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a large and variously colored halo; and, opening the window, he found that it arose entirely from that thin plate of ice, for none was seen except through it. Dr. Kotelnihow, having, like Dr. Halley, made very accurate observations to determine the number of possible rainbows, considers the colored halo, which appears about a candle, as the same thing with one of those bows which is formed near the body of the sun, but which is not visible on account of his excessive splendor.

Descartes observes, that the halo never appears when it rains; from which he concludes that this phenomenon is occasioned by the refraction of light in the round particles of ice, which are then floating in the atmosphere; and, though these particles are flat when they fall to the ground, he thought they must be protuberant in the middle before their descent; and according to this protuberancy he imagined that the diameter of the halo would vary.-In treating of meteors, Gassendi supposed, that a halo is of the same nature with the rainbow, the rays of light being in both cases twice refracted and once reflected within each drop of rain or vapor, and that all the difference there is between them arises from their different situation with respect to the observer. For whereas, when the sun is behind the spectator, and consequently the rainbow before him, his eye is in the centre of the circle; when he views the halo, with his face towards the sun, his eye is in the circumference of the circle; so that, according to the known principles of geometry, the angle under which the object appears, in this case, must be just half of what it is in the other.

M. Dechales endeavours to show that the generation of the halo is similar to that of the rainbow. If, says he, a sphere of glass or crystal, full of water, be placed in the beams of the sun, there will not only be two circles of colored light on the side next the sun, and which constitute the two rainbows; but there will also be another on the part opposite to the sun, the rays belong ing to which afterwards diverge, and form a colored circle, such as will be visible, if the light that is transmitted through the globe be received on a piece of white paper. The reason why the colors of the halo are more dilute than those of the rainbow, he says, is owing principally to their being formed not in large drops of rain, but in very small vapor; for, if the drops of water were large, the cloud would be so thick, that the rays of the sun could not be regularly transmitted through them; and, on the other hand, he observed, that when the rainbow is formed by very thin vapors, the colors hardly appear. As for those circles of colors which are sometimes seen round candles, it was his opinion that they are owing to nothing but moisture on the eye of the observer; for that he could never produce this appearance by means of vapor only, if he wiped his eyes carefully; and he had observed that such circles are visible to some persons and not to others, and to the same persons at one time and not another.

The most considerable and generally received theory, respecting halos, is that of Huygens, published in the English Philosophical Transactions.

See Lowthorp's Abridgment, Vol. II., p. 189. Sir Isaac Newton mentions it with respect. This article contains the heads of a discourse which he afterwards composed, but never quite finished; and which has been translated, with some additions, by Dr. Smith, from whom the following account is chiefly extracted. Mr. Huygens was first led to think particularly upon this subject, by the appearance of five suns at Warsaw, in 1658; after which, he says, he hit upon the true cause of halos and mock suns. If we can conceive any kind of bodies in the atmosphere, which, according to the known laws of optics, will, either by reflection or refraction, produce the appearance in question, when nothing else can be found that will do it, we must acquiesce in the hypothesis, and suppose such bodies to exist, even though we cannot give a satisfactory account of their generation. Two such bodies are assumed by M. Huygens; one of them a round ball, opaque in the centre, but covered with a transparent shell; and the other is a cylinder, of a similar composition. By the help of the former he endeavours to account for halos, and by the latter for those appearances which are called mock suns. Those bodies which M. Huygens requires, in order to explain these phenomena, are not, however, a mere assumption; for some such, though of a larger size than his purpose requires, have been actually found, consisting of snow within and ice without. They are particularly mentioned by Descartes. The balls with the opaque kernel, which he supposed to have been the cause of them, he imagines not to exceed the size of a turnip-seed.

