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perceptible during the work, which proves how NOTES AND QUERIES. little the acid acts upon the tools, undoubtedly

owing to their being tempered; but each time after GREAT GREY SHRIKE.- Observing something use, he takes the precaution to wash and dry the unusual about a bird the other day flying across the files at once, and he has so far observed no sensible garden, curiosity prompted me to watch its move deterioration in them. ments. It pounced down upon a young bird and carried it away to a plum-tree; I approached cau TIMBER-BORERS. — The timber-boring insect, tiously, and perceived at once that the strange bird Tomicus monographus, has recently been introduced was the larger Shrike; it was mangling and tearing into Australia, where it seems to have been prethe bird it had caught like a carnivorous animal. viously unknown. It is a most destructive creature, Is this the bird's habit, as I never saw the like be which seems to prey on casks and barrels with a fore?-H. Morgan.

voracity almost unequalled in the class to which it Mr. Thomas Fenton, preserver of animals in belongs. The T. typographus, a species more familiar Edinburgh, informs me that eight years ago, being to entomologists, is said to have destroyed no less out with a young man, Francis Dick, about half a than a million and a half of pines in the Hartz mile to the north of Dundee, he was surprised to see forest in the year 1783. An Australian paper gives a grey Butcher-bird fly out of a hedge with a bird the following description of this species, and of its dangling in its talons. His companion shot at but ravages among the casks in some of the local missed it, on which it flew to some distance, and breweries. The proboscis forms an excellent gimlet, alighted in a field, when they succeeded in shooting with which the little insect penetrates the hardest it. Macgillioray's Birds.

wood in an incredibly short time, while the hinder

portion is shaped like a shovel, and is employed in COCKROACHES.-In answer to “J. G.," cock getting rid of the sawdust. They make clean holes roaches may be much thinned, if not exterminated, through the staves ; and some of the full barrels by pouring a small quantity of common creosote (a are leaking in fifty places. In & wine-cellar, gallon may be had at a gasworks for 6d.) into the thousands burrow into the wine and spirit casks. crevices and about the places in which they usually | As soon as they get nearly through the wood, the appear. I think if a number of neighbours used it, liquor begins to ooze out, and the animal, of course, the effect would be to clear the neighbourhood, and gets killed. Every description of box or barrel is the only disadvantage is a healthy smell of coal tar. full of tbem, also the doors and timber in the - Thomas Dunn.

building. Almost every store in the township is

infested with these mischievous insects. The head THE RATTLESNAKE.--I never once saw the rattle- | is red, with a proboscis somewhat resembling a snake attempt to spring at, or attack either man, parrot's bill; and the body is like a small black dog, or horse. I have, again and again, teased a glass bugle broken off at the end ; the whole length, large rattlesnake with a twig, but never succeeded a quarter of an inch.-Pop. Sci. Rericu. in provoking it to attack me. It is very sluggish in all its movements, and remarkably fond of creep LEAF-MINERS. — Writing the words “Rural mg in the dust. - Lord's Naturalist in Vancouver. Natural History” reminds me of an amusing

The papers have recently recorded an instance of circumstance connected with the Bramble Leafa rattlesnake which had escaped from confinement miner, described in Mr. Stainton's most charming in a menagerie at Tunbridge Wells, attacking and article on Leaf-mining Larva in SCIENCE-GOSSIP for killing a horse and a buffalo. The circumstances July. I fancy the larva of this moth must have been have been so fully detailed and widely circulated, unusually abundant the particular year I allude to; that we need not repeat them. What reason can for all the bramble leaves for miles round were what be assigned for this difference in the behaviour of the country people called "snake-marked," and you rattlesnakes at home and abroad ?-C. M.

will scarcely credit the alarm excited by these

“signs.” It is a fact, I assure you, numberless poor TO DRILL GLASS.-Dr. Lunge gives the following persons, and some educated people who ought to method. It is simply the employment of dilute

have been better informed, deemed these marks on sulphuric acid ; and he found it, on trial, to answer

the bramble leaves to be a'"sign” that the end of much better than the method referred to. Not

the world was at hand. Some years have elapsed, only, it appears, is the efficacy of the cutting tool

| but to this day they think in the part of Wales more increased by sulphuric acid than by oil of

