cont. C2.

Cont. DI.

Cont. D2.

Cont. E1.

Cont. E2.

Up to 30 days on board; 10 days after discharge——

Cont. AI.

Cont. A2.

30 days after arrival (not more than 10 days on board)— A4.

5 days after arrival

All S. Africa "A" to "E" clauses.
Risk to cease on discharge from vessel-

U.K. F.

U.K. G.

U.K. H.

Cont. F.

Cont. G.

Cont. H.
S. Africa F.

S. Africa G.

S. Africa H.

In the case of the "A3" clauses the risk ceases at the expiry of 10 days from the arrival of the vessel at the port of discharge, or on discharge from the vessel, whichever may first occur.

Where clauses cover the interest in store a limit is set on the period from inception of the risk to shipment covered at normal rates of premium. This limit is 60 days.

In all cases where particular average is covered, the proper dressing, cooling and freezing of the meat is warranted. In respect of U.K." and "" Cont." clauses the cold store at destination must be approved by the Institute of London Underwriters. It may here be mentioned that the Committee of Lloyd's Register undertake to have cold storage warehouses surveyed, and for which if found satisfactory certificates of efficiency are conferred.

In all the different sets it is agreed that all units of various marks insured under one valuation, in order to simplify average adjustment, shall be deemed to be of the same weight and insured value.

It is now proposed to consider the U.K. A clauses in some detail, after which differences from the cover afforded by these and other sets are indicated.

U.K. A1 Clauses.

If the interest is carried from store to ship and/or from ship to store in non-insulated vans, an additional premium in respect of each such transit is attracted. The "U.K." designates that the destination is in the United Kingdom; similarly "Cont." in other causes signifies destined to

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