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and also they who say that the righteous | ing that they are regenerated(h) to the hope do sin in all their good works, if in them, of glory, but not as yet, to glory, itself, by rousing their sloth, and exhorting them from that contest which remains with the selves to run in the race, they do also look flesh, with the world, with the devil, in for an eternal reward, besides this, that in which they cannot be conquerors unless by the first place God should be glorified; since the grace of God, they, obey the Apostle, it is written, (r) I have inclined my heart to saying,(i) We are not debtors to the flesh, do thy justifications for ever, for the reward. to live according to the flesh: for if you live And the Apostle saith concerning Moses(s) according to the flesh, you shall die: but if that he looked unto the reward.
by the spirit you mortify the deeds of the (a) 1 John v. 3. (6) 1 John v. 14, 15. (c) At flesh, you shall live. sup. (d) Matt. xi. 30. (e) 1 John v. 1. (f) John xiv. 15, 21, 23, &c. (g) Luke xi. 9; &c. (h) Philip. ii. 13. (c) 1 Cor. x. 12. (f) Philip. ii. 12.
(a) Mati. x. 22. (6) Rom. xix. 4; 1 Cor. i. 6; Matt. vi. 12; Luke xi. 4. (i) Rom. vi. 16 to 22.
(i) Rom. (k) Tit. ii. 12. (?) Rom. v. 2. (m) Rom. v. passim.!Cor. vi. 4, &c. (h) 1 Peter i. 3 (n) Rom. viii. 17; Philip. i. 29. (0) Heb. ix. 8.
viii. 12, 13. (p) 1 Cor. ix. 24, &c. (9) 2 Peter i. 10. (r) Psalm cxviii. 112. ; Prot. vers. Ps. cxix., the word reward is omitted, and the words the end substituted. (s) Heb. xi. 26.
Concerning those who have fallen, and their
of justification, have fallen therefrom by That the rash Presumption of Predestination is sin, can be again made righteous, when by to be guarded against.
the exciting of God they shall have sucNo one, either, so long as he liveth in ceeded in recovering, through the merit of this mortal state, ought so far presume con
Christ, their lost grace, by means of the cerning the dark mystery of divine predes sacrament of Penance. This mode of justination, as that he would with certainty which the holy fathers have properly
tification is a reparation for the fallen; declare that he is in the number of the pre-called the second plank of lost grace, after destined; as if it was true that the right the shipwreck. For indeed Christ Jesus eous(a) could not sin any more, or if he should have sinned ought to promise him- instituted the Sacrament of Penance for self undoubted repentance: because he can those who fall into sins after Baptism, when not know except from special revelation he said :(a) Receive you the Holy Ghost ; those whom God hath chosen unto himself. whose sins you shall forgive, they are for
given them; and whose you shall retain, (a) Ezek. xviii. 24, &c.; Galat. iii. 1, 2, 3, &c.
they are retained. Whence it is to be taught that the penance of a Christian man,
after his fall is very different from that for Concerning the Gift of Perseverance.
Baptism: and that therein is contained, not
only a desisting from sins, and their detesIn like manner, concerning the gift of tation, or a contrite(b) and humbled heart: perseverance : respecting which it is writ- but moreover, a sacramental confession ten:(a) he that shall persevere unto the thereof, at least in desire, and to be made end, he shall be saved; which indeed can- at its proper time, and the absolution of the not be had from any other source except priest; and also satisfaction by fasting, by from him who is able(b) to make firm him alms deeds, prayers and other exercises of who standeth that he inight perseveringly a spiritual life, not indeed for the eternal stand, and to restore him who falleth ; let punishment which is removed together no person promise himself anything with with the guilt, by the sacrament, or the absolute certainty; nevertheless, all persons desire of the sacrament; but for the tempoought to place and repose a most firm hope ral punishment, which, as the sacred wriin the help of God. For God, unless they tings teach, is not always as happens in shall fall off from his grace, as he(c) began Baptism, entirely remitted to those, who, a good work, will perfect it, working both ungrateful to the grace of God which they that they should will and accomplish. have received, have grieved(c) the Holy Wherefore, let them that seem to stand, Ghost, and feared not to violate(d) the temtake heed 'lest they fall, and(1) with fear ple of God. Concerning which penance is and trembling, work out their salvation, in written :(e) be mindful from whence thou labours, in watchings,(g) in alms deeds, in hast fallen : and do penance, and do the prayers and oblations, in fasting and in first works : and again :(f) for the sorrow chastity: because they ought to fear, know- which is according to God, worketh pen
ance unto salvation, which is lasting. And branches, continually infuses virtue into again :(g) Do penance, and, bring forth those justified (which virtue always preworthy fruits of penance.
