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the most elegantly and delicately marked of our native small moths. There are several species which mine the leaves of the oak in the way described, but they all belong to the genus Lithocolletis (fig. 177).

When the month of October is well advanced and the leaves of the oak are fast turning brown,

Fig. 178. Mined Oak Leaf, and Larva of Nepticula sub. one very small mining larva will sometimes produce

bimaculella, enlarged. a very singular effect. It commences a very narrow slender gallery close to the midrib, and then, after larva is mining continues green; and by these green proceeding a short distance in one direction, turns blotches on the leaves we often readily detect the sharp round, so as to form the continuation of its presence of the larva, which is of a very pale green, mine in close proximity to the part already mined; | with a pale brown head. When full-fed, it quits the

leaf, and descends to the surface of the ground, and spins its small silken cocoon, in which it changes to the pupa state; and in the following month of June, the little moth emerges from the cocoon, and may be found sitting on the trunks of oak trees. It is barely a quarter of an inch in the expanse of the wings; the fore wings are black, with two nearly opposite triangular whitish spots in the middle. This we call Nepticula subbimaculella (fig. 178).

In the months of May and June, we often find large brown blotches on the leaves of hawthorn; and, on holding one of these leaves up to the light, we see that the entire green portion of the leaf has been eaten away, nothing being left but the upper and lower cuticles of the leaf; where these brown

stretched straight out before it; the expansion of the wings is nearly half an inch, and the forewings are unicolorous-blackish. This we call Coleophora nigricella (fig. 179).

It will thus be seen that the leaf-mining larvæ do not all work after the same fashion, but that each sort of larvæ has its special work to do, which it does after its kind. We have in this country several hundred leaf-mining larvæ of the order Lepidoptera, and possibly, when all the orders are considered which furnish examples of leaf-mining larvæ, they may without exaggeration be numbered by thousands.

THE UNITY OF MANKIND.

[graphic]

Fig. 179. Mined Hawthorn Leaf, and Larva of Coleophora

nigricella, natural size, and niagnified.

blotches are, moreover, we see in the lower cuticle a small round hole. On some leaves we may find attached a small brown cylindrical object, about half an inch long; this is the portable habitation, or case, formed by the larva which has mined the hawthorn leaf, and its mode of proceeding is as follows: it fastens its case to the underside of a leaf, and bites the round hole in the lower skin of the leaf, and then proceeds to devour the fleshy green portion of the leaf. By degrees it eats the green portion of the leaf away all round the spot where its case is fastened, but carefully leaves the skins of the leaf unbroken; and as it comes further and further out of its case as the mined space becomes larger, and as it has to reach to a great distance for some of the green substance of the leaf, it will frequently happen that it comes entirely out of its case into the leaf; but if in any way alarmed, it retreats quickly to its case, which in due time it transports to another leaf, and repeats a similar process. When full-fed, it generally fastens its case to the upper side of a leaf, and then assumes the pupa state. In two or three weeks the moth makes its appearance, and may be seen sitting on hawthorn leaves with its antennæ

TF Mr. Milton had taken the trouble to read my I essay carefully before he attempted to criticise it, he would have done himself no harm and me less injustice. He asserts that in my essay I allude to Prichard and Knox, Pickering and Laurence, as likely to perplex the student instead of aiding him. I say nothing so ridiculous, but simply advise him to avoid those writers who abound in arbitrary and endless classifications. I, of course, do not in the least discourage the study of the religion, language, and customs of every race in order to discover from them its origin and affinities; but I maintain that while this process is going on, some such memoria technica as this arbitrary division according to colour would afford, is wanted to do what the Linnæan system has done for Botany, i.e., to keep together the various elements of the science until its natural laws and divisions have been ascertained with some degree of accuracy. The division of mankind by colour is, after all, no novelty, but sanctioned by some of the highest authorities extant; and in proof of this I may refer to that very learned work on "The Geographical Distribution of Mammals," by Mr. Andrew Murray, which has recently appeared, and in which a system very similar to the one which I advised is adopted. Of course Mr. Milton will be able to adduce many exceptions to such a theory. There are doubtless races which cannot be strictly characterised as black, white, or brown; but those who have studied the subject will, I think, agree with me when I say that, according to our present knowledge, the classification I have adopted is the only one capable of any extended application.