M. Marriotte accounts for the formation of the small coronas by the transmission of light through aqueous vapors, where it suffers two refractions without any intermediate reflection. He shows that light which comes to the eye, after being refracted in this manner, will be chiefly that which falls upon the drop nearly perpendicular; because more rays falling upon any given quantity of surface in that situation, fewer of them are reflected with small degrees of obliquity, and they are not so much scattered after refraction. The red will always be outermost in these halos, as consisting of rays which suffer the least refraction. And whereas he had seen, when the clouds were driven briskly by the wind, halos round the moon, varying frequently in their diameter, being sometimes of 2°, sometimes of 3°, and sometimes of 4°; sometimes also colored, sometimes only white, and sometimes disappearing entirely; he concluded that all these variations arose from the different thickness of the clouds, through which sometimes more and sometimes less light was transmitted. He supposed, also, that the light which formed them might sometimes be reflected, and at other times refracted. As to those coronas which consist of two orders of colors, he imagined that they were produced by small pieces of snow, which, when they begin to dissolve, form figures which are a little convex towards their extremities. Sometimes, also, the snow will be melted in different shapes; and, in this case, the colors of several halos will be intermixed and confused; and such, he says, he had sometimes observed round the sun. M. Marriotte then

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proceeds to explain the larger halos, viz. those that are about 45° in diameter, and for this purpose he has recourse to equiangular prisms of ice, in a certain position with respect to the sun; and he takes pains to trace the progress of the rays of light for this purpose; but this hypothesis is very improbable. In some cases he thought that these large coronas were caused by hailstones, of a pyramidal figure; because, after two or three of them had been seen about the sun, there fell the same day several such pyramidal hail-stones. M. Marriotte explains parhelia by the help of the same suppositions. See PARHE

LION.

M. Muschenbroeck concludes his account of coronas with observing, that some density of vapor, or some thickness of the plates of ice, divides the light in its transmission through the small globules of water, or their interstices, into its separate colors: but what that density was, or what was the size of the particles which composed the vapor, he could not determine.

th part of an inch, so that a red-making ray, in passing through the middle of this globule, has 250 fits of easy transmission within the globule, and all the red-making rays, which are at a certain distance from this middle ray round about it, have 249 fits within the globules, and all the like rays at a certain farther distance round about it have 248 fits, and all those at a certain farther distance 247 fits, and so on, these concentric circles of rays, after their transmission, falling on a white paper, will make concentric rings of red upon the paper; supposing the light which passes through one single globule strong enough to be sensible, and in like manner the rays of other colors will make rings of other colors. Suppose now that in a fair day the sun should shine through a thin cloud of such globules of water or hail, and that the globules are all of the same size, the sun seen through this cloud ought to appear surrounded with the like concentric rings of colors, and the diameter of the first ring of red should be 7° 15', that of the second 10° 15', that of the third 12° 33', and, according as the globules of water are bigger or less, the ring should be less or bigger.' This curious theory our author informs us was confirmed by an observation which he made in 1692. He saw by reflexion, in a vessel of stagnating water, three halos, crowns, or rings of colors about the sun, like three little rainbows concentric to his body. The colors of the first or innermost, were blue next the sun, red without, and white in the middle, between the blue and red; those of the second crown were purple and blue within, pale red without, and green in the middle; and those of the third were pale blue within, and pale red without. These crowns enclosed one another immediately, so that their colors proceeded in this continual order from the sun outward; blue, white, red; purple, blue, green, pale yellow, and red; pale blue, pale red. The diameter of the second crown, mea sured from the middle of the yellow and red on one side of the sun to the middle of the same color on the other side, was 9° 33', or thereabouts. The diameters of the first and third he had not time to measure; but that of the first seemed to be about 5° or 6o, and that of the third about 12°. The like crowns appear sometimes about the moon: for in the beginning of the year 1664, on February 19th, at night, he saw two such crowns about her. The diameter of the first, or innermost, was about 3°, and that of the second about 5° 30′. Next about the moon was a circle of white; and next about that the inner crown, which was of a bluish green within, next the white, and of a yellow and red without; and next about these colors were blue and green on the inside of the outer crown, and red on the outside of it. At the same time there appeared a halo at the distance of about 22° 35′ from the centre of the moon. It was elliptical; and its long diameter was perpendicular to the horizon, verging below farthest from the moon. He was told that the moon has sometimes three or more concentric crowns or colors encompassing one another next about her body. The more equal the globules of water or ice are to one another, the more crowns of colors will appear, and the