cedes their good works, and accompanies (a) John xx. 22, 23; Matt. xvi. 19. (6) Ps. 1. and follows them, and without which, they 19; Prot. ver., Ps. li. 17. (c) Ephes. iv. 30. could on no account be agreeable to God (d) 1 Cor. ii. 17. (e) A pocal. ii. 3. (f) 2. Cor. and meritorious); it is to be believed that vii. 10. (g) Matt. iii. 2, 8; iv. 17, &c.
nothing more is needful for those justified, but that they might be considered, indeed,
by those works which are done in God, to That by every mortal sin grace is lost, but not have fully satisfied the divine law accordfaith.
ing to the state of this life ; and have truly It must also be asserted in defending the merited (if indeed (i) they shall have dedoctrine of the divine law, against the cun- parted in grace) to obtain eternal life also ning ingenuity of some persons who(a) by in its proper tíme; since Christ himself pleasing speeches and good words seduce says,(k) If any one shall drink of the water the hearts of the innocent: that not only by which I will give him, he shall not thirst infidelity, by which even faith itself is lost; for ever: but it shall become in him a but also by any other mortal sin, although fountain of water springing up to eternal faith should not be lost, the received grace of life. So neither() is our own proper jusjustification is lost: which doctrine excludes tice established as our own, proper from not only(6) infidels from the kingdom of ourselves, nor is the justice of God overGod; but also the faithful(c) fornicators, looked or rejected; for that justice which is adulterers, effeminate, sodomites, thieves, called ours, because we are justified by its covetous, drunkards, railers, extortioners, inhering in us, is that same justice of God; and all others who commit deadly sins, from because it is poured into us by God, through which, with the aid of divine grace they the merit of Christ. Nor is that either to be can abstain, and on account of which they omitted that although in the sacred letters are separated from the grace of Christ. so much is attributed to good works, that
(a) Rom. xvi. 18. (6) 1 Tim. i. 19, 20. c 1 even Christ himself promises(m) that whoCor. vi. 9, &c.
soever will give a drink of cold water to one of those least ones will not lose his re
ward : and the Apostle testifies(n) that Of the fruit of justification, that is, of the merit and light for our tribulation, worketh in us
what in the present is but for a moment of good works, and concerning the meaning above degree exceedingly on high, an of merit.
eternal weight of glory: far be it from us Upon this ground therefore, whether they however that a Christian man · should so shall perpetually have preserved the grace confine(o) or glory in himself, and not in which they received, or recovered that the Lord whose goodness towards men is which they lost, the words of the Apostle so great, that he wishes those things which are to be placed before justified men.(a) are his gifts to be their merits. And beAbound in every good work, knowing that cause(p) we all offend him in many things, your labour is not in vain in the Lord :(b) so each one of us ought to have severity for God is not unjust that he should forget and judginent before his eyes, as he has your work and the love which have
mercy and goodness; nor ought any one shown in his name. And, (c) Do not lose judge himself (9) even though he should your confidence which hath a great reward. 'not be conscious to himself of anything; And, therefore, to those doing well(d) unto for all the life of man is to be examined the end, and hoping in God, eternal life is not only by human judgment, but by that to be proposed as being as well, that grace of God :(r) who will bring to light the mercifully promised through Christ Jesus(e) hidden things of darkness and will make to the children of God: as also, as the re- manifest the counsels of the hearts : and ward to be faithfully given as a recom- then shall every man have praise from pense(f) by reason of the promise of God God; who as it is written will render to himself to their good works and merits. For this is that crown of justice,(g) which every man according to his works.(s) the Apostle said was laid up for him, to be (a) 1 Cor. xv. (6) Heb. vi. (c) Heb. x. (d) given to him by the just judge, after his Matt. x. and xxiv. (e) Ps. cii
. i Rom. v. (g) fight, and course ; and not only to him, but John iv. : (1) Rom. X. (m) Matt. x.; Mark ix.,
(1) Apocal. xiv. (k) also to all that love his coming : for since &c. (ni 2 Cor. iv. (o) i Cor. i. ; 2 Cor. X., &c. he, Christ Jesus himself, as a head into (p) James ji.
