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Ruskin's pet scientific theories, but his host the chapters headed “Gussie on Goosenever resented it, only occasionally lament- berries, Libbie on Lettuce,' 'Kate on ing that a man "who could paint so well Kale,' and the like. I forget if you had should waste his days in teaching stupid seen 'Ulric,' I've got a fifth chapter of him boys geology. And teaching them wrong!” on hand. The weather seems to me very But after we left he wrote to A. on this dull to-day, but I believe the rest of the very subject:

household is under the same impression; “Never you mind the Mousie; but set and I suppose the sun will shine again some down very carefully what you doubt in day. I hope the books are with A. by this Deucalion.' It is of great importance to time, and have set the Mousie squeaking." leave it sound. You make me very happy How that princely giver loved to give with your beautiful letter-so entirely nat. pleasure! Just picture our delight over ural and sincere, and of the rarest sort. that great box of books, all glorious in purAnd it is a continual joy to me to think of ple calf, a crowd of witnesses to his benevowhat I can still do to please you. And lent affection. here's a lovely letter from Mousie to-day, To T. he wrote—whether in "tutorial saying there's a chance of your being able and imperial reproof” I leave to the readto come in May. It can't be too soon, and er's judgment (T. had evidently written I shall squeak myself when I see you both begging him to interfere with respect to ceragain.

tain hated lessons): “I send you the lecture book--my own “I will ask your father at once to let you copy-and please mark in it any mistakes take up Italian instead of German. I or questionable or obscure bits you find. should wholly wish you to do so myself. I I'm just going to reprint it."

will also pray him to spare you arithmetic To me he wrote:

and grammar. “I have so much to remember that I can “N. B.-It is much wiser and nicer to not begin to more yet. But I see myself write ‘Ain't'than ‘are not’when you are in descending in the future-into depths of a hurry. You did not, perhaps, learn all the inconceivablest woe-unless you come you might have learnt at Brantwood. But back in May.

you gave all kinds of pleasure to everybody “As for T., I'm too thankful for what I in the house, and left a light behind you got of her to begin yet to hope for any time which no fogs eclipse. That was better to come. The good you both did for me than learning.” abides. I slept quite sound last night, and As usual, however, his saving commonhave been doing all sorts of good work this sense prevailed over even T.'s blandishmorning. As for A., I'm going to send ments, foron further consideration be him not some of my books but all; only I writes: don't want to choke him off me when he "It is probably in some degree my fault sees the lot of 'em. And I'm going to send that your father has retained his first intenhim the Scarborough sketch he liked, but tion. I have been unhappily busy (you want to write a few words about clear and know there was a somewhat serious, or lubody-colour, first, for general circulation, dicrous, interruption of my studies, while and send them to him printed.”

you were in the house), and I never got my A few days later:

petition written. “Yes; I'm dreadfully alone! Too alone “Partly I did not like to venture so far to do anything! No Præterita getting done; with him; partly I was afraid of the renor anything at all but clearing out old sponsibility, if, perchance, your liking play letters, and clearing up drawers. But that better than work was laid to my door! And is progress of a sort, more than I've ever my advice to you, dear girlie, is to do for made before. I wrote twenty-five letters the present without any further hesitation, yesterday and was obliged to begin with what your father wishes, and to cure yourone to T. to-day, for she wrote me such a self, as far as you can, of habits of inattensad account of herself that I had to do my tion which, you know—you do know in best in tutorial and imperial reproof. your little heart—are in great part wilful.

“I do believe the next thing likely to be It does not in the least matter whether you done is a botany class book-like ethics - pass the Oxford examination, but it does

matter that you should get good marks known how beautiful are the American from your own conscience, and your father's girls! When I think of the American girls sense of your willing obedience. Where he would have met, of their delicate loveliwould be the virtue of obedience if we were ness, quick sympathy, and bright intellionly told to do what we liked? I will not gence, I feel that it is perhaps well for the disturb you any more with the book of peace of mind of his English pets that he Daniel, but write my lecture on it at home; never would accept the invitations of his and when you are allowed to come back to American friends and lovers. Brantwood you must read it with the strict Unlike most geniuses, Mr. Ruskin seldom est attention!