Sir Isaac Newton considered the larger and less variable appearances of this kind as produced according to the common laws of refraction, but that the less and more variable appearances depend upon the same cause with the colors of thin plates. He concludes his explication of the rainbow with the following observation on halos and parhelia :- The light which comes through drops of rain by two refractions, without any reflexion, ought to appear the strongest at the distance of about 26° from the sun, and to decay gradually both ways as the distance from him increases. And the same is to be understood of light transmitted through spherical hailstones: and if the hail be a little flatted, as it often is, the transmitted light may be so strong, at a little less distance than that of 26°, as to form a halo about the sun or moon; which halo, as often as the hail-stones are duly figured, may be colored, and then it must be red within by the least refrangible rays, and blue without by the most refrangible ones; especially if the hail-stones have opaque globules of snow in their centres to intercept the light within the halo, as Mr. Huygens has observed, and made the inside of it more distinctly defined than it would otherwise be. For such hail-stones, though spherical, by terminating the light by the snow, may make a halo red within, and colorless without, and darker within the red than without, as halos use to be. For, of those rays which pass close by the snow, the red-making ones will be the least refracted, and so come to the eye in the straightest lines.' Some farther thoughts of Sir Isaac Newton's on halos are subjoined to the account of his experiments on the colors of thick plates of glass which he conceived to be similar to those which are exhibited by thin ones: As light reflected by a lens quicksilvered on the back side makes the rings of the colors above described, so it ought to make the like rings in passing through a drop of water. At the first reflexion of the rays within the drop, some colors ought to be transmitted, as in the case of a lens, and others to be reflected back to the eye. For instance, if the diameter of a small drop or globule of water be about the

colors will be the more lively. The halo, at the distance of 22° 30′ from the moon, is of another sort. By its being oval, and more remote from the moon below than above, he concludes that it was made by refraction in some kind of hail or snow floating in the air in an horizontal posture, the refracting angle being about 50° or 60°. Dr. Smith, however, makes it sufficiently evident, that the reason why this halo appeared oval, and more remote from the moon towards the horizon, is a deception of sight, and the same with that which makes the moon appear larger in the horizon.

HALORAGUS, in botany, a genus of the tetragynia order and octandria class of plants: CAL. quadrifid above; there are four petals; a dry plum, and a quadrilocular nut. HALS'ENING, adj. Germ. hals; Scotch, HALSE, n. s. hass, the neck. SoundHAL'SER, n. s. ing harshly; inharmonious in the throat or tongue. Not in use. Halser, from Sax. pals neck, and yeel a rope. It is now in marine pronunciation corrupted to bawser. A rope less than a cable.

The crueltee of thee, Quene Medea!
Thy litel children hanging by the hals,
For thy Jason that wos of love so fals.

Chaucer. Prologue to the Man of Lawe's Tale.
A beechen mast then in the hollow base
They hoisted, and with well-wreathed halsers hoise
Their white sails.
Chapman.
This halsening horny name hath, as Cornuto in
Italy, opened a gap to the scoffs of many. Carew.
No halsers need to bind these vessels here,
Nor bearded anchors; for no storms they fear.

Dryden.

HALSTEAD, a market town of Essex, seated on a rising ground, on the Coln, forty-seven miles north-east of London. It has an old church, the steeple of which was once burnt down by lightning, but rebuilt at the expense of Robert Fiske, esq. The town consists of about 800 houses. The inhabitants manufacture says, bays, calimancoes, &c. There is a free school for forty boys, and a very antique Bridewell. Its market on Friday is noted for corn.

HALT, v. n., adj. & n. s. Į Sax. pealt, lame; HALTER, n. s. Spealtan, to limp. To limp, or falter in walking; one who is disabled; a cripple; to stop suddenly as soldiers in a march; to doubt or hesitate; to be undecided; to fail or falter; in a religious sense, to backslide from former steadfastness.

How long halt ye between two opinions?

1 Kings. All my familiars watched for my halting, saying, Peradventure he will be enticed, and we shall prevail

Jeremiah.

against him.. Bring in hither the poor, the maimed, the halt, and the blind. Luke.

