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NOTES AND QUERIES. WATER BOATMAN.-Should any one be tempted to follow the advice of Mr. Johů Bockett by introducing the Water Boatman into an aquarium, let him beware of putting bim in company with fish. When less experienced than at present, I introduced several into my children's aqua-vivarium, and in about two or three days such was the mortality that we thought some terrible epidemic had seized our fish. While looking mournfully at our pets, with this idea, we saw a Water Boatman lodge on the head of a rather large gold fish, who shook it off and swam away, but in a few minutes staggered, struggled, turned on its side, and died. Carefully watching them, we witnessed several similar attacks with the same result; I need not say the murderers were summarily ejected. No doubt they are amusing creatures in a separate tank.--L. H. F.

RURAL NATURAL" HISTORY.-I know not how far Mr. Holland's ingenious speculation regarding “fistles” is correct, but he may be interested in knowing that "fistula” is in the district (W. Norfolk), generally pronounced by the poor “thistulo."

CURE FOR AGUE?-A curious mode of treatment for ague is practised in Marshland. I give it as it was narrated to a clerical friend in that district. “Well, sir, you must catch a moll, and it must be a male moll.” “What is a moll?” says his reverence. “A moll, sir! why one of those little creatures which they hang on trees” (meaning, O illiterate reader, a mole). “Well, sir, you must then skin it, and dry the body in the oven, and then powder it, and you must take as much of the powder as will lie on a shilling every day in gin. You must take it for nine days running, and then miss nine, and then take it nine days more, and then (note well the final part of the treatment !) miss nine. By this time you are cured.” “Thank you,” said my friend, departing. “But mind, sir," shouts the doctress, “it must be a male moll.”- L.

BIRDS BREEDING IN CONFINEMENT.-The best and I believe only successful plan, is to put the pair of birds intended for breeding into the cage intended for that purpose, which should be hung against the wall of the room in which you intend having your birds at liberty, and (if they will) let them get as far as having young ones ; at night open the doors of the cage (gently); in the morning and next day they will most likely fly in and out, and feed the young. The birds reared in this manner are stronger and healthier than when kept in a closed cage. Some of the birds mentioned by A. P. he will find it very difficult to get to breed in confinement, as Siskin and Snow Bunting, but all the others ought to do so freely. At first the Linnets are rather sulky, but when once they begin they get on very well. The hemp seed should be given very sparingly, as it makes them corpulent, and not inclined for breeding. Hard egg is most essential, and should be given (one between each pair) every week; it need not be chopped up, as was the old style, but cut in two and left in the half shells ; in this way it will keep better. -R. R.

EARLY WASP.-I caught a female wasp (Vespa vulgaris) on the 22nd February, this year, being nine days earlier than the one recorded by your correspondent Henry W. T. Ellis. It was captured on a tree in Kensington Gardens, and was extremely lively.-H. H, O'Farrell.

SPAWNING OF THE FROG.–Your correspondent for March (George Dansey), in alluding to the above subject, stated that “spawning takes place in the night." This may be occasionally, but not as a rule. At our last meeting (Lower Mosley Street Schools Natural History Society), one of the members made a communication to the effect that he and his friend had been in the fields, and bad come across a number of frogs that were in the act of spawning, some of which he picked up, and received the spawn in his hand. This was about four o'clock in the afternoon. I myself saw some toads spawning last summer at midday, in the Manchester Museum. As this is an interesting subject, it would be advisable for those who have watched the habits of frogs to give their experience, in order that we may ascertain whether they (frogs) do or do not spawn during the night.-H. Hyde.

SKELETON LEAVES.- I would feel greatly obliged if you or any of the subscribers to SCIENCE-GOSSIP could inform me how to dry skeleton leaves. After bleaching them, how do you prevent them from sticking to the paper on which you lift them out of the water? You can take them out of the water in the same manner as seaweeds, but then they stick fast to the paper.-J. S. S.