I do not for a moment believe that heat alone produces a dark skin; but heat, an unhealthy climate, and prolonged isolation will, I think it is impossible to doubt, produce and perpetuate the most marked and extraordinary peculiarities. The vast desert of the Sahara was, geologists tell us, once the bed of an inland sea which completely severed Africa from the rest of the old world and

the Himalayas, performing the same office for Toltecs-were all diminutive in stature, peaceful in Hindustan. We have, I believe, in this fact the their habits, and of great intellectual capacity. The secret of the marked idiosyncracy of the two races. Phenicians and Babylonians were probably of a Mr. Milton's argument, deducible from the different somewhat different hue, but their physical and hues of the races inhabiting the African coast-line, mental characteristics are so similar to those of the does not appear to me to be worth much; for we red races that one cannot doubt their consanguinity. know that the Kaffirs, Gallas, and other races of | The Hindus also, who must once have been very comparatively light colour, have permeated every light in colour, show in their ancient classics a part of South and Central Africa. The display minute acquaintance with the geography and ethnoof negrophilism contained in Mr. Milton's essay / logy of Eastern Africa; whilst their buildings and argues, I think, strongly against his theory; for if customs are almost identical with those of Ancient so imitative and numerous a race, which has been Egypt. All these nations were of Shemitic origin, so petted and pampered for the last half-century, and in all of them commercial and mechanical can produce nothing better than the few medio talent was developed to the highest degree, forming, crities cited, how greatly inferior must it be to the in this respect, a remarkable contrast to the Greeks European and Asiatic nations, who have made every and other Japhetic races who ultimately superseded single discovery and invention which has been of them in the empire of the world, who were characthe slightest benefit to man! The remarks upon terized by an herculean physique, and a passionate the colour of the Esquimaux are incidentally love of liberty and of war. * It seems highly proanswered below.

bable to my mind, that the Chinese justly claim to In an interesting paper recently read before the be descended from Noah (Fohi). The resemblances Ethnological Society by the chairman, Mr. Craw- | between the civilization of the Chinese and Hindus furd, entitled, “The Skin, the Hair, and the Eyes, are too numerous to be accidental ; indeed, we as tests of the Races of Men,” the very views which know that the religious system of Boodh prevailed I advanced are ably contested; but the essay is in both countries. Anyone who will carefully comwholly destructive, and Mr. Crawfurd is forced to pare the religious and social systems of the eight admit that dark-skinned races do usually inhabit primitive races which I have mentioned, will, I hot countries. Now, if this is merely a coincidence, think, be firmly persuaded of their identity, and it is surely a very singular and suggestive one! will have gained a good idea of the characteristics One argument which he employs appears at first of that earlier Shemitic civilization which preceded sight to carry some weight, and I will therefore the dispersion, and subsequent conquests, of the briefly advert to it. He argues that the vulgar | Japhetic (Aryan ?) races, and probably embodied the theory which attributes darkness of complexion to attainments of the Antediluvians. It will be the influence of the sun cannot be correct, because recollected that immediately after the flood, a the Esquimaux, who inhabit arctic countries, are great architectural work was commenced. Whence brown, or at any rate dark, in colour, whilst the could the skill requisite for the undertaking have Scandinavian nations, who live in a far milder been obtained but from the traditions of the anteclimate, are much lighter in hue. But it must be diluvian earth, handed down by the sons of Noah ? recollected that Sir John Richardson thought the That the Antediluvians had attained to a considerEsquimaux white, also that they belong to the Mon- able degree of refinement appears highly probable golian race, which is almost invariably darker than from this consideration, and we must remember the Circassian, to which the Scandinavians belong. | the advantages which they enjoyed of a vastly Until Mr. Crawfurd can clearly prove that the lengthened existence; a denser population (in new Arctic climate darkens the complexion, we are countries populations always spread fastest), and quite at liberty to attribute the dark colour of the probably of a balmier atmosphere, favoured the Esquimaux to their southern origin, all trace of spread of knowledge and the completion of great which the climate of the Arctic regions has not yet undertakings. It is difficult to see how the degree eradicated. The fact that ethnologists now acknow. of wickedness which provoked their overthrow ledge the existence, in remote times, throughout could have been reached in a savage or pastoral the whole of Europe, Asia (perhaps even of North community. The complex sins and vices of civilAmerica), of a race akin to the Esquimaux, proves

ization alone will explain the enigma. their southern origin, and their comparatively recent

The early civilization of the Shemitic race, which banishment to northern fastnesses by successive

discovered letters, and attained such architectural immigrations of Celts, Teutons, Sarmatians, Red and commercial successes, appears to have been Indians, and other warlike tribes.

extinguished, slowly but surely, by the same Which is the primitive nation? What an interesting train of thoughts is opened up by this ques

* Although these Shemites generally lived under destion! It is noteworthy that the red races of

potisms, the theocratic or republican form prevailed in mankind-the Etruscans, Trojans, Egyptians, and | Etruria and in Toltec America.

