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Poisonous FLIES.- The Austrian journals state BIRD'S-EYE PRIMROSE (Primula farinosa).that swarms of poisonous flies have made their | Would any of the readers of SCIENCE-Gossip be appearance in Transylvania, and that more than a kind enough to inform me if they know which is the hundred head of cattle have perished. The farmers most southern habitat for Primula farinosa ? I are compelled to keep their beasts shut up, and have yet to learn if this plant is found in Wales, or large fires are burning night and day around the in Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, or any other county sheds to keep off this unwelcome visitation. During further south than Yorkshire, where it is plentiful. one day, when rain fell copiously, they disappeared, | It was found at Pendleton, near Clitheroe, but as soon as the weather became fine again they | Lancashire, a few years ago, by a Preston botanist, reappeared. The men in charge of the fires have and in 1865 I unexpectedly came upon it in a boggy the greatest difficulty in preserving themselves from field, a mile south of Pendle Hill, nearly two miles their venomous attacks, and find tobacco the best further south than the Pendleton habitat. It is also preservative.-Dorset County Express,
said to have been found near Marsden Hall, and
Worsthorn, near Burnley, in Lancashire; but I have PERFORATED Nuts. I have frequently, in my not yet been able to find it at these last-named searches for shells or mosses, found the perforated
places.-T. Simpson, Burnley. nuts referred to in your June number by Dr. Buckell. In woods and shady places I often come THE CADDIS-WORM. – Can any readers of the on little cozy retreats, nicely stuffed with soft moss, SCIENCE-GOSSIP explain the following unusual inevidently the habitation of some tiny animal whose cidents connected with the Caddis Worm ? Having “Kjokkenmoddings” contain numbers of shells of
caught a fine specimen, I introduced it into a can hazel puts, in each of which a little hole is made so
containing some young dace, intended as contribuas to allow access to the coveted kernel. I have
tions to my aquarium; whereupon, the former often tried to find out who the little fellow was, but
baving grasped the latter with its feet, gradually I have not been successful. It is not the squirrel, drew it within its case, until the head of the fish he graces not our sylvan shades. The holes drilled
was completely hidden. Being desirous to fully in the nutshell are often so small that it is a puzzle
comprehend the intentions of the Caddis Worm, I to think how the contents were at all accessible by
watched the proceedings until the tish remained such means.-S. A. Stewart, Belfast.
perfectly motionless: the worm then released its
prisoner, who, floating underneath the surface of the Double CARDAMINE PRATENSIS (W. H. T. N.,
water, lay to all appearances dead, but after the lapse Ludlow).-Your flowers are doubled not only by
of ten or twelve minutes perfectly recovered itself. the substitution of petals for stamens, but also by
On putting the same worm into my aquarium I saw the increased number of the former organs. Some
it fix itself at once on a “miller's thumb” that was of them are the subjects of “median prolification,"
groping about at the bottom among the stones, and i.e., they have a secondary flower springing from the remain there until the unfortunate fish rolled slowly centre of the primary one, occupying, therefore, the
on its side, and became quite stiff. Thinking it normal position of the seed-vessel. This is not
dead, I removed the Caddis Worm, and found my an uncommon occurrence in this plant. - 11. T. M.
surmise was correct; for though I left it for upwards MOUNTING DIATOMS.- 1f E. W. Schoenebeck
of two hours, I found it gave not the slightest token of will try the following simple process, I think he
life. Having previously kept several of the above will find no difliculty in fixing his diatoms for
species in the same vessel without any hostility mounting in balsam. Let him take some mucilage
evinced from either the one or the other, I am at of gum dragon (Tragacanth) and make with it the
a loss to account for the pugnacity shown by this thinnest possible smear in the centre of his slide;
individual specimen, and shall be glad if any one can this may be kept moist by breathing on it, and the
offer an explanation of it.-J. G. T. diatom may be laid on and pushed into the required
TADPOLES IN AQUARIA. -A circular fresh-water position with great facility. When dry they may
tank, which I have in a north window, bad, from be mounted in balsam without any danger of displace
some cause which I could not explain, become very ment, and the gum will not interfere in any way
turbid. The other day I quite inadvertently put in with the clearness of the slide.-F. W.Y.