Dust on AQUARIA.—The following is a simple method of removing this. Lay a piece of paper gently on the surface of the water, allowing the whole under-side to become wet; then, carefully raising one end of the paper, peel it off, and the dust, &c., will be entirely removed, adhering to the paper. By repeating the process two or three times wherever dust, &c., occurs, the water will be found perfectly clean.George Henslow.

FARO APOPHYLLITE. — Can any of your correspondents give some information about this crystal ? Quekett, in his work on the microscope, mentions it, on the authority of Sir David Brewster, as a splendid polariscopic object, “when the prisms are complete.”—A. S.

HOW DID THEY GET THERE ?--Some years ago while staying at Bicester, in Oxfordshire, I met with a circumstance which has often struck me as worthy of record. I was standing, on a hot summer's day on a bridge over a little stream, the parapet of which was formed of broad thin slices of stone, cemented one upon the other. The top stone appearing loose, I pushed it off, and its removal was followed by that of another, and another—to the detriment, I fear, of the bridge. When I had arrived at about the third layer, a toad hopped out, and as I progressed in my work of destruction, many more appeared-in all about a dozen. How did they get there? The cement appeared quite firm, save just at the top; and I could see no crevices through which they could have entered. The toads were very dry and dusty, and seemed to be quite at home in their nooks. The remarkable point was, that the lower I went, the niore toads appeared, and how they got in is still to me an unexplained mystery.-B.

THE FIRST SWALLOW.-I was much surprised to see a martin (Chelidon urbica) on the 5th of this month. Mr. Jesse, in his “Gleanings,” notes the 3rd of April as the earliest date for the appearance of the swallow; but here I never remember seeing them before the 15th or 16th. We are not giving our old friend a very genial welcome. Robert Holland.

BIRDS BREEDING IN CONFINEMENT.-Though I RURAL NATURAL HISTORY.-Will you allow me cannot supply A. Pickard with the information he to correct a slight error into which my friend desires, yet the record of my experience may be of Mr. Hollaud has fallen, in your last number? He some assistance. Bechstein, I think, cites a few represents me as saying that the dock is “used in instances of cage birds breeding in confinement; Buckinghamshire as an antidote to the sting of the but the occurrence is very rare.

nettle; whereas I specified Essex as the county in A pair of greenfinches were brought up from the which this use obtains (S. G., ii., 83). I would not nest by a pair of canaries; the male bird acquired have troubled you with this, save that I have not the song calls of his foster father, but the female yet met with the practice in Bucks.-B. preserved the calls of the species. For several successive summers these greenfinches built nests,

PUFFANAS MULTIFORMIS. *_This curious fish is the hen laid eggs, but the male on every occasion imported every year into England at the end of prevented her from sitting. I have no doubt that

March, or in the first days of April, coming especially if A. P. reared the birds from the nests, and thus to from the United States, sometimes also from France. some extent domesticated them, they might be

Great numbers of species, or rather varieties, are brought to breed in confinement, especially if they

known: the P. capensis or lunarius reported to have have the use of an aviary, containing growing shrubs

been found by Dr. Herschel at the Cape of Good and plants.-R. Tate.

