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55,000,000 40.000.000 20,000,000 4,500,000

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800 1,024 1.394 1,753 1,697

Dr. Frank Baker's census, 1903...


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ber of them amused themselves by jumping Buffalo that finds a refuge in the woods and off a bluff into the water four feet below on the plains of the Athabasca region. them, then running around up a low place to jump off again. As soon as we had seen How many Buffalo, all told, are living all we wished, we fired. I killed a cow and now? This is a question put by all who are he killed a bull. We then started off to rope interested in the subject. For a clear exsome calves. I caught one and he caught pression of their numbers, their decline, and two. We had to kill the mother of the last, the rescue of the survivors, I shall set the as she showed fight. Then we had to go. various figures in columns. I saw no more of them. One of his calves

Estimate of the Buffalo in primitive days.. died and I gave mine to his little boy, who sold it to Goodnight, and the other was

Mr. W. T. Hornaday's estimate in 1871 traded to a passing stranger from Kansas

census (wild 635; captive

in America 256, in Yellowstone Park 200) in for a span of colts. “In the November of the same year, on

About 1895 they probably reached a minimum the same trail I saw twelve head, and I have

Mr. Mark Sullivan's census in 1900..

Mr. S. P. Langley's census, Feb. 6, 1902.. never seen one since."

The very last individuals that I have knowledge of were four found and killed The apparent diminution in 1905 is due to in 1889, near Buffalo Springs, Texas. The the continued hunting of the wild ones in account of it I got from Mr. W. Allen, cow- North-west Canada. boy, also of Clayton, New Mexico, four In 1903, Dr. Baker estimated these at years after the event.

600; in 1905, at 400. They seem to be This ended the last of the Southern strag- doomed; but the rest are captives in Amerglers.

ica and Europe; they have increased from The great Northern herd was still in ex- the original stock of 256 in 1889 to 1,297 in istence after the bulk of the Southern was 1905, and there is every prospect that they wiped out. A colder winter and hostile In- will continue as they have begun. dians were their chief protectors. Hornaday calculated the Northern herd at about Many able pens have recorded the ser1,500,000; most authors put it much higher. vice that the Buffalo rendered man; it needs The Indians, he reckons, were then slaugh- no telling here. His feeding of a quarter of tering them at the rate of 375,000 a year.

a million and his clothing of twice as many In 1876 the American troops drove the human beings are well known, indeed, but hostile Indians out of the country, opening they are ended. the way

for the skin hunters. In 1878 the Many good men, chief among them Buflast herd went South from the Saskatche- falo Jones (Col. C. J. Jones) have made wan and the few scattered bands there were practical efforts to utilize the Bison as a dokilled off by the Indians in 1879. In 1880 mestic animal. They have above all atthe Southern Pacific Railroad opened a way tracted attention to it, and saved the reminto the central country of the last great nant from extermination. Colonel Jones herd, and the Southern story was repeated. believes in a hybrid form between the BufCondensing Mr. Hornaday's account, falo and the common cattle. This he calls

“Catalo.” It has the advantages of beIn 1881 the skin hunters shipped out.. 50.000 ing exceedingly hardy, fearless of blizzards,

40,000 able to paw and root through the snow for

grass where ordinary cattle would starve, and above all, produce a robe which, very

superior even to that of a Buffalo, is worth This was the end of the Northern herd. as much as the entire ordinary steer. Alaska

The last survivors, twenty-eight in num- and Canada are the countries for which ber, were killed on the Big Porcupine, in these experiments have an especial interest. 1886, and mounted by Mr. Hornaday him- But the Buffalo as a wild animal is gone. self, for the National Museum. The only The great herds will never again be seen wild ones left are the band preserved in the roaming the plains. Yellowstone Park and the herd of Wood Who is there of the present generation


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1882 1883 1884 1885

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Map of North America (exclusive of Mexico), after C. S. Sargent. Showing coniferous forest in dark tint, deciduous forest in pale tint, prairies in dotted tint, and treeless plains in white tint.

that does not feel profound regret at the every boy and young man of our country thought and ask himself: “Why was I born now when he hears of the Buffalo days and too late? What would I not give to have the stirring times of the by-gone wildest seen the Buffalo days and people in their West. romantic prime?” All the hungry re- Why was it allowed? Why did not the gret that Sir Walter Scott felt over the de- Government act? And a hundred sad parted glories of the feudal life is felt by "might have beens” spring forth from

Medicine Hat, Saskatchewan.

hearts that truly feel they lost a wonderful last the pilot of the iron horse? The reason something when the butchers drawn from is simple: it is the easiest and shortest way the dregs of border towns were turned loose through the hills that can be selected by to wipe out the great herds that meant so long experience and thorough knowledge of much to all who love

the country. This wilds and the primi

idea has been tive in life.

worked out for the There is one an

Buffalo by Mr. A. B. swer -- the extermi

Hulbert, in his nation was absolutely

“Historic Highways inevitable. The

of America.” He Buffalo ranged the

points out that the plains that were

A story of the plains.

