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NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
WATER-FUTERS.-Referring to inquiries as to purifying water, we would recommend that application be made to the SILICATED CARBON FILTER CONPANY (Battersea) for one of their Illustrated Lists, as these Filters have been spoken of in the highest terms by the Lancet, the Popular Science Review, and the British Medical Journal.
B. T.-It is really quite out of our power to name so many apecimens at a time. We are willing to do all that we can for our subscribers, but this is one of the things that we cannot do. Could not some of our friends think of the Editor, as well as of themselves, when they pack up a dozen “odd things” for him to name for them?
M. B.--A second issue of Mrs. Bury's “ Photographs of Polycystius" is in progress, and will soon be published.
A. A.-See Nave's Handybook, just published at 2s. 6d. by Mr. Hardwicke, 192, Piccadilly.
B. R.-We cannot say. Inquire of Mr. King, Portland.
ALL communications relative to advertisements, post-office
orders, and orders for the supply of this Journal should be addressed to the PUBLISHER. All contributions, books, and pamphlets for the EDITOR should be sent to 192, Piccadilly, London, W. To avoid disappointment, contri. butions should not be received later than the 15th of each month. No notice whatever can be taken of communications which do not contain the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication, if desired to be withheld. We do not undertake to answer any queries not specially connected with Natural History, in accordance with our acceptance of that term ; nor can we answer queries which might be solved by the correspondent by an appeal to any elementary book on the subject. We are always prepared to accept queries of a critical nature, and to publish the replies, provided some of our readers, besides the querist, are likely to be interested in them. We cannot undertake to return rejected manuscripts unless suficient stamps are enclosed to cover the return postage. Neither can we promise to refer to or return any manuscript after one month from the date of its receipt. All microscopical drawings intended for publication should have annexed thereto the powers employed, or the extent of enlargement, indicated in diameters (thus : X 320 diameters). Communications intended for publication should be written on one side of the paper only, and all scientific names, and names of places and individuals should be as legible as possible. Wherever scientific names or technicalities are employed, it is hoped that the common names will accompany them. Lists or tables are inadmissible under any circumstances. Those of the popular names of British plants and animals are retained and registered for publication when sufficiently complete for that purpose, in whatever form may then be decided upon. ADDRESS No. 192, PICCADILLY, LONDON, W.
R. S.- In the present number you will find a chapter on Leaf-miners. It is most likely a Dipterous larva which mines the honeysuckle leaves forwarded to us.
EXCHANGES. GRASSHOPPER.WARBLER's Eags for good specimens of Acherontia atropos, Endrominis versicolor, or other good Lepidoptera.-S. H. Hedworth, Dunston, Gateshead.
GUMS, seeds, microscopic objects (mounted, &c.), for fossil teeth and recent or fossil echini.-W. Gray, 16, Crooked-lane, London Bridge, E.C.
LEAF INSECT (Chelymorpha phyllophora) in a living state, or the leaf fungus (Xenodochus carbunarius), for other objects.
J. P. Fernie, Kimbolton.
BRITISH GRASSES (25 varieties) for a similar number of British Mosses, Ferns, or Butterflies.-F. Stanley, Harold. road, Newtown, Margate.
BLOWFLY (head and tongue mounted), or Campylodiscus clypeus, for other mounted objects.-E. Histed, 3, Great Bourne-street, Hastings.
BRITISH FERNs and varieties, fronds or spores, for others. -J. Morley, Jun., Sherborne-road, Balsall Heath, Birmingham.
British LEPIDOPTERA for others in good condition.-For lists, apply to Mr. Brunton, Glenarm Castle, Larne, N. Ireland.
BRITISH FERNS, Mesembryanthemum, Cactus, &c., established in pots, in exchange for shells or fossils.-J. W., 4, Meadow-view, Whitehaven.
Eggs or LANDRAIL, Lapwing, &c., for exchange.--Lists on application to G. C. Davies, Coneygreen House, Oswestry, Salop.
Fisu SCALES (six kinds, mounted) for other objects.-F. S., Post-office, Rugeley.
TROCHILIUN TIPULIFORME and other Lepidoptera for ex. change.-A. B. Farn, 5, Ebenezer-terrace, Parson's Mead, Croydon, S.
Nyssia HISPIDARIA and M. tristata for exchange.-H. Willits, 38, Mowbray-street, Sheffield.
F. B.-Your brand is Puccinia Lychnidearum, which is quite different from the wheat mildew.
E. T. S.-In using “immersion" objectives, a drop of water is placed on the lens,
J. P.--The “ tick" from weasel does not seem to be different from the Dog.tick (Ixodes ricinus).-W. W. S.
W. R. and G. T. S.-The remains of organisms received were not in a condition to determine with certainty. The red patches in the water as described by you and seen at the docks, with the fragments received, lead to the conclusion that they were a large species of Daphnia (SCIENCE-Gossip, 1866, pp. 156-7).