a few tadpoles, and in less than twenty-four hours
it became much clearer, and in a couple of days Guaco.— There is a plant in America called
was clear as crystal, and so remains “ unto this “Guaco," and it is said that if you drink the juice
day.” I find by observing these tadpoles, that of this plant you can handle the most venomous
they are first-rate scavengers, and would recomSnakes without fear; and if they should accidentally
mend my fellow readers who are not satisfied with Happen to bite a person, placing a small quantity of
the appearance of their tanks to try a few, and the juice on the wouud is said to cure it instan.
report the result.-W. 11. Nettleton, Hudderstaneously. Is this true; and if so, what is the real
field. name of the plant, and where is it possible to procure a specimen? There is also a bird called "the
SKYLARK.-I have recently paid much attention snake bird” which, when bitten by snakes (on
to this bird, with the following results :-Those which it preys), flies towards the above-mentioned
inhabiting upland pastures are of a much lighter plant, eats a portion of it, and returns to the
colour than those found on marsh lands. In singattack anew.-Henry Cooke.
ing, the upland larks appear to fly almost perpen[There are several plants which pass under the dicularly upwards, and continue their song for name of “Guaco," and which are said to be several minutes; on the contrary, the marsh larks beneficial in cases of snake-bite. One of these is tly spirally upwards, and sing only a short time. I Mikania Guaco, others are probably species of would certainly recommend any one, when purAristolochia. In the majority of instances the re chasing a bird for a cage or the avairy, to choose puted power is fabulous, and the substance extolled only those that are light coloured: they will be is inert.-E..]
found superior in many respects.-R.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
H. H.-We cannot see how we could follow your suggestion, neither do we think it would be generally approved if we conld.
T. C.-Potamogeton pusillus.
W.G.-The bee is Andrenu Trimmerana, a species common about London.-F. W.
WITHAM'S BOOKS.-Mr. John Butterworth may procure either of Witham's works of Mr. E. D. Suter, 32, Cheapside, London.
A. (Dartmouth).-No. 3, Plumularia falcata. No. 6. Sertularia abietina ; both common.-E. C.
A. W.-A species of Amelanchier.- W. C.
ALL communications relative to advertisements, post-office
orders, and orders for the supply of this Journal should be addressed to the PUBLISHER. All contributions, books, and pamphlets for the EDITOR should be sent to 192, Piccadilly, London, W. To avoid disappointment, contri. butions should not be received later than the 15th of each month. No notice whatever can be taken of communi. cations which do not contain the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication, if desired to be with. held. We do not undertake to answer any queries not specially connected with Natural History, in accordance with our acceptance of that term; nor can we answer queries which might be solved by the correspondent by an appeal to any elementary book on the subject. We are always prepared to accept queries of a critical nature, and to pnblish the replies, provided some of our readers, besides the querist, are likely to be interested in them. We cannot undertake to return rejected manuscripts unless sufficient stamps are enclosed to cover the return postage. Neither can we promise to refer to or return any manuscript after one month from the date of its receipt. All microscopical drawings intended for publication should have annexed thereto the powers employed, or the extent of enlargement, indicated in diameters (thus : * 320 diameters). Communications intended for publication should be written on one side of the paper only, and all scientific names, and names of places and individuals should be as legible as possible. Wherever scientific names or technicalities are employed, it is hoped that the common names will accompany them. Lists or tables are inad. missible under any circumstances. Those of the popular names of British plants and animals are retained and regis. tered for publication when sufficiently complete for that purpose, in whatever form may then be decided upon. ADDRESS No. 192, PICCADILLY, LONDON, W.
EXCHANGES. BRITISH AND FOREIGN DIATOMACE.-Twelve first-rat slides for the same number of good Entomological or Ana. tomical slides.-B. Taylor, 57, Lowther-street, Whitehaven.
ASPARAGUS BEETLES wanted for good microscopic objects. -J. H. M., 78, Week-street; Maidstone.
BRYUM TURBINATUM in fine condition for other good mosses.-R. G., 42, William-street, Ashton-under-Lyne.