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Spenser himself affects the obsolete, And Sidney's verse halts ill on Roman feet. Pope The man who pauses on the paths of treason Halts on a quicksand, the first step ingulphs him. Hill's Henry V. HALTER, n. s. & v. a. Sax. þealrene, from palr, the neck. A rope to hang malefactors; to bind with a cord; to catch in a noose.

Whom neither halter binds nor burthens charge. Sandys. He's fled, my lord, and all his powers do yield; And humbly thus, with halters on their necks, Expect your highness' doom of life or death.

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Atterbury. HALTER-CAST is an excoriation of the pastern, occasioned by the halter's being entangled about a horse's foot, upon his endeavouring to rub his neck with his hinder feet. For the cure, anoint the place, morning and evening, with equal quantities of linseed oil and brandy, well mixed.

HALTERISTÆ, in antiquity, a kind of players at discus. Some take the discus to have been a leaden weight or ball, which the vaulters bore in their hands, to secure and keep themselves the more steady in their leaping. Others say the halter was a lump of lead or stone, with a hole or handle fixed to it, by which it might be carried. Hier. Mercurialis, in his treatise De Arte Gymnastica, l. ii. c. 12, distinguishes two kinds of halterista; for, though there was but one halter, there were two ways of applying it. The one was to throw or pitch it; the other only to hold it out at arm's end, and in this posture to give themselves divers motions, swinging the hand backwards and forwards, according to the engraven figures thereof given us by Mercurialis. The halter was of a cylindrical figure, smaller in the middle, where it was held by one diameter, than at the two ends. It was above a foot long. and there was one for each hand: it was either of iron, stone, or lead. Galen, De Tuend. Vale

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HALYMOTE properly signifies a holy or ecclesiastical court. There is a halymote held in London, before the lord mayor and sheriffs, for regulating the bakers. It was anciently held on Sunday before St. Thomas's day, and hence called the haly mote, or holy court.

HALYS, in ancient geography, the noblest river of the Hither Asia, through which it has a long course, was the boundary of Croesus's kingdom on the east. Running down from the foot of Mount Taurus, through Cataonia and Cappadocia, it divided almost the whole of the Lower Asia, from the sea of Cyprus down to the Euxine, according to Herodotus; who seems to extend its course too far. According to Strabo, who was a Cappadocian, it had its springs in Great Cappadocia. It separated Paphlagonia from Cappadocia, and received its name, anо тov aλos, from salt, because its waters were of a salt taste, from the soil over which they flowed. It is famous for the defeat of Croesus, king of Lydia, who was misled by this ambiguous response of the oracle: Χροισος Αλυν διαβας μεγάλην αρχην diaλvou; i. e. If Croesus passes over the Halys he shall destroy a great empire. That empire proved to be his own. See CROSUS.

HAM, n. s.

Saxon, ham; Dutch, hamme; Lat. hamus. The hip, or hinder part of the thigh; the HAM'STRING, V. A. thigh of a hog salted: any thing hooked; set with hooks. Hamble, formerly hamebe, and hamstring to cut the sinews of the back part of the thigh; the tendon of the

HAM‍BLE, V. n.
HAM'ATED, adj.
HAM'STRUNG, n. s. or

Lam.

And, thereto hath she laid her faith to borrow; Algote o foote is hameled, of thy sorowe.

Chaucer. Troilus and Creseide. A player, whose conceit Lies in his hamstring, doth think it rich To hear the wooden dialogue, and sound

Twixt his stretched footing and the scaffoldage.

Shakspeare.

Hamstringed behind, unhappy Gyges died; Then Phalaris is added to his side.

Dryden.

Who has not learned, fresh sturgeon and ham eye Are no rewards for want and infamy? Pope. On the hinder side it is guarded with the two hamstrings. Wiseman. The ham was much relaxed; but there was some contraction remaining. Id.

Along this hall, and up and down, some squatted Upon their hams were occupied at chess; Others in monosyllable talk chatted,

dress.