Hope. The P. Martii found fossil in America in an

aërolite, &c., are most interesting specimens. I REVOLVING STEREOSCOPES. – There are few believe the whale that was cast upon the shore instruments more attractive and interesting in the near Dunkirk, in April, 1863, during a south-eastern family circle than a good revolving stereoscope, but storm, and which is described in a recent French unfortunately they have, because of their great cost, work, is the P. bolæncformis. A new species is P. been used to a very limited extent. The importance thermalis, just found at the island of Santorin (when of obtaining revolving stereoscopes to contain fifty out of hot water the fish dies), is boiled and eatable. slides, at greatly reduced prices, led me to suggest English and French journalists sometimes gratify to two of the principal wholesale dealers in optical their friends with a dish of Puffanas fish; the French instruments in London, the desirability of producing call them generally “Poisson d'Avril.” I beg to revolving stereoscopes at such prices as would warn your readers against any too marvellous news enable working men in the receipt of weekly wages, they may meet with in the papers at this season, to obtain them with comparative ease; and I am | assuring them, probably, it will belong to the genus glad to inform your numerous readers that revolving Puffanas.-B. Melle. stereoscopes of neat appearance, and of excellent optical capabilities, may now be had of any respect Dust on AQUARIA.—To remove this, I cut a newsable dealer in optical instruments, at about one paper into strips about 16 inches by 23 inches, my third the sum previously charged for such apparatus. aquarium being 18 inches wide, and I frequently So popular are the new revolving stereoscopes that skim soup or broth. I find that two sweeps of the one dealer in Newcastle-on-Tyne has within the skim the surface of the water by running the edge of last few days ordered upwards of one hundred, and | the strip of paper over it in the same manner as cooks a similar or even greater sale, might by a little strip of paper remove all the dust resting on the enterprise be obtained in all the large towns in the surface of the water, and leave it perfectly clean and kingdom.-T. P. Barkas, Newcastle-on-Tyne. brightly. Another advantage is that very little

water is wasted, and the aquarium may be perfectly HONEY ANT OF TEXAS.-A Texas paper of a late cleaned in twenty seconds.--7. P. Barkas. date, speaking of the honey ant, says: “We have often heard of the 'honey ant’ of Texas, but the ac DOUBLE ORANGES.-I have in my possession a count seeming so romantic, we have heretofore been small orange that was found in the centre of a large hardly able to credit it, but as we now have a speci. one, and is quite perfect except that the rind is men before us, furnished by our friend Leo Smith, wanting. And it was only the other day that I read of this city, we can no longer have any doubts on in the Manchester Examiner and Times of one having the subject. These ants are a medium size between been found with the rind upon it, and strange to the large and small red ants, and are of a reddish say it was of the same yellow colour as the larger and brown colour. Appended to the rear of each one orange. As I am quite ignorant of the cause of the is a transparent sac or globe filled with pure, clear development of these double oranges, I shall be honey, of a most delicious flavour. These sacs vary glad if any of your correspondents will enlighten in size on different ants-ranging between the size me.-H. HI, of a buckshot and a navy pistol ball. On this sac, at short intervals, are attached thin layers about AQUARIUM PEST.-L. H. F. (p. 70), asks why the length and width of half a grain of rice, and of a do the eggs of the water-snails, which are adherent dark colour, evidently to strengthen it and keep it in to the sides of his or her aquarium, never hatch? shape. These interesting animals, when they crawl, Why, give them time! In my little book on the draw their delicious load after them, and if the British Snails, I have stated that the eggs of the sac is empty, they set themselves to work to re fresh-water snails are hatched in about thirty days; plenish it again. Whether they deposit this honey and I dare say, 'ere this, L. H. F. will have verified in their great general reservoir among the rocks, to this.-R. Tate. draw from it as occasion may require, or hold and use it as individual property, we are not informed. POLARISING A RAINBOW.- When a portion of a Here is a curiosity that we believe has heretofore rainbow is viewed through a Nichol's prism, and escaped the eyes and pens of our celebrated natu- | the prism turned till the long diagonal coincides ralists."

with the chord of the arc viewed, the coloured rays Are these ants unknown to entomologists, as the | disappear. Do they consist of light polarised in Editor of the American Paper believes, or if known, one direction ?-.W. by what name are they distinguished ?-S. A. Stewart.

* Puff and anas = canard.