(9) 1 Cor. iv. (r) 1 Cor. iv. (*) the members, and as a vine(h) into the Rom. ii., &c.
LETTERS ON VARIOUS MISREPRESENTATIONS OF THE
ADDRESSED TO THE REV. WILLIAM HAWLEY.
" But your
[The following Series of Letters, occasioned by a violent attack upon the members of the Catholic Church, made in the columns of a periodical published in Washington, and conducted by several clergymen of the Protestant Episcopal Church, appeared in the United States Catholic Miscellany,” Vols. III. and IV. for 1824-5, and were afterwards published in a pamphlet form.) LETTER I.
land and yours to be what they are not, the
same; when, where, or how have the RoTo the Reverend William Hawley and his as. man Catholics of the United States offended
sociates, Clergymen of the Protestant Episco- your church in Europe ? What is the prepal Church of the United States.
text, then, of your attack? You may, sirs, SIRS :-In
your Theological Repertory for recollect the fable of the lamb drinking at November, 1824, is an article headed “ Ro- the stream, and asked by a wolf who drank man Catholic Doctrines." After a most at the same rivulet, though much higher up, patient reperusal of this piece I find it to why he made the water so muddy as to be a gross misrepresentation of Roman Ca- render it unfit for the majesty of the wolf; tholics, conveyed to your readers in unbe- “Do you not perceive that the water cancoming language, and a most unfounded not flow up the stream ?" replied the lamb. calumny of my persecuted fellow-country- “ Perhaps so," rejoined the wolf, “but men wantonly introduced, together with twelve months ago you made it muddy in some historical blunders.
another place." "Indeed,” replied 'the Were this the first time that you exhibited lamb, "I was not born then.” your zeal to attack an unoffending church, father was,” said the wolf, "and I will and a meritorious people, I should have per- make you suffer." Thank God, however, haps been satisfied to warn you of your errors the Constitution of the United States will in the hope that your zeal and your ignorance not give Messrs. Hawley & Co. all the power might plead your excuse. But the result of which they would be disposed to exercise your late efforts being your total discom- to our injury. fiture, your zeal should have given way to Will you, sirs, point out any persecu. prudence, and you ought to have studied to tion of the English Church by Roman Calearn whether your statements were correct tholics of America ? You know, sirs, that before you ventured to appear before a dis- the massacre of St. Bartholomew's, about cerning public. Sirs, I shall prove those which you have written so much falsestatements to be totally devoid of truth, and hood in so few lines, was not committed you then will be left to choose between by American Catholics nor upon Protestant want of information and want of honesty. Episcopalians. Sirs, in this happy country, In either case you will be proved unquali- Protestants and Catholics are united in fied for editors of a religious publication. bonds of amity, their intercourse is unre.