inflicted his low spirits upon his friends, "Meantime I am ready to help you in though, like ordinary mortals, he had his fits everything that puzzles you; will look out of depression, for after a severe illness he the dreadfullest words for you in my big wrote from Sandgate, where he had gone to dictionaries, and-if that will give you any recruit: pleasure-begin learning German with you "Yes, if I could send you a long letter myself.”

saying I was well wouldn't I? just; but now, This was really a wonderful concession, when I can only send you short lines saying as he says in another letter, "I hate Ger- I'm ill what is the use ? Not that I'm ill in man and the books that Germans write.” any grave way that I know of. But I'm Yet it was he who, in 1868, rescued “Ger- very sad. It's a perfectly gray day, snowman Popular Stories” from oblivion, writ- ing wet snow all over sea and land all day, ing for them a wholly beautiful preface and threatening for all night. I've had quite singularly full of humanity and com- nothing to do since morning, and I don't prehension of child character.

know what to do till tea. Personal beauty always had an immense “I'm all alone in a room about the size of attraction for him, and he frequently said a railway carriage. I can't walk about in that he would gladly have given “Modern it (and wouldn't care to, if I could). I've Painters” for a better profile! And how- no books that I care to read (or even would ever much he loved some of his homely if I cared to). I'm tired of pictures and friends he never for a moment denied that minerals, and the sky, and the sea. There's he would have preferred to have them beau- three o'clock, and I wish it was thirty-and tiful. In Mr. Collingwood's most pleasant I could go to bed for the next thirty. book, “Ruskin Relics” (in some ways, to “But every day I get some little lovethose who knew the man, far more inti- letter from a Joanie or a Mousie that makes mately characteristic of him than the me think I had better try and keep awake a "Life"), he describes how in 1840, at Rome, little longer." Mr. Ruskin saw the beautiful Miss Tolle He was not allowed to mope long, for in mache (afterward Lady Mount-Temple, April of the same year he writes from Lonand one of his dearest friends) and quotes don:“I had great joy and sense of being in Mr. Ruskin's own words describing her:"A my right place to-day in the Turner room, fair English girl, who was not only the ad- and am going to stay in London till people mitted Queen of Beauty in the English cir- have been taught that they can't make my cle of that winter at Rome, but was so, in the skin into gloves yet.” Again, a few days kind of beauty which I had only hitherto later: dreamed of as possible, but never yet seen I went to the Private View of the old living: statuesque severity with womanly Water Colour yesterday, and there were peosweetness joined. I don't think I ever suc- ple glad to see me there. Robert Brownceeded in getting nearer than within fifty ing, among others. And I've been to the yards of her; but she was the light and sol. British Museum, and am staying very conace of all the Roman winter to me, in the tentedly within reach of it and some other mere chance glimpses of her far away, and places. And I'm not going to theatres and the hope of them."

altogether I'm as good just now as I know He refused ever to visit America “be- how to be!" cause he couldn't be happy in a country In his personal intercourse with the that had no castles,” but I feel sure that he young people who loved him, absolutely would have foregone the castles had he free as it was from any didactic tendency,

often full of the sweetest unreasonableness in which men are bred capable of these and whimsicality, there yet remained most things, and are educated to love to think potently exemplified in his own character and to endure, they become noble-live three qualities which, in his written work, happily—die calmly: are remembered with he never ceased to praise: kindness, mod- perpetual honour by their race, and for the esty, industry. “In the exact proportion perpetual good of it.”

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HE Indian policy of the Indians east and west of the River St. Clair,

Canadian Government was and a concerted movement upon the new inherited from the British settlements would have obliterated them as procedure in the American easily as a child wipes pictures from his colonies, which still survives slate. The Indian nature now seems like a