SPAWNING OF FROGS.-Frogs began to spawn SENSITIVE PLANTS (v. S. G., p. 91).-I have seen here during the warm weather which we had at the in some authors that the false Acacia (Robinia end of February. I did not note down the exact pseudo Acacia), when suddenly and violently shaken, date, but on March 2nd I passed a quantity of seems also sensitive, but I never experienced that. spawn imbedded in ice. Would the vitality of this

-B. Melle. be destroyed ? A strange notion prevails here that three-year-old frogs destroy all the four-year-old BABEER (0.S.G. p.90).-Might that cane not be the frogs. The females are generally larger than the

Eriophorum Cannabinum, called, I believe, in India males, and hence the idea that they are of different

Bhabhar," and employed there with other grasses ages; whilst the fact that many of the females do for making ropes ?---B. Melle. die after spawning,--from exhaustion, or because from weakness they cannot escape from their

An EGG WITHIN AN EGG (0.S.G.p.94).-We have enemies, the boys,-has given rise to the belief that

here, in the Museum, an egg enclosed in another, the smaller ones kill the larger ones. Frogs are

just as the one described by C. A. J. A communialso looked upon as good weather-guides. If they

cation was made last year to the Academie des weather; if of a dull brown, it will rain. Frogs

to happen occasionally.-B. Melle. certainly vary greatly in colour, but whether they

SANTONINE, &c.-E. M. will readily procure are capable of changing their hue, like a chameleon,

most beautiful crystals of santonine from its solu. I do not know.Robert Holland.

tion in chloroform. By varying the strength of the HYALODISCUS. - Your correspondent “R. G.

solution, and the quantity laid upon the slide, E. M. kindly sent me a slide of diatoms from under Menai

will procure a variety of combinations. Let the Bridge, containing one specimen of what he considers

solution evaporate spontaneously. My specimens to be Hyalodiscus subtilis, var. lævis. I find abundant

are mounted dry. Has your correspondent tried specimens of the same form in slides of diatoms

Naphthaline ? If not, he should do so, thus. Place from Teignmouth and Isle of Arran. I believe it to

a flake or two at the bottom of a watch-glass, over be a Podosira, possibly Podosira maculata (S.), see

which put a lidless salve or pill box, with the Pritchard, p. 815, 4th edition, and S. B. D., vol. ii.,

bottom uppermost, and with a hole punched in it; p. 54, pl. 49, fig. 328. The disc is certainly convex,

over the hole place your glass slip, and apply a and not flat, convexity being the distinguishing

spirit-glass to the under side of the watch-glass, characteristic of Podosira as opposed to Hyalodiscus.

when the vapour of the naphthaline will condense on The markings, moreover, are not like an engine

the slide in most exquisite crystals (vide Intell. Obs. turned back of a watch, but the disc appears ob

| vol. vi., p. 441). I have not yet been very suc

cessful in mounting this highly volatile substance.scurely divided into compartments, each with two sets of oblique, intersecting, distinct striæ.-H, R.

J. E. Whalley. THE LACKEY Moth.-I recently found some

DOUBLE PEAR. -A notice of a peculiar pear eggs, greenish and of a conical shape. From a

in SCIENCE-Gossip reminds me of one I saw some drawing I have seen, I believe them to be the eggs

time ago. It differed from that described by your of the Lackey Moth. If so, a rather curious cir

correspondent in being a double pear, the second cumstance presents itself. In all books on insects

growing out of the eye of the first-hanging and that I have read, the eggs of the Lackey Moth are

separated from it by a stalk. This pear grew on a represented as being made in a ring round the branch of a tree. Now these eggs were laid on the trunk of a tree, and in a patch not-a ring. Is

STICKLEBACK OUT OF WATER.— The other day this a common occurrence ? I have never seen it

the boys were turning out the aquarium, and left noted by any writer on entomology. Perhaps some

the fish-which were three-spined sticklebacks of the readers of SCIENCE-Gossip may bave met

(Gasterosteus aculeatus) — rather too long in a with a similar instance.-H. A. O'Farrell.