I stated, sirs, that you attacked an unof- strictedly affectionate. I, therefore, am tofending church. I now ask you, what of- tally at a loss for any reason why you and fence has the Roman Catholic Church of writers of your description, should be so this Union given to you? What offence anxious and so unremitting in their endeahas the Roman Catholic Church of the vours to interrupt this harmony, to create United States, given to the Protestant Epis- jealousy, to produce in America the misecopal Church of the United States? Do you ries of European dissensions. The Roman answer, sirs, for I am at a loss to know Catholic Church of America has too long what answers you can give. Will you have permitted herself to be assailed with impurecourse to the old differences at the other nity by every essayist in an unmeaning reside of the Atlantic ? Sirs, your church is ligious cant; it is time to exhibit their denot there to be found. There is a church formity. You must show, not by declamalike yours it is true. But, sirs, no theolo- tion, but by facts, in what your church has gian who had any respect for his character, been offended by ours in these United would assert that and yours to be the same States, or you stand convicted of having church, however similar they may be. attacked an unoffending church. However, this is not now matter for our You have, sirs, charged a meritorious inquiry. But suppose the Church of Eng- people with crimes of which they are not
guilty. You have accused the hereditary cuse that government of cruelty, for banishing Earl Marshal of England, the premier peer the wretched criminals to New Holland; or of ilof the realm, the Duke of Norfolk, of being liberality, for punishing the man who traitorously in principle a traitor to his government, al conspires ugainst his country.” though that government, with the exception And is this the language of American of about ten bigots in the House of Lords, citizens? Is this the liberality of an Assohas in the last session of Parliament, di- ciation of Clergymen of the Protestant Episrectly contradicted you. What is his crime? copal Church of the United States? I He refuses to swear that the King of Eng. solemnly assure you that such a possibility land is the supreme head of his church? could not be conceived in Europe; and Is this a crime? Will you swear that he what is the crime of those TRAITORS who is the head of your church? Will Bishop are placed on a level with the WRETCHED White swear that the King of England CRIMINALS who are banished to New Holis the supreme head of your church? Is land? They will not swear that the King Bishop White a traitor? Can the vene- of England is the visible head in earth of rable eldest prelate of your church be in God's Church!!! This is the head and principle à faithful citizen of this country, front of their offence. though he should refuse to swear that the Will the Quaker swear it? Will the King of England is the supreme head of Presbyterian swear it? Will the Congrehis church? But, sirs, that Bishop did once gationalist swear it? Will the Unitarian swear that the King of England was the swear it? Will the Baptist swear it? Will head of his church, and he afterwards re- Mr. Hawley swear it? Will any Bishop of jected that headship; yet will you dare to the Protestant Episcopal Church now swear call him a traitor?' Why, then, call men it? And are all THOSE TRAITORS to be now traitors who never believed, never professed, sent as WRETCHED CRIMINALS to New Holnever swore to any such headship; whose land? And their banishment will not be ancestors were plundered of their property, an act even of illiberality!! many of them dragged out their lives in No! Mr. Hawley and his associates will prisons, several of whom were put to death not banish those good men; none deserve because they would not swear what they banishment as WRETCHED CRIMINALS and did not believe to be true. Though you TRAITORS, but those IRISH PAPISTS. Is this should even look upon those men to the language of gentlemen? No, sirs, it is have erred in faith because they did not not, Is this the language of scholars? Is swear that the King of England' was the it the language of Christians ? No, sirs; visible head of God's church, yet you must but I shall leave to the people of America allow them the merit of having suffered for to designate your characteristic. conscience sake. Yet, sirs, in the plenitude of
What is the head and front of the charge? your liberality, and with singularconsistency, No oath can bind IRISH PAPISTS to heretics. you who do not acknowledge it to be neces- What is the proof? I shall examine first sary for salvation, to swear the oath of su- the probability of your charge in the special premacy, tell us that the British and Irish case which you adduce. I shall then give Catholics who refuse to swear it ought to you the facts; I shall then take up your be persecuted, that they are on a level with general principle and your semblances of the wretched criminals who are sent to New authority. But, sirs, I shall not conclude in Holland. What has the Duke of Norfolk this nor in my next letter. done, what has the Earl of Shrewsbury done,
What are the facts of your special case ? what have the millions of Catholics whose The English government tells its Catholic grievances resound through Europe done to subjects, “you must be disfranchised until provoke your ire, that you, claiming to be you swear that you believe the King of American citizens, should thus sentence England is head of the church, and that no them to transportation because they follow foreign prelate has or ought to have any the conviction of their consciences ? spiritual or ecclesiastical authority in this