R. G. A.-We have been informed that a complete list of British Mosses is in preparation, and will shortly be published.
H. C.-Have you seen“ Liebig's Letters on Chemistry," or “ Johnston's Chemistry of Common Life"? A book on “ Chemical Analysis" will be of very little use to one “unacquainted with the principles of chemistry.”
C. P. S.-It is Seaside Barley (Hordeum maritimum).
W. D. R.- No. 1, the common Weevil (Phyllobius uni. formis), a pretty object for the microscope; No. 2, the still commoner Bracken-clock (Anomala horticola).-I. 0. W.
W. H.-All the instruments yon require for dissecting flowers will be a pocket-lens (about is. 6d.) and a good penknife. You may have a useful little microscope for three guineas. No book of British moths, coloured, can be had at a low price.
W. P. W. S.-Only “ Insect Transformations," published nearly forty years ago.
E. A.C. -The query has been answered in SCIENCE-Gossip. There is no patent method for finding Triceratum without trouble.
W. R.-No. 2, Atrichum undulatum ; No. 3, Polytrichum piliferum.-R. B.
T. H., Jun.-No. 1, Hypnum rutabulom; No. 5, Neckera crispa.- R. B.
J. R. W.- No. 1, Antennaria dioica; No. 2, Salix repens.R. B.
JEMIMA.--Hieracium pilosella, very common.
H. B. H.-Cooke's “ Fungi Britannici," cent. iii., is just published, and can be obtained at 192, Piccadilly.
T. P. F.--The maple-leaf insect is the curious little Phyllophorus testudinatus of Thornton, the Chelymorpha phyllophora of Clark, and the Periphyllus testudo of Van der Hoeven.-W.
W. M.J.-To determine the genus and species of ferns, it is absolutely essential that the fronds sent to us should possess fructification.
C. J. T.-We know of no works on British Marine Algæ superior, if equal, to those by the late Professor Harvey.
BOOKS RECEIVED. “ Popular Science Review " for July, 1867. London: Robert Hardwicke.
"A Handy book to the Collection and Preparation of Freshwater and Marine Algæ, Diatoms, Desmids, Fungi, Lichens, Mosses," &c., by Johann Nave. Translated and edited by the Rev. W. W. Spicer, M.A. London: Robert Hardwicke. 1867.
“ Summary Notes on Vegetable Anatomy and Physiology, and the Classification of British Plants," by Louis C. Miall. London : Simpkin & Co. 1867.
“A Summary of the Occurrences of the Grey Phalarope in Great Britain during the Autumn of 1866," by J. H. Gurney, Jun. London: Van Voorst.
" The Technologist” for July, 1867. London: Kent & Co.
“ The Quarterly Magazine of the High Wycombe Natural History Society," No. 5, June, 1867. Wycombe: W. Butler.
" Remarks on Pyrula carica and Pyrola perversa," by T. Graham Ponton. Reprinted from “ Annals and Magazine of Natural History."
VERY one has heard | test would rarely satisfy them; and nothing would of the wonderful convince them that there was a real live insect Leaf-insect of the there but the test of touch-it had to be stirred up: tropics, wbich is to make it move, or taken off the plant to crawl on scarcely less a puz the finger of the attendant."
' i . St
) zle to the scientific But these remarkable insects do not stand alone.
naturalist than it There are many others in every order which are is to the natives of the coun- " disguised” in a somewhat similar manner, some tries it inhabits. I have been with equal perfection, others less accurately, but told over and over again by all serving the same purpose-that of protecting intelligent persons in the East the insect from the enemies that would destroy it. of the curious plant whose I propose now to give a short account of some of leaves changed into insects ! | the more interesting cases that occur both at home And I could never convince and in the more luxuriant regions of the tropics. them that this was not the Almost every one must have noticed the very true explanation, for they different way in which the bright colours are diswould say, "It is no good tributed in butterflies and moths. In the former, your trying to persuade me, for the whole upper surface of the wings is adorned
I have seen the creature myself; with equally gay colours, while the under surface is and I assure you that it has real leaves growing always less brilliant, and is generally blotched or out of it, exactly the same as the other leaves that mottled with obscure or simple hues. In most grow upon the tree.” And we really cannot wonder moths, on the contrary, the bright colour is reat this belief, for when the creature is alive it re stricted to the upper surface of the lower wings, mains motionless among the foliage, and the the upper wings being usually of variously mottled colour, veining, form, and texture of its wing-covers brown or ashy tints. This difference is at once seen and appendages, are so wonderfully like those of to be connected with the habits of the insects, the leaves that it is extremely difficult to distinguish it conspicuous colours being so arranged as to be at all.