bottle. The consequences were that many of them

died. The aquarium glass was refilled, and the BRIMSTONE BUTTERFLY.-I saw here this year boys put the live sticklebacks in, leaving the supthe first Brimstone Butterfly on the 15th of February. | posed dead ones-of which I rescued three-in I believe this butterfly has no regular time for its a saucer, without any water. This was at 4 p.m. apparitions, as several others; I have observed since | Just before I went to bed-it being then 10 p.m.nearly twenty years the periodical visits of birds, I saw that the boys had not taken away the supinsects, &c., and have seen it sometimes very soon, posed dead fish. I determined to give them a small when there was only a glimpse of fine weather. In lecture for the omission; and poured a little water 1852 it appeared on the 21st December ; in 1862 on into the saucer, and put it on one side. The next the 14th of January. The Brimstone Butterfly is morning, when I told a boy to take it away, he called in French “ Citron," the Brimstone Moth said, “Why, sir, here is one of the fish alive!” Soufré."-B. Melle.

And sure enough there was. We put it into the

aquarium, and it has lived a week. Do sticklebacks MICE AND COCKROACHES.- In the struggle for generally live six hours without water ?-F. R. R. existence, is there any antagonism between mice and cockroaches ? My house at one time, and for SANTONINE.-Toprepare slides of rosette crystals, years, was swarmed with the latter, of which I have place about ten grains of santonine in a small test a special horror. At that period we had no mice. tube, and pour upon it one dram of chloroform, Within the last year or two mice have taken their and dissolve by a gentle heat; then drop upon abode with us, and are now not only numerous but glass slips a small portion of the solution, which supreme, the cockroach having disappeared before will rapidly evaporate, depositing fine rosette it, and this without any poison or other means crystals of the salt. Canada balsam or Deane's having been resorted to. Have the mice eaten gelatine medium will answer well for mounting them or frightened them away?--J. B. Keene. them.-F. R. Martin, Redland, Bristol,


ALL communications relative to advertisements, post-office

orders, and orders for the supply of this Journal should be addressed to the PUBLISHER. All contributions, books, and pamphlets for the EDITOR should be sent to 192, Piccadilly, London, W. To avoid disappointment, contri. butions should not be received later than the 15th of each month. No notice whatever can be taken of communi. cations which do not contain the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication, if desired to be withheld. We do not undertake to answer any queries not specially connected with Natural History, in accordance with our acceptance of that term; nor can we answer queries which might be solved by the correspondent by an appeal to any elementary book on the subject. We are always prepared to accept queries of a critical nature, and to publish the replies, provided some of our readers, besides the querist, are likely to be interested in them. We cannot undertake to return rejected manuscripts unless sufficient stamps are enclosed to corer the return postage. Neither can we promise to refer to or return any manuscript after one month from the date of its receipt. All microscopical drawings intended for publication should have annexed thereto the powers employed, or the extent of enlargement, indicated in diameters (thus : * 320 diameters). Communications intended for publication should be written on one side of the paper only, and all scientific names, and names of places and individuals should be as legible as possible. Wherever scientific names or technicalities are employed, it is hoped that the common names will accompany them. Lists or tables are inad. missible under any circumstances. Those of the popular names of British plants and animals are retained and registered for publication when sufficiently complete for that purpose, in whatever form may then be decided upon. ADDRESS No. 192, Piccaduly, LONDON, W.

W.C.It is very unsatisfactory attempting to name speci. mens from sketches or bare descriptions. Can you not send a frond?

W. H.-We know of many similar works, but none contain. ing more detailed information. What branch of Entomology do you intend to study?

W. D. G.-You have omitted to give your name. “Lan. kester's Aquavivarium" is the best, but is now out of pri

H. R. C.-1. “Anatomical Manipulation," by Tulk and Henfrey (Van Voorst, 1814), which may be picked up, secondhand, for 3s, or 4s. 2. We know of no single book that would supply the deficiency.

J. M.-Solitary butterflies are often taken at unseasonable periods.

W. F.-Poduræ can be obtained at any time during the summer.

T. L.-Such abnormal form.s are far from uncommon.

W.F. S.-You cannot do better than purchase “ Davies on Mounting," London: R. Hardwicke, in which you will find all the particulars you seek.