agency. The Greeks conquered Troy and Tyre; widely extended race, which once inhabited a conthe Romans, Etruria, Carthage, and Egypt; the tinent stretching from Australia or Malaya to South Persians, Babylon; the American Indians, the America; whilst the Malay-Polynesians are allied Toltecan Empire. The Chinese and Hindoos, being to the Hindus or Burmans, and have come to the to the eastward of the great westerly emigration of South Seas by conquest only. The close resemthe Japhetic races, escaped conquest, it is true, but blance observable between two races so widely were completely isolated, and their valuable secrets severed as the Maories of New Zealand and the had to be re-discovered in the middle ages. This | Hindus, is very remarkable; with some curious and theory explains, I think satisfactorily, the co-exist- interesting details of this likeness, I must close my ence of an effete and decaying eastern, and a remarks. vigorous and progressive western, civilization. In In Knight's work upon the “Hindoos," p. 370, every case in which the primitive races were con- ' the following occurs :-—"The Hindoos, especially quered, the victors became in time leavened with the Nairs of Travancore, a vigorous and athletic the civilization of the vanquished, and so far re- race, drink by pouring water, from vessels with cognised its superiority, as to partially adopt the spouts, in a stream into their mouths, it being conreligious and social systems of their predecessors. sidered indelicate to touch the lips with a vessel. Thus arose the Aztec and Peruvian empires on the Thus when the Portuguese, under Vasco-de-Gama, ruins of that of the Toltecs; the Roman empire reached India, and were handsomely entertained by out of the Etruscan; the dynasty of the Ptolemies, the Zamorin at Calicut, having been informed that out of the Egyptian. In each of these cases this this was etiquette, they strove to conform, and by second civilization was obviously and confessedly choking themselves, and deluging their clothes or inferior to the one from which it was copied ; just the table, threw the court into roars of laughter." as the Saxons were far surpassed in refinement by Curiously enough in the same series, in the volume the Romanized Britons whom they displaced. entitled “The New Zealanders,” p. 133, a picture These remarks cannot be carried further in the is copied from Rutherford's work on the natives, in present essay, but will be suggestive, I doubt not, which an aboriginal is represented, drinking from a to those who take an interest in the early history of calabash, held at some distance from his mouth, and mankind.

this is stated to be a national custom! The southern origin of the Gael of Scotland is The missionary, Taylor, also states that the curiously shown by the reverence which this people native name of the New Zealanders, “Maori,” is pay in all their rites and ceremonies to the south. 'closely allied to our word “Moor," i.e., a “dusky They preserve, as was stated some time back in person.” He states also that the figures in the Good Words, the Druidic custom of carrying the renowned caves of Elephanta (Bombay) much redead round the churchyard the southern way, fol. semble the Maories. The resemblance between lowing the course of the sun ; also of sending the the "caste” of the Hindus, and the “tabu” of bottle round the table in the same way. The Celts the Malay-Polynesians is too obvious to need all seem to highly respect the south, for they call remark.

F. A. A. the right hand “ Deus” (i.e., the south hand), the same word signifying “ being ready,” “ being ex- ! pert,” and “being handsome."

BITTEN BY A VIPER. The existence of two distinct races of men in the archipelagos of Polynesia, the Negrittos (Papuans),

| TT appears still to be a disputed question as to and Malay-Polynesians, has often puzzled ethno