visible during flight, but hidden in repose. On the A few years since a specimen of the Phyllium other hand, the beautiful mottlings and spots and scythe, the “Walking Leaf” of India, was kept delicate shadings that cause so many moths to realive at the Royal Botanic Garden at Edinburgh. semble bark or lichens, or leaves or twigs, are never Mr. Andrew Murray wrote a long account of it, and developed on those parts of the wings which are among other matters says: “It so exactly resembled hidden during repose. Thus all the Bombycidæ and the leaf on which it fed, that when visitors were Noctuidæ, which conceal their hind wings when at shown it, they usually, after looking carefully over rest, have them either quite plain or ornamented the plant for a minute, declared that they could see with rich orange or crimson hues; while almost all no insect. It had then to be more minutely pointed the Geometridæ, which rest with their wings spread out to them; and although seeing is notoriously open, and such of the Bombycidæ as have the same said to be believing, it looked so absolutely the habit, are mottled and tinted alike on both front same as the leaves among which it rested, that this and hind wings.
These general facts as to the distribution of piece of stick, one end being broken off 'nearly colour are the first stage in that process of “dis- square, the other end more obliquely (fig. 194); and guise” which becomes so wonderfully developed in as it often rests on the ground, among grass or on a few conspicuous cases. The next stage is exhi- leaves, it may easily be mistaken for a piece of a bited by the fact that there is a general agreement broken branch which has fallen to the ground. Many between the colour of a large number of moths and the prevailing tints of nature at the season when they appear. Out of fifty-two autumn-flying moths, it has been noticed that a large proportion are of various tints of yellow and brown, so as exactly to match with the "sere and yellow leaf ;” while in winter they are of grey and silvery tints, like the washed-out leaves and grass, the fog and the hoarfrost, which give a tone to every landscape at this season.
We now come to a closer and more special disguise. Many of the moths that rest during the day on palings or on the trunks of trees are marked and coloured so as to match the tints of the bark and lichens, and thus to escape observation. As examples of this numerous class, we may mention two of our commonest species-the “ Dagger” (Acronycta psi) and the pretty green Agriopis aprilina. The Lappet moth (Gastropacha quercifolia) when at rest resembles very closely a small bunch of dead leaves; and at a little distance could hardly be
Fig. 194. Buff-tip Moth. taken to be a moth, so curiously does it spread out its hind wings so as to project beyond the others.
more of these beautiful adaptations remain to be The accompanying cut (fig. 193) by Mr. T. W.
discovered in our native insects. That most elegant Wood, is an accurate representation of this insect
insect the Elepbant Hawk moth is of a reddish-pink in its attitude of repose,
colour, mingled with dull yellowish-green, and with specks and streaks of white; but it has not been noticed how closely all these colours must assimilate it to the handsome red-flowered Willow-herb (Epi. lobium), on which the larva feeds, and on which the female insect, while depositing her eggs, no doubt often reposes. The petals of the common Epilobium angustifolium, for instance, are of the same pinkyred as the moth; its stems and seedpods are green, tinted with brown-purple or yellowish, while the white filaments of its stamens correspond to the white lines and streaks on the insect. It is evident, therefore, that while reposing amid a clump of these plants, the Elephant Hawk-moth, although so brilliantly coloured, must be exceedingly difficult to detect, since every part of its body is of exactly the
same hue as some portion of the flowers. Fig. 193. Lappet Moth,
We owe the discovery of one of the most beau
tiful examples of " disguise" in a native insect to One of the most curious of these resemblances is the talented young artist and close observer of that of the Buff-tip moth (Pygæra bucephala). This nature who has furnished the illustrations for this insect closes its wings so as almost to form a article. He tells us that one fine afternoon in May, cylinder; and on the tip of each wing is an oval being overtaken by a shower, he sought shelter yellowish spot, edged with a dark brown double under a hedge, where, among other flowers, the wild line. The wings are greyish and hoary; and the parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris) grew in the greatest head, again, is much contracted beneath the large profusion. While observing the light and elegant thorax, which is also of a buff colour, with a double forms of these plants, he noticed what appeared to brown marginal line. The result of this arrange. be a small bunch of flowers projecting beyond the ment is that the insect looks at first sight like a rest; and a closer examination led him to the inter
esting discovery that our beautiful little “Orange- orange-red, is so tinted and mottled on the under tip,” one of the gayest and brightest of our native side as to resemble a dry leaf; and a strong dark butterflies, was reposing among these flowers in line running through the centre of the wings represuch a manner as to gain a complete protection by sents the midrib. This species often rests on the its resemblance to them. He was now able to see ground, on the banks of streams, or on beds of the use of almost every detail, both of the form and gravel, and depresses the upper wings so much colouring of this insect. The bright orange patch, between the lower ones as to form an outline very so beautiful when the insect is on the wing, was similar to that of a leaf; and this is no doubt a hidden beneath the hind wings; and there is thus a great protection to it; for although so large and very good reason for the circumstance that the showy an insect, it is very plentiful. colour does not extend so far on the under as on By far the most singular and most perfect disguise the upper surface of the wing, and also for the tip