C. J.-Your red sea-weed is Ptilola plumosa.

M. H.-Your suggestion is good, and shall have due con. sideration,

DOUBLE EGGS.-Having been overwhelmed with correspondence upon this subject, we are compelled to postpone many communications for want of space.


FLINT FLAKES (arrow head ?), several varieties from the gravels around Belfast, for similar flakes from other locali. ties, or Geological specimens.-W. Gray, Mount Charles, Belfast.

DIATOMACEOUS EARTHS from Antrim, &c., for other objects, mounted or unmounted.-W. Gray, Mount Charles, Belfast.

Fossil DIATOMACEA (mounted) for other mounted objects. -W. Fletcher, Grammar School, Bromsgrove.

British SEAWEEDS for British Birds' Eggs, or Preserved Foreign Reptiles.-F. Stanley, Harold-road, Margate.

GOROONIA SPICULES and Tabellaria flocculosa (mounted) for other good slides of Diatoms or Polariscope objects. W. H., Stamp Omce, Fordingbridge.

Pencil-Tails for Infusorial Earths or Diatoms, unmounted. -H. H., 3, Edward-street, Moseley-road, Birmingham.

Fossil Woop in sections from Ashby de-la-Zouch.Stamped envelope to J. Butterworth, 5, Bridgewater-street, Oldham.

COTTON SEED for Diatoms or Entomological slides.-E. M.. 6, Hollord-square, Pentunville, W.C.

CALYTREA (20 species) for a good skeleton of the Squirrel. -G. A. Lebour, Fez Lodge, Addison-crescent, Kensington, W.

BRITISH BIRDS' SKINS for Eggs of the same.-J. Aspdin, Richmond, Yorkshire.


A.C. K.-It is clearly impossible.

A. G. H.-1. Helix hispida; 2. Limneu glaber; 3. Pisidium cinereum; 4. Helix concinna; 6. No specimen ; 6. Limnaa palustris ; 7. Helicella excarata.-R. T.

J. D. L.-Your specimen is the operculum of a recent species of Turbo.-R. T. Letters received after the 15th of the month cannot be replied to until the following month.

F. E. B.-Most probably a species of Dytiscus.

S.J.B.-Alcoholic solution of corrosive sublimate. Alcohol, 50 parts to 1 of the salt. Let your objects be perfectly dry.

ERRATUM.–Page 66, Vol. III., for J. W. Mencher, read J. W. Meacher.

J. H. A.-Your quill arrived unsealed. No insects, nor remains of them, to be found.

J. D.-The caterpillar is that of the Magpie Moth (Abraxas grossulariatu).

M.-“Our Common Insects," by Mrs. E. W. Cox, price 28. 6d. London: R. Hardwicke.

W. V. A.-You have omitted to enclose your address.

H. H.-The fault of wbich you complain is certainly frequently committed, but we bardly see how you would propose to remedy it. A chcap work must necessarily be, to a certain extent, elementary also.

W.N.-Nothing new. It is constantly observed.

H. R.-Your packet for R. G. is to band. We must, how. ever, decline the responsibility of forwarding glass and a letter by Pattern post." Both are forbidden by the rules of the Post Omice.

R. H.--Thanks. You shall be advised in good time.

E. C.-We cannot recognise the insect from your description. Try tobacco smoke, or syringing with a strong decoction of tobacco.

T. 0.-We have tried your experiment, but failed of success. It is not easy to understand a priori why the effects of which you speak should be produced.

H.C.-). Impossible, without first identifying the species. 2. They rarely lay in this country; we do not know where eggs can be obtained. 3 and 4. See Vol. II., pp. 164, 186, 213, 237, and 256. 6. Consult "Brewster's Optics," or "Lardner on the Microscope."