with additions and modifica- fire that is waning, that is smouldering and tions. The reserve system appeared at the dying away in ashes; then it was full of force earliest, and there was but little difference and heat. It was ready to break out at any between the policy of the French and Brit- moment in savage dances, in wild and desish in Canada with the exception that in perate orgies in which ancient superstitions the French design evangelization was an were involved with European ideas but important feature. So that in 1867, when dimly understood and intensified by cunning the Dominion of Canada took over the ad- imaginations inflamed with rum. So all the ministration of Indian affairs, the Govern- Indian diplomacy of that day was exercised ment found a certain well-established con- to keep the tomahawk on the wall and the dition. The Indians of the old provinces scalping knife in the belt. It was a rude of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had diplomacy at best, the gross diplomacy of been given lands; in Quebec the grants of the rum bottle and the material appeal of the French king had been respected and gaudy presents, webs of scarlet cloth, silver confirmed; in Ontario the Indian titles had medals, and armlets. been surrendered by treaty for a considera- Yet there was at the heart of these puerile tion in land and money, as between sover- negotiations, this control that seemed to be eign powers. The first of the treaties was founded on debauchery and license, this made by Governor Haldimand in 1784. alliance that was based on a childish system

In the early days the Indians were a real of presents, a principle that has been carried menace to the colonization of Canada. At on without cessation and with increased that time there was a league between the vigilance to the present day—the principle VOL. XL.–62

573

of the sacredness of treaty promises. What- Transcontinental Railway. The aboriginal ever has been written down and signed by owners of this vast tract, aware of the activity king and chief both will be bound by so of prospectors for timber and minerals, had long as “the sun shines and the water runs.” asked the Dominion Government to treat The policy, where we can see its outcome, for their ancient domain, and the plans for has not been ineffectual, and where in 1790 such a huge public work as the new railway stood clustered the wigwams and rude made a cession of the territory imperative. shelters of Brant's people now stretch the In June, 1905, the writer was appointed opulent fields of the township of Tuscarora; one of three commissioners to visit the and all down the valley of the Grand River Indian tribes and negotiate a treaty. Our there is no visible line of de

route lay inland from Dinormarcation between the farms

wic, a small station on the tilled by the ancient allies in

Canadian Pacific Railway foray and ambush who have

two hundred miles east of become confederates

Winnipeg, to reach the Lac throughout a peaceful year

Seul water system, to cross in seed-time and harvest.

the height of land, to reach The treaty policy so well

Lake St. Joseph, the first established when the confed

great reservoir of the Albany eration of the provinces of

River. Our flotilla consistBritish North America took

ed of three canoes, two large place has since been contin

Peterboroughs and one ued and nearly all civilized

birch-bark thirty-two feet Canada is covered with these

long which could easily hold Indian treaties and surren

eleven or twelve men and ders. A map colored to de

2,500 pounds of baggage and fine their boundaries would

supplies, as well as the treasshow the province of Ontario

ure-chest which was heavy clouted with them like a

with thirty thousand dollars patch-work blanket; as far

in small notes. Our party north as the confines of the

included three commissionnew provinces of Saskatche

ers, a physician, an officer of wan and Alberta the patches

the Hudson's Bay Company lie edge to edge. Until late

who managed all the details ly, however, the map would

of transport and commissahave shown a large portion

riat, and two constables of of the province of Ontario

the Dominion police force.* uncovered by the treaty

I am bound to say the latter blanket. Extending north

outshone the members of the

Jimmy Swain, head guide, of the watershed that di

Albany River.

commission itself in the vides the streams flowing

observance of the Indians. into Lakes Huron and Superior from those The glory of their uniforms and the wholeflowing into Hudson Bay, it reached James some fear of the white man's law which Bay on the north and the long curled ribbon they inspired spread down the river in adof the Albany River, and comprised an area vance and reached James Bay before the of 90,000 square miles, nearly twice as large commission. I presume they were used as as the State of New York.

a bogey by the Indian mothers, for no This territory contains much arable land, children appeared anywhere until the novmany million feet of pulpwood, untold wealth elty had somewhat decreased and opinion of minerals, and unharnessed water-powers weakened that the magnificent proportions sufficient to do the work of halfthecontinent. and manly vigor of our protectors were Through the map of this unregarded region nourished upon a diet of babies. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Premier of Canada, had Our crew of half-breeds and Indians drawn a long line, sweeping up from Quebec

* Messrs. S. Stewart and D. G. MacMartin, Commisand curving down upon Winnipeg, marking sioners; A. G. Meindl. M. D.: T. C. Rae, Esq., Chiei the course of the eastern section of the new

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Trader, Hudson's Bay Co.; P. C.'s Parkinson and Vanasse,

with the writer, made up the party.

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