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Blooms blushing to her lover's tale;
So intimate are the bonds of attachment between the rose and the bulbul, and so sensitive is the former to the song of the latter, that it is said to burst from the bud and open at the sound.
Oh, sooner shall the Rose of May
Mistake her own sweet nightingale,
Open her bosom’s glowing veil, than that we should longer continue to chant the praises of both, or lull our readers to sleep over the song of the one or the sweet odour of the other.
The very common expression, “under the rose," has been referred to two or three sources. Haydn, in his “ Dictionary of Dates," says, -" The rose a symbol of silence, gave rise to the phrase 'under the rose,' from the circumstance of the Pope's presenting consecrated roses, which were placed over confessionals to denote secresy." Whilst others contend that the old Greek custom of suspending a rose over the guest-table was employed as an emblem that the conversation should not be repeated elsewhere. Whichever was the true origin, whether Christian or Pagan, it is evident that both regarded the rose as an emblem of secresy, and in the same sense, but less studiously followed, we are supposed to regard the same flower, whenever we pick up a stray scrap of scandal, “under the rose.”
This reminds us of the association of this flower with the names of persons, places, and things. It has been said that Syria derived its name from Suri, a beautiful and delicate species of rose, whence came “Suristan," the land of roses.
Now upon Syria's land of roses
Softly the light of eve reposes. Beside a goodly number of such more evident compounds as Rosenthal, Rosenberg, Rosenau, &c., to say nothing of the bcautiful visions of feminine humanity which have blessed the day-dreams of prosaic man, bearing for themselves the fragrant appellations, not merely of the Rose of Arragon or the Rose of Castile, but the less assuming Rose, Rosa, Rosina, or Rosalind. Ill-natured old bachelors and gouty sexagenarians may mutter incoherently about “thorns” and “briars" but we will not listen to them, we will not believe them
We have a vision of our own,
And why should we undo it? Cultivated Roses are supposed to have been first planted in this country in A.D. 1522. The damask rose (Rosa damascena) being introduced from the
south of France some time prior to A.D. 1573. The Province rose (Rosa provincialis), from Italy, before A.D. 1596. The moss rose not much earlier than A.D. 1724, and the China rose perhaps about A.D. 1787. Besides these we have, and had long before these dates, wild roses, less beautiful and fragrant, but equally deserving of a remembrance at a "Feast of Roses.”
How are we to enumerate the species of Rosa which are indigenous to Great Britain, since so much depends on the limitation of the word “species," upon which point botanists are not agreed. If we take the last edition of Sowerby's “Botany," we find that the first place is given to sixteen, which are by many authorities accepted as good species. These are again subdivided by others, for under the name of the Dog-rose twentyone forms are named and characterized as species, so that there are to be found men of strong faith who can believe that in the British Islands we possess forty distinct species of native roses. On the other hand, Mr. Bentham limits the number to fice. It matters but little to us for our present purpose whether there are forty species or only five. We believe in the Dog rose, the Burnet rose, and the sweetbriar; and if there were no others, we should still delight in the fragrance of the Eglantine, and have faith in the roses of England so long as a rose could be found to entwine with the thistle and shamrock, and never quarrel, whether it be known to science as Rosa canina, or Rosa verticillacantha, or Rosa platyphylla.
A wild rose-tree (Rosa canina) grows in the crypt of the cathedral of Hildesheim, which has the reputation of being one thousand years old. Baron Humboldt states that, from accurate information which he obtained, the age of the main stem did not exceed eight hundred years. This is, however, a respectable antiquity, and he adds that a legend connects this rose with a vow of the first founder of the cathedral, Louis the Pious, and a document of the eleventh century says, that when Bishop Hezilo rebuilt the cathedral, which had been burnt down, he inclosed the roots of the rosetree within a vault still remaining, raised on the latter the walls of the crypt, which was re-consecrated in 1061, and spread the branches of the rose-tree over its sides. The stem, still living, is nearly twenty-seven feet in height, and only two inches thick, and spreads across a width of thirtytwo feet over the outer wall of the eastern crypt. It is undoubtedly of very considerable antiquity, and well worthy of the renown it has so long enjoyed throughout Germany.
The Abbé Berleze gives an account of a rosetree which he saw flourishing at Caserta, near Naples, in 1819, and which had been planted near a poplar sixty feet high, and had clambered up to the topmost branches of its companion tree.
