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In the former, art and labor may be suffered to appear ; in the latter, no proper effect can be produced, unless it be the work of nature only. Hence all digressions should be avoided which may interrupt or turn aside the swell of passion. Hence comparisons are always dangerous, and commonly quite improper in the midst of the pathetic. It is also to be observed, that violent emotions cannot be lasting. The pathetic, therefore, should not be prolonged too much. Due regard should always be preserved to what the hearers will bear; for he who attempts to carry them farther in passion than they will follow himn, frustrates his purpose. By endeavoring to warm them too much, he takes the surest method of freezing them completely.

Concerning the peroration or conclusion of a discourse, a few words will be sufficient. Sometimes the whole pathetic part comes in niost properly at the conclusion. Sometimes, when the discourse has been altogether argumentative, it is proper to conclude with summing up the arguinents, placing thein in one view, and leaving the impression of them full and strong on the minds of the hearers. For the great rule of a conclusion, and what nature obviously suggests, is, place that last on which you choose to rest the strength of your cause.

In every kind of public speaking it is important to hit the precise time of concluding ; to bring the discourse just to a point; neither ending abruptly and unexpectedly, nor disappointing the expectation of the hearers, when they look for the end of the discourse.

Pronunciation or Delivery.

The speaker should always close with dignity and spirit, that the minds of the hearers may be left warm, and that they may depart with a favorable impression of the subject and of himself.



The great objects to which every public speaker should direct his attention in forming his delivery, are, first, to speak so as to be fully and easily understood by his hearers ; and next, to express himself with such grace and energy as to please and to move them. To be fully and easily understood, the chief requisites are a due degree of loudness of voice, distinctness, slowness, and propriety of pronunciation.

To be heard is undoubtedly the first requisite. The speaker must endeavor to fill with his voice the space occupied by the assembly. Though this

. power of voice is in a great measure a natural talent, it may receive considerable assistance from art. Much depends on the proper pitch and management of the voice. Every man has three pitches in his voice, the high, the middle, and the low. The high is used in calling aloud to some one at a distance; the low approaches to a whisper; the middle is that which is employed in common conversation, and which should generally be used in public speaking.-For it is a great error to suppose that the highest pitch of the voice is requisite to be well heard by a great assembly. This is confounding two things materially differ

Pronunciation or Delivery.

ent, loudness or strength of sound with the key or note on which we speak. The voice may be rendered louder wishout altering the key; and the speaker will always be able to give most body, most persevering force of sound to that pitch of voice to which in conversation he is accustomed.

Whereas, if he begin on the highest key, he will fatigue bimself, and speak with pain; and wherever a man speaks with pain to himself, he is always beard with pain by his audience. Give the voice therefore full strength and swell of sound; but always pitch it on your ordinary speaking key; a greater quantity of voice should never be uttered than can be afforded without pain, and without any extraordinary effort. To be well heard, it is useful for a speaker to fix his eye on some of the most distant persons in the assembly, and to consider himself as speaking to them. We naturally and mechanically utier our words with such strength as to be heard by the one to whom we address ourselves, provided he be within the reach of our voice. This is the case in public speaking, as well as in common conversation. But it must be remembered that speaking too loudly is peculiarly offensive. The ear is wounded when the voice comes upon it in rumbling, indistinct masses; besides it appears as if assent were demanded by mere vehemence and force of sound.

To being well heard and clearly understood, distinctness of articulation is more conducive perhaps than mere loudness of sound. The quantity of sound requisite to fill even a large space, is less than is commonly supposed; with distinct articulation a man of a weak voice will make it

Pronunciation or Delivery.

extend farther than the strongest voice can reach without it. This therefore demands peculiar attention. The speaker must give every sound its due proportion, and make every syllable, and even every letter, be heard distinctly. To succeed in this, rapidity of pronunciation must be avoided. A lifeless, drawling method however is not to be indulged. To pronounce with a proper degree of slowness and with full and clear articulation cannot be too industriously studied, nor too earnestly recommended.--Such pronunciation gives weight and dignity to a discourse. It assists the voice by the pauses and rests which it allows it more easily to make; and it enables the speaker to sweli all his sounds with more energy and more music. It assists him also in preserving a due command of himself; whereas a rapid and hurried manner excites that flutter of spirits which is the greatest enemy to all right execution in oratory

To propriety of pronunciation nothing is more conducive than giving to every word whieh we ut-ter that sound wbich the most polite usage appropriates to it, in opposition to broad, vulgar, or provincial pronunciation. On this subject however, written instructions avail nothing. But there is one observation which it may be useful to make. In our language every word of more syllables than one, has one accented syllable. The genius of the language requires the voice to mark that syllable by a stronger percussion, and to pass more slightly over the rest. The same accent should be given to every word in public speaking and in common discourse. Many persons err in this respect. When they speak in public and

Pronunciation or Delivery.

with solennity, they pronounce differently from what they do at other times. They dwell upon syllables, and protract them; they multiply accents on the saine word from a false idea that it gives gravity and force to their discourse, and in

, éreases the pomp of public declamation. But this is one of the greatest faults which can be committed in pronunciation ; it constitutes what is termed a theatrical or mouthing manner, and gives an artificial, affected air to speech, which detract greatly from its agreeableness and its impression.

We shall now treat of those higher parts of delivery, by studying which, a speaker endeavours, not merely to render himself intelligible, but to give grace and force to what he utters. These may be comprehended under four heads, emphasis, pauses, tones and gestures.

By emphasis is meant a fuller and stronger sound of voice, by which we distinguish the accented syllable of some word on which we intend to lay particular stress, and to show how it affects the rest of the sentence. To acquire the proper management of emphasis, the only rule is, study to acquire a just conception of the force and spirit of those sentiments which you are to deliver. In all prepared discourses it would be extremely useful if they were read over or rehearsed in private, with a view of ascertaining the proper emphasis before they were pronounced in public; marking at the same time the emphatical words in every sentence, or at least in the most important parts of the discourse, and fixing them well in memory. A caution, however, must be given against multiplying emphat

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