1 whether any one has been poisoned by a viper, logists. I think, however, there can be no doubt, and the poison has directly proved fatal. I say if we investigate the legends and traditions of the directly, for it no doubt may be, and has been, an natives, as to which is the aboriginal race. It will indirect cause of death; as, for instance, be found that whilst the Malay-Polynesians in- person has been bitten in the neck, and the swelling variably recount their arrival by sea at their present has produced suffocation. But in such a case we homes, the Fijians (the most cultivated of the should not say the man was fatally poisoned by the Papuans) claim to have been created upon the soil. | creature, although the poison caused his death inThis fact, taken in connexion with the argument directly: similar consequences have been known to deducible from the fact that the Papuans appear to result from the sting of a wasp :-A man was once inhabit the interior of the larger islands, and those drinking from a vessel into which a wasp had fallen, groups of volcanic, and therefore older, formations, and the insect stung him on the tongue, which such as Papua, Fiji, &c., while the Malay-Poly swelled to such an extent that he was suffocated. nesians inhabit the coral islands of more recent We are as yet without any well authenticated origin, such as Tongatabu, and the shores of the instance of the poison of Pelias Berus proving fatal larger islands, argues strongly in favour of the from its own nature. Yet almost every country hypothesis that the Papuans represent an old and churchyard has its grave pointed out to children and strangers as a caution against meddling with which ensued; he felt utterly prostrated, and snakes and adders; I remember in particular a needed all that could be given him to restore bis churchyard in one of the lonely villages of Norfolk, physical strength. He lay in bed a fortnight, no in which was a tombstone, ornamented with the fever ensued, and more curiously no pain, nothing sculpture of a snake with its tail in its mouth, form- but excessive weakness, and, immediately after the ing a ring. Doubtless it was meant as an emblem bite, insensibility and delirium. The hand, arm, of eternity, but there it was looked upon as proof and side as low as the hip were immensely swollen, positive of the mode of the man's death, and we and almost black; the two former were frequently children used to look at it with awe, while one of bathed in hot water. our elders related the story of the man gathering Having gone through this little experience, he wood, when an adder stung him, &c. As there is, always made it a rule to kill a viper when he had no doubt, some residuum of truth, even in the the opportunity; not because there was any danger wildest legends, we may believe that death from the of its attacking anybody, he knew it was a very bite of a viper is not an utterly unknown circum- timid creature, but then "you might tread on one." stance. The physical constitution of the victim, I cannot agree with him, though I can make every the state of his health at the time, the heat of the allowance for his feelings : vipers, like all other weather, will no doubt affect the case. Very likely created beings, have their allotted work to perform, a person of feeble constitution, whose blood was in and they are neither sufficiently numerous nor an impure state, and who chanced to get bitten in wautonly aggressive, to warrant our endeavours to the sultry days of July and August, might succumb exterminate them. to the venomous bite; otherwise I should say not. I mentioned olive oil to him, and also sucking out Any instances brought forward on either side of the | the poison, but, as he remarked, and with great question must necessarily be interesting. From one plausibility too, one pulsation-the very firstor two accounts I have read, and from the follow | carries the poison into the system, and unless it can ing, for which I can vouch, it would appear that the be followed up there by some antidote, in the same venom does not always act in the same way. Mr. | way that some one has lately been advising nitrate Wood mentions a case in which there was intense of silver in the case of hydrophobia, I do not see pain and fever; in the following instance there was how its ill effects can possibly be stopped. Prolittle of either.

bably death may be prevented, and pain or fever I was out entomologising a few days ago when I assuaged by applying remedies in this manner; but saw a very beautiful specimen of Pelias Berus, about a certain amount of suffering, more or less severe, half grown. Meeting a brother of the net a few must ensue. Since writing the above I have had a minutes afterwards, I mentioned it to him. “Of conversation with a gentleman, in which he mencourse you killed it ? ” said he. “No, I did not; Il tioned that sportsmen's dogs are occasionally killed very seldom do.” “Perhaps you were never bitten by vipers'; he had lost two very valuable ones himby one? or else you always would.” No, I had self. Young ones generally die, but occasionally not. I had kept them in confinement, and I am recover; old ones seldom fall victims. One that he always shy of killing any creature that I have watched had had some years had been bitten twice when and studied. Upon which he told me that he had, young, but as it grew older it became an adept in and the circumstances and consequences were as killing its foes: it used to spring upon them, all follow :--He was out butterfly hunting, and caught four feet coming down at once, and then with its a viper in his net as it was gliding over the ground: head up in the air, trample them to death. not knowing then the difference between vipers and

HENRY ULLYETT. snakes, he was not at all afraid of it, but handled it repeatedly, and when he reached home, placed it on the table to watch its movements. He took it up several times, till at last it turned its head sharply

NIGHTINGALE FREAK. – I found last week round, and bit him on the forefinger of the right

a whole nest of canaries disappear in about three hand. Still he took no notice, and continued hand.

days. I could not account for them, as they hung ling it as before; though he was careful now to lay

against a wall, being too young to get out of hold of it closer to the head. Shortly, however, he

the nest. A few days after, another nest hatched, felt a curious drowsy sensation stealing over him,

and next morning we found the hen canary and a and told his friends of it, but they attributed it to

nightingale in fierce combat, but the nightingale fancy. But it was not long before he became

took the young bird, and then commenced a regular seriously ill, his mind wandered, they put him in bed,

chase with the nightingales (of which there were and sent for a medical man. No olive oil was ap

three) to get the youngster, which of course they plied, and the principal thing given him was neat

soon killed, and before I could get it away, the head brandy in occasional doses. The object of this

was half gone. Do nightingales usually eat young was to cause a re-action from the great weakness birds P-Charles Rudd.

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