The giant of all the roses is said to have about 24s. to 30s. on the spot. This is for the pure flourished some few years since at Toulon, with a unadulterated rose-water. Adulteration is duly stem two feet eight inches in circumference at the appreciated and resorted to in the East, and neither surface of the soil, and when in full bloom bears rose-water nor attar of roses are exceptions. It is the enormous quantity of from fisty to sixty thou difficult to obtain either of them pure. The great sand roses, and
medium of adulteration is oil of sandal-wood, and
the native does not appear to trouble much whether The last rose of summer left blooming alone
he gets the odour of the rose or the sandal. At does not fall to the ground till chilled by the cold
the commencement of the rose season, people of November.
arrive from all parts at Ghazeepore to purchase And who has not heard of the Otto or Uttur* of
their rose-water, and large quantities are prepared Rose ? This valuable and delicious perfume is ad
and sold. The value of the roses sold in this mired both in the East and in the West. The district for the manufacture of rose-water has been “ Utturs” of India and Persia are highly esteemed estimated at from 15,000 to 20,000 rupees a year, or both in the broker's sale-room and the lady's | 1,5001. to 2,0001., and the value of the rose-water boudoir. And not to possess a soul for Otto of made therefrom is about double this sum. Rose is equivalent to vulgarity, or worse. Let any We had almost forgotten the most valuable prorash mortal confess that he doesn't care for “straw- | duct, but the "attar” must share a little of our berries and cream” or “otto of roses," the summum attention; and, at the risk of being regarded as bonum of two of the senses, and he will at once be tedious, a brief notice of how it is obtained. regarded as “out of his senses” altogether. And
The origin of this delicious perfume is thus there is also that delicate luxury of the East called
chronicled in the romantic stories of the East :“ Rose-water," so refreshing in sultry weather,
Noorjehan Begum, the favourite wife of Jehan. that one cannot wonder that it is almost one of the Geer, was once walking in her garden, through necessaries of life with the Hindoo. Avicenna, an
which ran a canal of rose-water, when she remarked Arabian physician of the tenth century, is said to
some oily particles floating on the surface. These have invented the method of extracting and pre were collected, and their aroma found to be so serving the odour of flowers, and to him the merit
delicious, that means were devised to produce the of distilling the first rose-water is attributed by
precious essence in a regular way.* those matter-of-fact men who seek for causes in the
The roses are distilled just in the same manner regions of science rather than in the realms of as for rose-water, and the product, which is indeed mystery and romance.
“rose-water,” is transferred to a large metal basin, Around one station in India, that of Ghazeepore, and tied over with wet muslin to keep out the in Bengal, there are about 150 acres of ground laid
insects. This vessel is let down into a hole in the out in small detached fields as rose-gardens. These
ground about two feet deep, and allowed to stand gardens are let out for about three pounds sterling
quiet all night. The attar is always made early in per thousand rose-trees for the season, and the cost
the season when the nights are cool. In the mornof cultivation is about another sovereign. The
ing a little film of attar has risen to the surface of value of the roses yielded should be nearly double
the rose-water. This is skimmed off with a feather, this sum, or from six to eight pounds. The culti.
and placed in a bottle. When obtained only three vators seldom distil their own flowers, but dispose of
or four days it is of a pale greenish hue, but in a them to contractors. From the beginning of March few weeks' time it subsides into a pale yellow to the end of April is the great rose harvest.
colour. It requires the produce of 1,000 rose-trees Early in the morning men, women, and children
to obtain a tolah, or 180 grains of attar, The attar swarm about the rose-trees like a colony of bees,
obtained in the Indian bazaars is always adulteplucking the flowers, and carrying them in bags to
rated, as not even the richest native will give the the contractors. The “still” is of the simplest
price for pure attar, which is only sold to Europeans. and rudest construction; its boiler will hold from
The price ranges between £5 and £10 per tolah, or, eight to twelve gallons; into this are cast from
according to our English weights and measures, 12,000 to 16,000 roses, about fifteen to twenty
from £13 to £25 per ounce. So that a vial of the quarts of water are added, and the result will be
best Indian attar of roses the size of that which about one quart of rose-water from each thousand
contains a “ black draught,” would be worth nearly of roses. After distillation the rose-water is placed
£50. in a glass carboy and exposed to the sun for several
Attar of roses made in Cashmere is condays to ripen, or mix well the floating attar with
sidered superior to any other, a circumstance not the water. The value of one still of rose-water is
| surprising, as, according to Hugel, the flower is
* Written as Attur, Attar, Uttur, and Otto ; the last, perhaps, least correct.