J. B. L.-1. Bryum alpinum ; 2. Hypnum commutatum ; 3. Hypnum (Eurhynchium) prælongum.-R. B.

TH.-Hypnum (Eurhynchium) piliferum, with prælongum intermixed. Plantago coronopus is very variable-sometimes hirsute, sometimes nearly glabrous. The Riccia appears to be barren fronds of Sphærocarpus Michelii.-R. B. Can you forward a few specimens of this genus for a correspondent?

“ The Birds of Norfolk," by Henry Stevenson, F.L.S. Vol. I. London: Van Voorst.

“The Doctrine of the Correlation of Forces," by the Rev. J. Cranbrook. Edinburgh: Edmonston & Donglas.

“ The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science." No. XXVI., April, 1867. London: Churchill & Sons.

“The Quarterly Magazine of the High Wycombe Natural History Society." No. IV. Wycombe: W. Butler.

" Theoretical Astronomy Examined and Exposed," by Common Sense." London: Job Caudwell.

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For me, the genial day, the happy crowd,
The sport half-science, fill me with a faith.
This fine old world of ours is but a child
Yet in the go-cart. Patience! Give it time
To learn its limbs: there is a hand that guides.

The Princess.



NOTHER and final | and yet here they are as plump and nearly as

stroll through the brightly coloured as when alive. The caterpillars are Paris Exhibition ena- crawling over artificial green leaves, and look as bles me to add a few though they were “all alive," enjoying a meal. Ask memoranda to the me not how they are done, for I cannot tell; there

notes which appeared was not the slightest intimation, not even of the Cou r se in the May number. | name of the exhibitor, and not a soul present who

It must be premised could tell me. Not far from this spot, in the same that everything approaches as court, are groups of dried flowers, especially pansies much towards completion as it and pelargoniums, looking as fresh and natural as is likely to attain, and now it the caterpillars. would furnish plenty of occu- In the Austrian department I was attracted pation for a week to see all towards a picture about twenty-seven inches long, that is to be seen in the Palace by a kind of presentiment that the subject was and Park. The fresh-water familiar, and so it was, though not scrupulously aquarium is in operation, but exact, but a very good representation of Westthe marine was still unfinished, minster Abbey, done in straw mozaic, by F. Otto, and consequently unfurnished, of Linz, and priced at 1,500 francs. It required

when I left. In one of the close observation to detect that it really was all German courts (XXXVII.), in the outer circle, straw. One is often led by association into a are two full-length life-size portraits of Napoleon curious train of thought, as I was on this occasion. and Frederic the Great, which at the distance Passing into the Bavarian court, a quantity of wool of a few yards appear to be oil paintings, but on | recovered from old garments, under the well-known approaching closer they are seen to be composed names of "mungo” and “shoddy” was exhibited, entirely of dried “everlasting ” flowers. These and beside it the catalogue, or trade list-not in are exbibited by J. C. Schmidt, of Erfurt, and the German, nor in French, but in English. Of course only drawback connected with them is, that they one might imagine that the lists were printed in the are placed in such an out-of-the-way corner, that it language of the country in which the goods were in would be difficult to find them, unless by devoting greatest demand. With the consolation that there some time in hunting for them. Not far from hence was still plenty of "shoddy” in the world, I passed (Sal XXXVI.), a number of small cases are ex- | on, and found myself in the Rue d'Espagne, where a hibited, which contain a most complete series of long row of cases against the wall, by different “Bees and their enemies," which well deserve exhibitors, contained a very large collection of the notice. In the Russian department, inner court, remains found in the Swiss Lacustrine habitations. near the Fine Arts, is a small collection of consider Here was a day's work to examine the hundreds of able interest, though not occupying much more than objects, well displayed, named, and with the extra a square foot of space; it consists of spiders and cater- | advantage of a gentleman then on the spot, probably pillars, both very difficult objects to preserve well, one of the exhibitors, ready and willing to afford

No. 30.

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