RARE BRITISH FERNS for others, or dried fronds of the same.-Send list to J. E. M. Woodfield, Stoney-lane, Birmingham.
Gold Fish SCALES for other objects. For like scales, send stamped envelope to F. S., Post Omce, Rugeley, Stafford. shire.
ORTHOSIRA ARENARIA, and Eupodiscus, from Melbourne (mounted), for diatomaceous earth, or other material.-W. S. Kent, 56, Queen's-road, Notting Hill,
Fatty Acids mounted for good polariscopic objects, mounted or unmounted.-J. P., Abbotsbury, Dorchester.
BARBADORS EARTH, shells from (mounted), for other mounted objects.-E. Histed, 3, Great Bourne-street, Hastings.
RARE BRITISH Birds' Eggs for rare British Lepidoptera.W. M. Cole, 93, St. Helen's-street, Ipswich.
MOUNTED OBJECTS in exchange for others.--Send lists to W. Fletcher, Grammar School, Bromsgrove.
PLANORBIS GLABER and Clausilia laminatı var. albida, for foreign land shells, or British vertigos.-W. Nelson, Alma. place, Sparkbrook, Birmingham.
MONMOUTH DEPOSIT.-A good mounted slide of British Diatoms will still insure a portion of this deposit is sent to E. C. B., care of the Editor of ScikxCK-Gossip.
Fossils or minerals from the limestone, for fossils or minerals from any other formation.-W. Potter, Jun., Matlock Bath, Derbyshire.
CYPHUS GERMARII.-C. imperinlis, S. orbicularis diatoms, &c. (mounted), for good objects.-- Send list to T. Forshaw, Bowdon, Cheshire.
SPICULES of Spongilla lacustris (mounted) for good mounted Diatoms.-H. R, 150, Leadenhall-street, Londou, E.C.
PALMATE NEWTS for Edible frogs, lizards, or crayfish, as may be arranged.-J. B., Box 22, Post Omce, Gla-gow
Fossils from Chalk or Limpet's tongues for other fossils or fronds of British Ferns.-J. Stanley, Harold-road, Newtown, Margate.
G. E. F.-Only by moisture can you relax your specimens. Have you tried" keeping the leg joints enveloped in wet bandages for a week or more ?
E. T. S.-The fresh water species of Coeconeis are mostly more or less striated. See Pritchard's last edition.
ZOOPHYTE CLIP. - The Clip for Zoophyte trough figured at pp. 105, is sold at one shilling by J. A. Pumphrey, Birmingham.
J. G. B.-If, from any cause, the teeth of a rodent (as a rabbit) cease to meet, and thus wear away at the ratio of their growth, they will in time attain the length indicated in your sketch. Many similar instances are on record.
ERRATA.--At p. 142, line 15 for "carnels," read "carpels," line 40, 41, for "zoolitic," read “ zeolitic.”
G. B.-It is impossible to say, without seeing the specimen, what your plant is, which, though only half an inch in height, has root, stem, and flower. It may be Cicendin filiformis, or it may be something else. We have a specimen of Aster trifolium in flower that does not exceed one inch in height.M. T. M.
F. G. B.- It is Alchemilla vulgaris.
E. J.-See SCIENCE-Gossip for 1866, p. 260,“ Wanted to kill."
W. F. P.-1 he water wagtail ofien selects an equally eccentric spot for its nest, such as woodstack, a pile of stones, or an old wall.
A. M. D.-The publishers of the Rev. F. O. Morris's Catalogue of British Insects are Messrs. Longmans, London.
W. M. C.-British moths and their transformations was published by Professor Westwood, uniform with his volume of “ British Butterflies."
J. H. (Devizes).- Epipactis grandiflora,
J. S. S. will probably find all the information he requires in the “ Handy-book to the Collection of Cryptogamia," which will shortly be published by Mr. Robert Hardwicke.
A. M. E. We have seen many such albinos.
G. G.-The name “ Horse mushroom" is usually applied to Agaricus pratensis, a large species, employed for ketchup. In our opinion it is equal to the “Mushroom" cooked any way, and therefore we always eat them when we can get them.