I am alluding to, that if the bramble leaves are turpentine, but also, strange as it seems, the tools

marked there will be much sickness.--Helen E. (files, drills, &c.) are far less rapidly destroyed by being used with the acid than with the oil. He also found it stated that, in the engineering esta

Cats' HAIR AND ELECTRIC SPARKS.---A black blishment of Mr. Pintus, at Berlin, glass castings cat is the best to experiment upon, and do it in the for pump barrels, &c., were drilled, planed, and dark, or at any rate in the dusk. It was a favourite bored, just like iron ones, and in the same lathes diversion of mine when a girl. I wonder now that and machines, by the aid of sulphuric acid. As to my old pet cat's hair did not stand on end, so drilling, Dr. Lunge can fully testify to the efficacy

continually did I brush it the wrong way.-Helen of that method. Whenever he wants, say, a hole

E. Watney. in the side of a bottle, he sends it, along with some dilute (1:5) sulphuric acid, to the blacksmith, who BABY HYDROPHILUS. -"L. H. F." must give the drills in it, with a hand-brace, a hole of 1-inch larvæ small slugs and snails. They will not, I think, diameter. This hole is then widened to the touch water-plants. They require molluscs; and, required size by means of a triangular or round strange to relate, will break their shells adroitly. file, again wetted with the acid. He also finds a They make a sort of rest or table of their own great help in the latter when making graduations backs, and bend their heads over in the most extraon litre-flasks, &c. There is hardly any smell ordinary way.-Helen E. Watney.


WOODLICE.—I have discovered that these pests delicacy in their bills of fare will probably add 500 are fond of oatmeal. Therefore, in order to trap to that amount. As there are several smaller them, I got some glass bottles, and, after breaking grocery stores which sell daily from 25 to 50 pairs, the necks off them, I let them down into my it will be safe to say that not less than 2,000 are cucumber-bed, pressed the soil firmly round thens, being eaten in Buffalo every day. Already over and then sprinkled a little meal round the edge of 100,000 have been sold, and the remaining two the necks of the bottles, which must be made level months of the season will increase that amount to with the surface of the bed. I also put a little in nearly 300,000, which is but a moderate quantity, the bottom of the bottles, the result of which has considering the already large and yearly increasing been that next morning I had trapped some numbers which inhabit the river islands and all hundreds, and I continue to do so every night. - | along the shore of Canada. The article retails at J. B. S. S., in Gard. Chron.

from 1 dol. to 1 dol. 50c. per 100.-Buffalo Express. HEDGEHOG ECCENTRICITIES, &c.- In the August GRASSHOPPERS IN AMERICA.—The ravages of number of SCIENCE-GOSSIP you mention the fact of these little pests seem to have begun in earnest. a hedgehog transfixing pears on its spines and The hemp crop 'of the county has been 'almost carrying them off. A friend of mine, and upon entirely destroyed. A few crops may escape them. whose veracity I can rely, told me some few years One day suffices for them to clean off a hemp-field since, that he had witnessed, when a boy, a hedge as bare as before the sowing. The blue grass is in hog rolling itself amongst the apples fallen from a many places destroyed, and has suffered much crab-tree, and when its coat was well covered by wherever they have gone. Timothy and clover have the fruit, quietly retreating to eat them at its also been very greatly damaged. The oat crop, it leisure. You have also an article upon the bite of is thought, will be utterly ruined, as they prefer the adder (Pelias Berus). I may mention that a that to wheat, which they have so far only slightly relative of mine had a very valuable pointer which damaged. The corn is not exempt, but has been had been bitten by an adder, and after being some injured less than any other crop except wheat. The time ill it recovered its health, but with the loss of gardens have suffered terribly; nearly all early nearly the whole of its hair,-looking as if it was a vegetables have been eaten by them. They victim of chronic mange. There can be very little swept a garden bare in a few hours. A lady doubt but that the bite has proved fatal to the informs us that in the morning she had as fine human being. I think it is Taylor, in his Medical a garden as she ever saw, and in the evening Jurisprudence, who relates more than one fatal scarcely a vestige of it was left. It is consoling case. I have several times had both larva and pupa to know that the weeds also suffered.-Minnesota of Acherontia' atropos, but have never heard them Paper. emit the noise mentioned by Mr. Newman, although there can be but one opinion as to the moth having