* Lieut.- Col. Palier in "Asiatic Researches."
here produced of surpassing fragrance, as well as beauty
THE BIRDS OF NORFOLK.* Who has not heard of the vale of Cashmere,
TOCAL Floras have always been, from some With its roses the brightest that earth ever gave?
cause or other, more numerous than local A large quantity of rose water, twice distilled, is
Faunas. During the past year or two several good placed over night in a running stream, and in the
Floras of English counties have made their appearmorning the oil is found floating on the surface, and
ance, but, until now, not one county has had a is carefully skimmed off with a leaf of the sword
recent record of its “birds, beasts, or fishes.” lily. When cool it is greenish, and nearly solid.
Those who know anything of the ornithology of Between 500 and 600 pounds of roses only produce
Norfolk will not be surprised that a county so rich one ounce of attar.
in birds should be the first to set the example.
Turkey, at That the plants of a county should change with the Adrianople, Broussa, and Ushak. The cultivators
increase of cultivation may be reasonably expected, are chiefly the Christian inhabitants of the low
and pleaded as an excuse for the publication of new countries of the Balkan. In good seasons 75,000
Floras. It may be urged, with equal truth, that ounces are said to be produced in this district, and
this change in vegetation also necessitates a like it is estimated that 2,000 flowers are required to
change in the insects and birds, as well those birds produce one drachm of attar.
which are insect-feeders as those which are entirely In the Orient the “Atar-gul,” or essential oil
vegetarians. Hence a revision of the lists of birds of roses is used as a perfume, and rose-water is
which inhabit counties is as much a necessity as sprinkled about from vessels constructed for the
revised Floras. In the present instance it is not a purpose over the guests and apartments, often to list which has been given to us, but a "history” in the astonishment of Europeans, when their first two
two large octavo volumes, of which the first only is greeting chances to be, as it often is, a shower of
at present published. rose-water" squirted” in their faces.
In all departments of Natural History, when no She snatched the urn wherein was mixed
monograph or other special work is published The Persian Atargul's perfume,
during a long series of years, much valuable and And sprinkled all its odours o'er The pictured roof and marble floor;
important information becomes scattered over the The drops that through his glittering vest
pages of our current scientific literature, and is The playful girl's appeal addressed
almost buried and forgotten. To recover all that Unheeded o'er his bosom flew, As if that breast were marble too.
relates to the birds of Norfolk from this semi
oblivion, has been one of the objects of the present We are told that after the taking of Constanti.
work. For many years the author has been one of nople the church of St. Sophia (or Constantine)
the chief contributors of “ stray facts” to the prior to its conversion into a mosque was washed
Zoologist, and similar publications, from this locality, throughout with rose-water ; that Saladin would not enter the walls of the temple of Jerusalem in
and hence he is now to a large extent the collector 1188 until it had been purified by similar ablutions
and reviser of his own contributions. This forms of the same odoriferous fluid; that the Moslems
but a portion of the work which, though prosessing employ it universally in the dedication of their
to be only a local bird-Fauna, is a valuable addition temples, and that even young French nobles were
to the ornithology of the British Islands.
In the “ Introduction,” the county is divided into formerly baptized in “Eau de Rose," or
six districts, which are called respectively the Their earliest sniff Of this world was a whiff
broad, cliff, meal, breck, fen, and inclosed districts. Of the genuine Otto of Roses !