Buffalo first planned needed by the out

the route through crowded human

the Alleghanies, by swarms of Europe;

which the white man producing Buffalo

entered and poswas not the best use

sessed the Mississipfor those plains; pos

pi Valley. sessed of vast size

“It is very wonand strength, and of

derful,” he says, an obstinate, impet

“that the Buffalo's uous disposition,

instinct should have that would stampede

found the very best in a given line and

courses across a conkeep that line to the

tinent upon whose utter destruction of

thousand rivers such all obstacles or of

great black forests himself, the Buffalo

were thickly strung. was incompatible

Yet it did, and the with any degree of Redrawn from photograph in Outdoor Life.

tripod of the white possession by white

man has proved it, men and with the

and human interhigher productivity

course will move of the soil.

constantly on paths He had to go. He

first marked by the may still exist in

Buffalo. It is intersmall herds in our

esting that he found parks and forest re

the strategic passerves. He may even

sageways through achieve success as a

the mountains; it is domestic animal, fill

also interesting that ing the gaps where

the Buffalo marked the old-time cattle

out the most practifail. But the Buffa

cal paths between lo of the wild plains

the heads of our is gone forever, and

In collection of James Hargraves, of Medicine Hat. rivers, paths that are we who see those

closely followed totimes in the glamor of romance can only day by the Pennsylvania, Baltimore and say: It had to be; he served his time and Ohio, Chesapeake and Ohio, Cleveland, now his time is past.

Terminal and Valley, Wabash, and other But there is a lasting monument he leaves great railroads. behind. Who that knows the West has not “A rare instance of this: the B. & O. seen the game trail grow into an Indian trail R. R., between Grafton and Parkersburg and the Indian trail into a pack trail, which (W. Va.), has followed the trail steadily again becomes a white man's road, and at throughout its course, and when it came to

Freak Buffalo horn found on the Black Plateau.

Collected in 1895 by Frank H. Mayer.

Freak horn from Saskatchewan.

a more difficult point than usual, the rail- tions, from their life, and from their route. way was compelled to tunnel at the strategic They were following the Buffalo - and point of least elevation, and in two in- followed them over the mountains by the

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

stances the trail runs exactly over the tun- paths the Buffalo themselves had made. nel! This same thing occurs now in the They have followed them long and far. building of new railways.”

Will they still keep on, and do as many But the white man was not the first to of their bravest wished to do, seek the follow the Buffalo's paths. Professor herds no more on the vast Missourian Mooney has proved to us that the Sioux plains, but over the borderland, in those Indians were a race of the Atlantic coast, perfect hunting-grounds where the mosquithat they migrated through the Allegha- to, the smallpox, and the white man are nies to the Mississippi Valley, and on, unknown, and where alone will the Bufand yet farther on, they went. Doing falo bands be scen, darkening the offing what? We know to-day, from their tradi- and “making the earth one robe"?

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By Kate Douglas Wiggin


BIJAH FLAGG was driving to a lad brought up in the orthodox faith,

over to Wareham on an er- were quite distinguishable:
rand for old Squire Winship,
whose general chore-boy
and farmer's assistant he

"Daugh-ter of Zi-on, from the dust, Ex-alt thy fall- en head!" had been for some years. He passed Emma Jane Perkins's house Even the most religious youth is stronger slowly, as he always did. She was only a

on first lines than others, but Abijah pulled little girl of thirteen and he a boy of seven- up his horses and waited till he caught anteen, but somehow, for no particular rea- other familiar verse, beginning: son, he liked to see the sun shine on her “Rebuild thy walls, thy bounds enlarge, thick braids of reddish-brown hair. He

And send thy heralds forth.” admired her china-blue eyes too, and her “That's Rebecca carrying the air, and I amiable, friendly expression. He was can hear Emma Jane's alto. Land! ain't quite alone in the world, and he always they smart, seesawin' up and down in that thought that if he had anybody belonging part they learnt in singin'-school! I wonder to him he would rather have a sister like what they're actin' out, singin' hymn-tunes Emma Jane Perkins than anything else up in the barn chamber? Some o’Rebecca's within the power of Providence to bestow. doin's, I'll be bound! Git dap, Aleck!” When she herself suggested this relationship a few years later he cast it aside with scorn, having changed his mind in the interval-but that story belongs to another "Say to the North, Give up- thy- charge, time and place.

Emma Jane was not to be seen in garden, field, or at the window, and Abijah turned

And hold not back O_South.And hold not back O_South”eta, his gaze to the large brick house that came next on the other side of the quiet village Aleck pursued his serene and steady trot street. It might have been closed for a up the hills on the Edgewood side of the funeral. Neither Miss Miranda nor Miss river, till at length he approached the green Jane Sawyer sat at their respective windows Common where the old Tory Hill meetingknitting, nor was Rebecca Randall's gypsy house stood, its white paint and green blinds face to be discerned. Ordinarily that showing fair and pleasant in the afternoon will-o'-the-wispish little person could be sun. Both doors were open, and as Abijah seen, heard, or felt wherever she was. turned into the Wareham road the church

"The village must be abed, I guess," melodeon pealed out the opening bars of mused Abijah as he neared the Robinsons' the Missionary Hymn, and presently a score yellow cottage, where all the blinds were of voices sent the good old tune from the closed and no sign of life showed on porch choir-loft out to the dusty road: or in shed. “No, 'tain't, neither,” he

“Shall we whose souls are lighted thought again, as his horse crept cautious

With wisdom from on high, ly down the hill, for from the direction of Shall we to men benighted the Robinsons' barn chamber there floated

The lamp of life deny?” out into the air certain burning sentiments "Land!” exclaimed Abijah under his set to the tune of “Antioch." The words, breath. “They're at it up here, too! That

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