And some seemed much in love with their own Byron. Don Juan. HAM, in commerce, &c. Westphalia hams are prepared by salting them with salt-petre,

pressing them in a press eight or ten days, then steeping them in juniper water, and drying them by the smoke of juniper wood. A ham may be salted in imitation of those of Westphalia, by Sprinkling a ham of young pork with salt for one day, to fetch out the blood; then wiping it dry, and rubbing it with a mixture of 1 lb. of brown sugar, lb. of saltpetre, pint of bay salt, and 3 pints of common salt, well stirred in an iron pan over the fire, till moderately hot; let it lie three weeks in this salting, turn it often, then dry it, and hang it up. Smoked hams,' says Dr. Willich, are a very strong food, which is not easily digested. If eaten in proper time, and in small quantities, they may be a cordial to some vigorous stomachs, especially in the morning, as a substitute for the pernicious hot and buttered rolls; but boiling renders their digestion still more difficult. See SMOKING.

HAM, Heb. On, i. e. crafty. The youngest son of Noah, and father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan; each of whom possessed the countries peopled by them. Ham, it is believed, had all Africa for his inheritance, and peopled it with his posterity. He himself, it is thought, dwelt in Egypt; but M. Basnage is of opinion, that neither Ham nor Mizraim ever were in Egypt, but that their posterity settled in this country, and called it by the name of their ancestor. He also doubts of his having been worshipped as a god, by the name of Jupiter Hammon. Be that as it may, Africa is called the Land of Ham in Psalm 1xxviii. 51, cv. 23, cvi. 22. In Plutarch Egypt is called Chemia; and there are traces of the name of Ham or Cham in Psochemmis, and Psitta-chemmis, which are cantons of Egypt. See EGYPT.

HAMADAN, or AMADAN, a city of Irak, Persia, standing on or near the site of the ancient Ecbatana. It was taken and destroyed by Timur, and ever since has been only a secondary place. It contains, however, still 10,000 meanly built houses, and about 40,000 inhabitants. The wall which surrounded it was not long since destroyed. Hamadan is famous for its manufacture of leather, and is a considerable mart of commerce between Ispahan and Bagdad, and between the latter place and Tehraun.

HAMADRYADES, from aua, together, and opus, an oak, a kind of inferior deities revered among the ancient heathens, and believed to preside over woods and forests, and to be enclosed under the bark of oaks. They were supposed to live and die with the trees they were attached to, as is observed by Servius on Virgil, Eclog. x. v. 62, after Mnesimachus, the scholiast of Apollonius, &c., who mentions other traditions relating to them. The poets often confound the Hamadryads with the Naiads, Napææ, and rural nymphs in general. Festus calls them Querquetulanæ, as being sprung from oaks. Pherenicius, in Athenæus, lib. iii. calls the vine, fig-tree, and other fruit trees, hamadryades. This idea among the ancients, of intellectual beings annexed to trees, accounts for their worship of trees. Livy speaks of an ambassador addressing himself to an old oak, as to an intelligent person and a divinity.-Lib. iii. § 25.

HAMAH, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Syria,

situated on the river Orontes, By some travellers it is corruptly called Amarl and Amant. Some mistake it for the ancient Apamea, now called Afamiyah, but that town is a day's journey from Hamah; and Dr. Pococke supposes Hamah to be the ancient Epiphania; wh 1st Theodoret, and other good geographers, maintain it to be Emesset in Syria. Hamah is seated among hills, and has a castle on one of them. It has always been a considerable place, and in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries had princes of its own. Among these Ismael Abulfeda, prince of Hamah, from the year 1342, to 1345, was famous for his skill in geography. It is very large, and, being seated on the ascent of a hill, makes a fine appearance; but, like other towns under the Turkish government, is going to decay. Many of the houses are half ruined; but those which are still standing, as well as the mosques and castle, have their walls built of black and white stones, disposed so as to form various figures. The river Assi, the ancient Orontes, runs by the castle, and fills the ditches round it, which are cut very deep into the rock; it passes through the town from south to north, and, in its course, turns eighteen great wheels, called saki, which raise great quantities of water to a considerable height, and throw it into canals supported by arches, which run into the gardens. There are some pretty good marketplaces in Haman. Linen is manufactured there, and sent to Tripoli to be exported into Europe. The sheiks of the town enjoy a high consideration. They inhabit a splendid palace, and have the title of emir. It is at present the only market for the Arabs, who roam over the extensive desert which intervenes between it and Tadmor, and who are under a sort of tacit agreement not to plunder the caravans coming to the city. Sixty-two miles S. S. W. of Aleppo. Long. 36° 15′ E., lat. 35°

15' N.