It was in the first of these that most of our ornithoDuring the whole season in which the roses are logical experience was gained. It is only necesin bloom, the inhabitants of Cashmere are said to sary, as Mr. Lubbock remarks, to draw an imaginary hold the “ Feast of Roses.” Why should we attempt triangle on the map from Lowestoft to Norwich, to draw the veil which conceals the mysteries of and thence in a north-easterly direction to the sea this long festival, of the sad or happy hearts upon
at Happisburgh, to include the whole of that which the sun rises and sets in the vale of Cash. "great alluvial flat, once the bed of the Gariensis mere; of the moonlight meetings in the alcoves of ostium,” whose sluggish waters give rise to those roses; and of the consummation attained by the
| shallow lakes, or lagoons, here locally termed "maid of Cashmere” when at the close of this glad “Broads." These lagoons are peculiarly rich in season all doubts and fears shall have vanished like water fowl, and consequently the “Broad” district the morning dew from the petals of the rose. will contribute much to the second volume. The frontispicce view of Surlingham brond (not executed, And to the general reader it will commend itself by in Hanhart's best style) will give a general idea of its popular style, the absence of pedantry, and the one of these waters. This will be assisted by Mr. presence of an earnest purpose, and an ardent love Stevenson's description. “Deep, sedgy 'ronds, for the feathered ornaments of God's creation. or dense masses of reeds and rushes, shut out, at times, the adjacent marshes. On the one hand, a wide expanse of swampy ground, relieved here and GERMINATION OF THE TOAD-RUSH. there with belts of alder and birch, or dwarf coverts,
And happier now for all her sighs,
* " The Birds of Norfolk, with Remarks on their Habits, She whispers him, with laughing eyes,
Migration, and Local Distribution.” By Henry Stevenson, “Remember, love, the Feast of Roses ! ”
| F.L.S. In 2 vols. London: Van Voorst.
DASSING through a deserted brickfield, some suggestive of pheasants and woodcocks in autumn,
1 few weeks since, my attention was drawn to blends broad with broad; on the other, some slight recess in the waving reed-screen is covered in sum
a dense carpet of minute bright green threads, each
tipped with an orange-brown knob, which, wet with mer with a profusion of water-lilies, or an aldercarr, fringing the water's edge, casts a grateful
recent rain, now glistened in the sun like a veritable shade in strange contrast to the surrounding glare.
little topaz. Not recognising at the moment to Everywhere the rich aquatic herbage teems with
what this appearance was due, and having no time bird-life. Reed and sedge – warblers, with their
for investigation, I hastily snatched up a tuft of the constant companion, the black-headed Bunting, are mossy, jewel-bespangled pile and brought it home for heard on all sides; and occasionally, though yearly
more leisurely examination. When an opportunity becoming more scarce, the beautiful little Bearded
occurred, I tried to make out what my carpet was Titmice, may be seen uttering their sweetly musical
composed of; but, at first, I could see nothing but
the green threads, a little curved at the upper end, notes as they flit amongst the reeds. Coots, Rails, and Water Hens, appear and disappear at every
and there bearing the glistening knobs aforesaid.
What could they be? bend. Black-headed Gulls from their breeding
It was little use speculating grounds at Hoveton, mingle their incessant cries
vaguely when a pocket-lens was at hand which with the warning notes of the Lapwing and Red
might dissipate the conjecture in a moment. Better shank; and the common Snipe, which here breeds
to use the lens first, and if that did not reveal the regularly and in considerable numbers, adds its
structure there would then be all the more room for strange drumming noise, at intervals, to the 'armony of fowles.' Wild Ducks in large quantities, and many a 'coil' of Teal, are also reared on these waters, and afford good 'flapper' shooting in July and August; and of the rarer species that may still be named as summer residents on the larger broads, are the Shoveller, Garganey, and Great Crested Grebe; the Ruff, now confined
Fig. 149. Toad-rush Seedlings. entirely to Hickling, and the Marsh Harrier, if by chance escaping the doom of its race. The Spotted | conjecture. The lens, however, solved the mystery Crake, as well as the common Water-Rail, nest in at once, by showing that the little knob was a seed; the almost impenetrable swamps, which accounts but what was the thread supporting it? Not a for their eggs being so rarely obtained ; and the root, from its green colour; besides, there was the accidental discovery, at Potter Heigham, during the root below it, fine, hair-like, and all but destitute of past summer, of the nests and eggs of Baillon's colour. Was it the stem ? Ilardly, for stems do Crake, never before known to breed in Norfolk, not usually, at any rate, go downwards; besides, shows that even greater rarities may pass un- | when one came to look at other specimens, there observed in such localities.”