J. W. W.-See “ Bechstein's Cage. Birds." The Blackcap has been kept in confinement.
T. L.-Clearly not a gall, but probably a species of Coccus,
G. B.- We should think your Alga is a very young state of Desmarestiu aculeata, although unbranched.
B. D, J.-Yes, it is Carex axillaris.
T. S. K.-No. 11, Hypnum cupressiforme. No. 12, Metzgeria furcata.-R. B.
W. R.-No. 1, Thamnium alopecurum.-R. B.
BOOKS RECEIVED. "An Index to Mineralogy," by T. Allison Redwin, F.G.S., &c. London: E. & F. N. Spon. 1967.
“ A Fern-book for Everybody," by M. C. Cooke. London: Frederick Warne & Co. 1867.
“The Technologist." No. XI. New Series, June, 1867. London: Kent & Co.
“The Fourth Annual Report of the Belfast Naturalisti' Field Club. 1866.7.
“Naturalist's Note Book." Nos. I to VI. January to June. 1867.
O HE most un- | larvæ are leaf-miners, or at any rate some of the
observant can species in the genus adopt that mode of life; for in scarcely have many genera we find a diversity of habit, and whilst failed to notice, some of the species are leaf-miners in the larva some time or | state, others are not so; in other genera every other, leaves of species without exception is a leaf-miner when in
plants with the larva state.
> pale blotches or Sometimes the same leaf will be mined by two slender tracks on them. These or three species, each of which imparts to the leaf pale marks are formed by the a mark, recognizable by the initiated, indicating minuté larvæ of small insects, what species has fed on the leaf long after the which, feeding between the larva has itself departed. A mined leaf is hence skins of the leaf, devour more inscribed with hieroglyphic characters, and the key or less of the green fleshy wherewith to decipher these is obtainable by portion of the leaf, and so patient and continued observation. discolour it.
To take, now, some particular instances: bramble. There are four orders of leaves may frequently be found with two different insects which furnish us with kinds of mines; in one the leaf remains perfectly leaf-mining larvæ, &c.; but | flat, and a long slender serpentine gallery winds its
two of these are not nume way across the leaf, and generally attains a length rously represented, and are comparatively seldom of from two to three inches; this mine, which is observed. I allude to the mining larvæ of saw-flies scarcely visible whilst the larva is still at work, the among the Hymenoptera, and the mining larvæ of discolouration being then so slight, becomes very some of the weevils among the Coleoptera. The two conspicuous after it has been long deserted, the orders which furnish the great bulk of our leaf dry loosened upper skin eventually becoming almost mining larvæ are the Lepidoptera and Diptera. The white, and contrasting strongly with the dark Diptera, or two-winged flies, a group of insects, green colour of the leaf. The creature that makes which, I am sorry to say, is very little studied in this mine is a small, pale amber, semi-transparent this country, afford an amazing number of leaf. larva, with no real legs, and when full-fed it crawls mining larvæ, and we see these mines constantly out of its mine and proceeds to some convenient on the leaves of the primrose, honey-suckle, butter. corner in which it spins a small, flat, brownishcup, &c., &c. Those who search for the mining green, silken cocoon, from which at the end of two larvæ of Lepidoptera know only too well how very or three weeks there emerges a brilliant little moth plentiful the mining larvæ of Diptera are; but about a quarter of an inch in the expanse of the as the mining larve of the Lepidoptera have been wings, of which the fore wings are of a rich golden the most studied, I propose now to confine my brown, tinged with purple beyond the middle, and remarks exclusively to them. Amongst the small with a nearly straight pale golden band beyond the moths of the group Tineina, a group which com- middle : this we call Nepticula aurella (fig. 174). prises the smallest known Lepidopterous insects, / Another kind of mine which we find in bramblewe have more than twenty genera of which the leaves is very different; the leaf does not
remain perfectly flat, but is a little puckered the same genus happen to be oak-feeders, and it just where the mine is, and the mine, instead is by no means uncommon to find that a single of being a long slender gallery, begins slender oak leaf is mined simultaneously by half a dozen and gradually widens, the first portion of it remind- different species. In the month of July we may ing one of a ram's horn or cornucopæia: this is of a not unfrequently find oak-leaves which have nearly pale brown with the narrow end whiter : it then still the entire upper surface discoloured by a large further increases in size till it occupies nearly half white blotch; these leaves are not transparent, for the width of a bramble-leaf. The larva which fornis the under side remains green as before, and the the mine is very different from the soft-looking white blotch is simply the upper skin of the leaf, pale amber larva which forms the slender galleries; which has been loosened over a considerable area it is green, rather rigid-looking, with three pairs of by the operations of the mining larva within, and short anterior legs, and with the head black, and which, having slightly shrunk, has caused the under two blackish marks on the back of the second side of the leaf to curve a little upwards so that the segment. When full-fed it does not quit the mine, leaf no longer remains flat. On examining one of but changes within the bramble leaf to the pupa the leaves closely, we shall see near the foot stalk state, and in two or three weeks' time the pupa | several short, slender, pale tracks running into the pushes its anterior end through the dry skin of the mined leaf, and the little moth makes its escape. When its wings are expanded it is rather more than a third of an inch, and the fore wings are of a bright yellow, with a brownish margin along the costa, and hind margin, and a round black spot above the anal angle : this we call Tischeria marginea (fig. 175).