HAMAMELIS, witch hazel, a genus of the digynia order, and tetrandria class of plants. The involucrum is triphyllous, the proper calyx tetraphyllous; there are four petals; the nut horned and bilocular. There is but one species, a native of Virginia. It has a shrubby or woody stem, branching three or four feet high; oval, indented, alternate leaves, resembling those of common hazel; and flowers growing in clusters from the joints of the young branches, but not succeeded by seeds in this country. It is hardy, and is admitted as a variety in our gardens. Its flowers are remarkable for appearing in November and December, when the leaves are fallen. It may be propagated either by seeds or layers. HAMAMET, a considerable sea-port on the east coast of Tunis, in a bay or gulf of the Mediterranean of this name. Dr. Shaw derives its name from Haman, wild pigeons, with which the country abounds. It contains some antiquities from the neighbouring ruins of the Civitas Siagitana, and is thirty miles south of Tunis.

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3, 2 Kings xiv. 25, and 2 Chron. vii. 8, is the narrow pass leading from the land of Canaan through the valley between Libanus and Antilibanus. This entrance is set down as the north boundary of Canaan, in opposition to its southern limits, the Nile. Joshua (xix. 35) assigned Hamath to the tribe of Naphtali. It was taken by the kings of Judah, and retaken from the Syrians by Jeroboam II. 2 Kings xiv. 28. The kings of Assyria at last took it, and transplanted the inhabitants into Samaria. 2 Kings xvii. 24, and xviii. 34, &c. It is the same with HAMAH. See that article.

HAMAXOBIANS, HAMAXOBII, or HAMAXOBITÆ. From αμαξα, a chariot, and βιος, life. A people who had no houses, but lived in carriages. They were an ancient people of Sarmatia Europea, inhabiting the southern part of Muscovy, and instead of houses had a sort of tents made of leather, fixed on carriages to be ready for travelling. Some say they inhabited the countries now called Bessarabia, Moldavia, Wallachia, and part of Transylvania.

HAMBURGH, one of the most important commercial cities in Europe, is situated at the confluence of the little rivers, Alster and Bille, with the Elbe, and about eighteen leagues from the sea. It is built in the Gothic style; the streets narrow and crooked; and it has many canals, crossed by eighty-one bridges. It is surrounded by a wall, on the top of which two carriages can drive abreast, and has six gates. The French, while in possession of it, constructed many other works: its population is about 120,000, and the territory about 15,000 more.

In the new town many of the houses are neatly built, and some streets elegant, particularly on the Alster, where the Jungfernsteig, planted with trees, is a fashionable promenade. Hamburgh has several suburbs: on its east side, between the Elbe and Alster, stands that of St. George, surrounded by a regular wall, and forming a separate parish. On the west is the Hamburger Berg, separated from Altona only by a wall. Here, adjacent to the Elbe, are the large oil works belonging to the Greenland fisheries, and at some distance two hospitals and a workhouse. On the north side of Hamburgh, along the Alster, is a new suburb, containing a number of elegant buildings.

Outside of the town the Alster forms a large basin; and within the town another of less extent, called the Binnen Alster, which serves as a harbour. An arm of the Elbe also forms two ports, one on the east for boats, and another on the west, called the Niederbaum, for ships. The depth of this harbour is twenty feet; but on account of a sand-bank opposite to the village of Blankenese, nine miles below Hamburgh, vessels that draw more than fourteen feet of water must discharge part of their cargo, except at spring tides, when the depth on the bank is eighteen feet. The hour of high water at new and full moon is six o'clock. Besides the Alster, a small river, called the Bill, flows by the east side of the city.

There are in Hamburgh five large and eleven small churches; that of St. Michael, a modern edifice, and that of St. Peter, are remarkable for

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