was a little thickening to be seen at this junction It is stated, on the authority of Professor Babing. between the hair-like root and the green thread, ton, that out of 1,767 species of flowering plants | wbile the lower part of the latter was clearly seen found in Britain, 1,067 are found in Norfolk. Out to be split on one side; and, in other cases, of somewhere about 350 species of British birds, I
| emerging from the chink so formed, another green our author observes that the actual number forming thread was seen to protrude. So, then, the green the bird-Fauna of Norfolk, amounts to no less than thread resolved itself into a sheath ; now, neither 291 at the present time.
roots nor stems form sheaths of this character, so The book before us could hardly have been written our green thread must be a leaf, and if so it must by any one except a resident, and no better resident be the first leaf-the seed lcaf, or cotyledon-one for the purpose need be desired than Mr. Stevenson. | end of which remains within the seed, the other end All will read it (or should do so) who are interested being pushed downwards along with the root. in the Natural IIistory of the Eastern Counties. | Clearly, then, the plant was monocotyledonous; To ornithologists it will be welcome as the produc- , and, putting two and two together, I arrived at the tion of a field naturalist, and a practised observer. conclusion that the seedlings were probably those
of the Toad Rush (Juncus bufonius). A subse- | venture merely to recommend those of my readers quent visit to the brickfields enabled me to confirm in search of an occupation to watch the processes this impression, and to collect numerous specimens of germination in our common wild plants. No in all stages of germination. Many of the seeds great trouble and but little skill are requisite for sprout while still within the rotting capsule, and these observations, which, nevertheless, are interest. emerge from its cavity in brilliant little tufts, such ing, all the more so that it is comparatively new as those which first caught my eye. The seeds are ground; in hardly a tenth part of our wild plants very small, oblong, somewhat three-cornered, and has the process been correctly observed and
recorded. Nor is there the sameness that might be expected; on the contrary, there is much diversity, in some cases of a very singular character, e.g., in some of the genera of Umbellifers, while systematic investigation could hardly fail to be productive of results of great value to botanical science. I have only to add that in all essential points the mode of germination here described in the Toad Rush finds its parallel in many other monocotyledons, e.g., Allium, Canna, some palms,
M. T. M.
1 Club (April 26th), Mr. Higgins read a communication on “The Auditory Apparatus of Fishes,” of which the following is a digest:
All air-breathing animals live in a different medium from that inhabited by those living in water, and the adaptation of their organization to the conditions of tbeir existence is nowhere more clearly
marked than in their organs of hearing. In the Fig. 150. The Toad Rush.
Mammalia the complexity of structure in these on cutting them down lengthwise they may be seen organs is much greater than in lower orders, and to be filled in the interior with floury matter probably enables them to distinguish in a greater (albumen), at one end of which is a very minute degree the modulations of sound. In air-breathing embryo, which a lucky touch with the needle will animals the auditory organs may be said to consist serve to detach; and which, when examined under a mainly of the ossicula auditûs and the cochlea, lens, is seen to be a mere torso, a headless, limbless with an external ear, the use of the latter being to trunk,-in other words, a solid embryo in which no receive and collect the vibrations of sound. In distinction of parts is visible. As germination pro fish an auditory organ of this description would be ceeds, one end of this lengthens and protrudes to a very great nuisance, because water conveys sound form the first root; afterwards comes the green so much more readily than air that the effect of a thread, or cotyledon, the upper end of which never small sound would produce the sensation of stunning. separates from the seed till both decay together, True fish are, therefore, deprived of the external while its lower extremity forms the sheath before ear, except in some members of the Ray family and mentioned, encircling what must be considered as the Sharks, wbere there is a small process which the extremely contracted stem, from which the other occupies the position of an ear. In almost all leaves proceed in due time. Ultimately, a tuft of other fish the whole of the auditory organs are leaves is formed around a little bulb-like mass, contained in the ootochrones, which are two holes, from whose lower surface proceed a number of one on either side of the head. The internal young rootlets. While all this is going on, the surfaces of the bones of the heads of fish are original cotyledon and the primary root are gra covered with cartilage, and the semicircular canals, dually decaying; they have accomplished their though not large, are not more than half the size of parts, and give place to a new generation.
the holes through which they pass, and they are Not beeding the temptations wbich the very delicately suspended in the middle of them by simplicity of the embryo in this plant holds out to | means of a number of fine threads, the object of go into " transcendental ” dissertations as to the this probably being to lessen the shocks which loud intrinsic identity or diversity of leaf and stem, I sounds might otherwise produce. There are very