In the month of June we may frequently find on young oak-bushes that many of the leaves have extensive mines, occupying nearly a third of the leaf, and the part mined is so completely cleaned out that nothing is left but the two skins of the leaf, and it hence has a very flimsy appearance : on holding one of these mined leaves up to the light, we should perceive within it a mass of short dark grey thread-like substances, being the excrement of the larva; possibly in some of the leaves we might succeed in finding the larva still there, a dull whitish creature with no legs, but with a welldefined head, his jaws being kept constantly at work devouring the green portion of the leaf,
Fig. 173. Mined Oak Leaf, and Larva of Micropteryx which imparts a greenish tinge to the dorsal vessel running along the centre of its body (fig. 173). This larva, when full fed, quits the leaf and descends to large blotch, just as if they were so many little the ground which it enters, and there spins a sub streams running into a large lake; these are the terranean cocoon, coated with particles of earth; tracks formed by the individual larvæ when young, within this cocoon it changes to the pupa state, each of them making a separate path towards the and it is not till the following month of May that centre of the leaf, where they then proceed to the imprisoned moth makes its escape and delights mine a large blotch in common: these larvæ are to fly round the oak twigs in the sunshine. It is pale whitish green, with a darker green line down a pretty glossy creature, about half an inch in the the back, and with the head pale brown; when expanse of the wings; the fore wings are of a pale nearly full-fed they become suffused with reddish golden green, with a faint appearance of two paler orange, and ultimately quit the leaf and spin small spots, one on the inner margin beyond the middle, cocoons, in which to undergo their change to the the other midway between this and the tip of the pupa state. In a few weeks the elegant little moth wing; and scattered over the surface of the wings makes its appearance; the expansion of the wings is are a few purple scales : the hind wings are rather rather more than a third of an inch; the fore wings transparent pale purplish. This we call Micropteryx are of a glossy brownish, with four oblique white subpurpurella. (There are many species of this streaks from the costa, edged towards the base with same genus Micropteryx, which make similar mines dark fuscous, and with two short whitish streaks on in birch-leaves.) The miners in the leaves of oak the inner margin: this is called Coriscium Brongniarare so numerous, that we frequently find several of dellum (fig. 176).
In July and September, if we examine the leaves | upper skin of the leaf, which hence assumes a of the oak, we are pretty sure to notice some which prettily-mottled appearance. The larva which does are mined in a peculiar way; a portion of the lower this is whitish, with a greenish line along the back, skin is loosened, and then drawn together, gene and with the head, which is very pointed, pale rally showing a distinct plait lengthwise. This brown; it changes to the pupa state within the gives a certain curve to the upper side of the leaves ; mine; and in summer, after an interval of only and the small larva which feeds within, on the two or three weeks, the pupa protrudes its anterior fleshy green portion of the leaf, removes here and segments through the skin of the leaf, and the little there the green part which is in contact with the moth makes its appearance. Those which assume