Look at your words: when you can pro- realm.” The Catholic answers, “I do not duce no charge against the Roman Cath- believe either of the propositions to be olies of the United States, you arraign the true.” The government answers, “I do Catholics of Great Britain. These are your not care what you believe, I only want you expressions :
to swear.” To show that I state the case “Such are the doctrines of a church, the well-known persons who did not believe
fairly, I could produce several instances of members of which have raised such an outcry against the intolerant spirit of the English the truth of the doctrines required to be government for not receiving them to a full share sworn to, but who, pressed by the danger in its administration. They might as well ac- of losing their property and their rights, did
in a moment of temptation go into the Pro- | Britain, during the last eight or ten years, testant Churches and read the forms, and or you must be the most careless of reputainto courts and take the oaths, and publicly tion or credit of any public writers that ever declare, as soon as they received their certifi- ventured to brave an enlightened public. cates from the minister and the clerk of the The greatest bigot on the benches of the crown, that they did not believe, but merely House of Peers, the most infatuated old went through the form to comply with the simpleton who peruses Fox's Martyrology, law and to save themselves from ruin; and the most unblushing declaimer against Poyet they were ever after considered good pery, the most degraded hawker of a paraand lawful Protestants. Those disgusting graph for an Orange publication in the recitals are painful to me: but, sirs, you British islands, would feel himself overhave wantonly, I was about to add another whelmed with shame and confusion, did expression, provoked them, and I suppress he venture to express, within the last few much which I would wish to forget. I was years, so gross a falsehood; though it was, right, then, when I stated the answer of the for party purposes, imposed as unquestioned British government to be, “We care not truth upon the people of Great Britain, for for your belief, we only want you to swear. upwards of two centuries before. This atroThe Catholics who continued faithful, that cious calumny, like the depositions of THE is the Irish PAPISTS, said, “We will not Rev. Titus Oates, has long since been treatswear what we do not believe," and their ed with its well-merited reprobation in the property was swallowed up by the men British Parliament. Lord Stafford has been who swore. Yet Mr. Hawley and his asso- replaced in his rank, and, notwithstanding ciates are kind enough to say those men the opposition of the following bigots, the had no regard for their oaths!!! Yes, the Premier Earl of England has been restored men who gave up their estates, their liber- to his honours, though not to his rights, ties, their homes, many of them their lives, without requiring him to swear what he and who could at once emancipate them- could not believe : selves by merely taking an oath which Mr. Hawley proclaims they do not consider Bill for allowing the Duke of Norfolk to execute
“Minority in the House of Lords against the binding, but which is all that the British the office of Earl Marshal, June 18, 1824: government requires!!! Did I take that Dukes, York and Beaufort-Earls, Eldon, Macoath, I would have avoided many of the clesfield, Shaftesbury, Abingdon and Verulamills of life. Did my ancestors take it
, my Archbishop of Canterbury--Bishops, Gloucester lot would not have been poverty and the and Raphoe-Lord Gifford.” contemptuous oppression of the plunderer The King of England, the remainder of of my patrimony, who, to gain what I lost, the Peers, and the House of Commons, with swore what, perhaps, he did not believe. unanimity voted that he should, though a But my conscience has no sting, and in this Roman Catholic, be permitted to do the free country I may meet Mr. Hawley and duties of an office from which his ancestors his associates as they deserve.
and he had been excluded during two cenIn the name of common justice, in the turies under false pretences. Mr. Pitt, Mr. name of common sense, I ask, is it proba- Fox, Mr. Percival, Lord Liverpool, Lord ble? Is it possible that those men who, Sidmouth, Mr. Grattan. Mr. Canning, Mr. sooner than swear one false oath to Pro- Brougham, Lord Grenville, Lord Grey, Lord testants, permitted those same Protestants Erskine, and hundreds of men like these, to run riot with their estates, their liberties pronounced, after close examination, your and their lives, and those of their descen- virulent charge to be an atrocious calumny. dants did not believe an oath to heretics Good God? Then is America fallen so was binding, or ought to be observed ? low? Is her intellect so debased? Are
Why were the Catholic Bishops turned these states become such a sink of ignoout of their sees by Queen Elizabeth ? be- rance, as that all the rejected falsehoods of cause they would not swear what they did Europe are to find this as their asylum? not believe. Why was Bishop Fisher be- Are we, who have led the way in the caheaded ? Because he would not swear that reer of rational well-regulated liberty, to oath. Why was Archbishop Plunkett hang- crawl after the bigots of Europe, sucking in ed, drawn, and quartered? Because he what they disgorge, that we may vomit it would not take that oath. Sirs, I will not upon each other? I protest, I cannot deincrease the disgusting catalogue which I scribe my feelings whilst I write: I thought could swell to thousands, in whose blood that I had flung the Atlantic between me the contradictions to your libels might be and this necessity. I imagined that the written. You must be either totally unin- testimony of George Washington would formed as to the proceedings in Great have had weight with the people of this