I have ever met with in a Lepidopterous insect is of the upper wings being mottled with green be that of a common Indian butterfly, Kallima inachis, neath, like the whole surface of the hind wings; for and its Malayan ally Kallima paralekta. I had the
satisfaction of observing the habits of the latter in Sumatra, where it is rather plentiful at the end of the dry season. It is a large and showy insect when on the wing; the upper surface being glossed with blue and purple, and the fore wings crossed obliquely by a broad band of rich orange. The under surface of the wings is totally different, and is seen at a glance to resemble a dead leaf. The hind wings terminate in a little tail, which forms the stalk of the leaf, and from this to the apex is a slightly curved dark brown line representing the midrib. The transverse striæ which cross the discoidal cell in many butterflies are here continued so as to form lateral veins, and the usual submarginal striæ on the hind wings, slightly modified, represent others towards the base of the wing. But it is only when the habits of the insect are observed that the disguise becomes manifested in all its perfection (fig. 196). This butterfly, like many others, has the habit of resting only upon a nearly vertical twig or branch, with the wings closed together so as completely to conceal the upper surface. In this position, the little tail of the hind wings exactly touches the branch, and we now see why it is always curved inwards a little; for if it were quite straight, it would hang clear of the branch, and thus fail to represent an attached leaf. There is a little scallop or hollow on the margin of the fore wings at the base, which serves to conceal the head of the butterfly, which is very small for its size, and the
long antennæ are carried back and hidden between Fig. 195. Orange-tip Butterfly.
the folded wings. When sitting on a twig in the
manner described, the insect is to all appearance a as they are a little longer than the hind wings, the perfect dry leaf,-yet it is evident that its chances whole form one'uniformly coloured surface when the of escape would be much increased if it were wings are closed (fig. 195). Various other species of surrounded by real dry leaves instead of by green Anthocharis, as well as the pretty Zegris of Eastern ones; for if, when pursued, it took shelter in a Europe and our rare Pieris daplidice, are coloured | growing bush, it could hardly fail to be still a in a similar manner on the under side, though with conspicuous object. Marvel!jus to relate, it does varying degrees of brilliancy; and it is probable | possess the habit of almost invariably entering a bush that they are accustomed to repose on the flowers | loaded with dead leaves, and is so instantly lost to of umbelliferous or cruciferous plants of suitable sight, owing to its close resemblance to all the surcolours. One of the handsomest species of Indian rounding objects, that I doubt if the most vigilant Pieridæ, the Iphias glaucippe, whose upper wings fly-catcher could detect it. I have myself often are ornamented above with a large patch of vivid been utterly puzzled. I have watched it settle,
apparently in a very conspicuous situation, a few | caterpillar of a European moth that feeds on the yards off, but on crawling carefully up to the spot privet (Hadena ligustri) is so exactly the colour of the have been quite unable to detect any living thing. under side of the leaf, on which it sits in the daySometimes, while gazing intently, a butterfly would time, that you may have the leaf in your hand and start out from just before my eyes, and again enter yet not discover it. In the caterpillars of the another dead bush a few yards off, again to be lost Geometridæ, form, colour, and habit combine to in the same manner. Once or twice only was I able disguise many of the species. Those of the Brimto detect it sitting, and admire the wonderful dis- stone and Swallow-tail moths may be taken as guise which a most strange combination of colour, examples. They have the habit of stretching themform, and habits enabled it instantaneously to assume. selves out obliquely when in repose, attached only But there is yet another peculiarity which adds to by the clasping legs at the further extremity, and will the concealment of this species. Scarcely two of the remain stiff and motionless in this position for hours. specimens are alike in colour on the under side, The little protuberances on the body, their colour but vary through all the shades of pale buff, yellow, and attitude, give them so exactly the appearance of brown, and deep rusty orange which dried leaves | twigs of the living tree, that we may easily conceive assume. Others are speckled over with little black the advantage this disguise must be to them; for dots like mildewed leaves, or have clusters of spots it is certain that many will escape destruction or irregular blotches, like the minute fungi that | when more conspicuous insects will be devoured. attack dead leaves; so that a dozen of these insects Among the extensive group of the Coleoptera, the might settle on a perfectly bare spray, and clothe it | examples of a protective disguise are literally innuat once with withered foliage not distinguishable merable. In the tropics, every fallen tree swarms from that of the surrounding branches !
with beetles, and a large number of these so closely
resemble the bark to which they cling, that it The protection derived from a vegetable disguise requires a close examination to detect them. The is not confined to the perfect Lepidoptera, but families of the Longicorns and Curculios furnish the is often equally remarkable in their larvæ. The greater part of these ; and among the former, that