BANGOR AND WRENTHAM. – In reference to the power to do so.-A. B. F.

queries in SCIENCE - Gossip concerning these

localities, I always supposed that the Bangor menGREAT AMERICAN SPIDER (Aranea avicularis, tioned by dealers was Bangor, Maine, although 'I Linn.). This spider is indigenous to almost all do not know of any earth from near there; but as South America, where it is called Abamdui, or such deposits (sub-peat deposits I have been in the Nbamdu-guazu, – that is, “the great spider." These habit of calling them) are common all over our spiders are two inches and one-fifth in length, country this side of the Alleghanies, no doubt one and the thorax is an inch in diameter. They have was once found there. Such deposits being but eight hairy legs, terminating in fleshy pads. I do small, as a general rule, soon get obliterated. The not know whether this spider belongs to the hunting “Wreatham, U.S.” is Wrentham, Mass., a locality or to the working spiders, that is, whether or not it from which Ehrenberg had specimens.-4. M. Ed. makes its web in order to take insects, since I always wards, Nero York. observed it wandering over the ground or upon the trunks of trees, or concealed in the earth. If it

REARING GOLD FISH.-Your correspondent indoes not find insects enough for its food, it boldly forms us (p. 165) that his small pond or fountain attacks humming-birds, small birds a little larger basin is 9 feet by 5 feet, and lined with Portland than itself, while they are upon the eggs or upon

cement. Presuming from that information, the the young birds in the nests, and if it cannot have pond contains nothing more than water, beside the the parent birds, it seeds upon the young and upon

débris he mentions. Now, one thing is certain (I the cggs. This great spider produces cocoons pro

write from some years' experience): your correspon. portioned to its size, containing thousands of eggs,

dent, G. A. W., will not succeed in keeping his fish and places them in the fissures on the trunks of trees. 1 (much less rearing them) unless he adopts some The cocoon is three inches long and one inch and a

method of keeping up vegetable growth in the quarter of a line broad. This extraordinary size of water, whereby there may be kept up a constant the cocoon has made the inhabitants, who do not

interchange of gases between the two kingdoms; observe carefully, imagine that this spider would and that may be attained by the following simple take the cocoon of the bombice moth del Guyavo

method :-Cover the bottom of the pond with gravel (Janus, Linn.), and having destroyed or eaten the

(washed, if he prefers, but I think not so good) two or chrysalis, would place her own eggs there, and then threeinches thick, in which insert a quantity of plants artificially close the hole by which she had penetrated

of common fresh-water weeds, and when they beit.- Termeyer, in Proc. Essex Institute, U.S.

come established, and make a little growth, then

G. A. W. may hope to keep his gold fish alive and THE FROG SEASON.—The frog season is now at healthy. The losing of two or three fish may its height. The thousands of frogs born early in arise from one of two causes: first, they may the spring now swarm the marshy ground. The have been purchased of a dealer who had had them quantity disposed of in Buffalo is surprisingly large. some time on band; secondly, they may bave been The principal dealers sell easily 1,200 per day, and what are commonly called “Warm-water Fish.”— tle consumption of four hotels which have the B. H.

WANTED A MEDIUM. I have again tried my TO GROW CHARA.- Dr. S. would be glad of inforhand on Deane's Gelatine and Lawrence's Jelly, mation on the proper method of treating Chara and and have again failed. I can't get them as clear as Nitella when grown in aquaria, in order to prevent I want them. I used Cox's Gelatine (English) the the growth of Conferva upon them. A large best I could get here. In the Glycerine Jelly, quantity of this is constantly springing up, which though made with extreme exactness and care, con- i he finds is not prevented by keeping a number of fervoid growths appeared in less than a week in my water-snails in the glass jars. He has always lost bottle, though I put it up, sealing as closely as I these plants from the same cause. could. But I made one or two experiments—the most successful of which I will state. When the BOTTOM OF AQUARIUM.—As very many marine jelly was as clear as I could get it, I prepared a animals burrow, and as the observation of their prosolution of carbolic acid by shaking up a few drops ceedings is very interesting, they should be provided of the acid with distilled water, and added of this with the means of gratifying their inclinations. For what I thought would flavour the jelly to the dis this purpose a layer of sand should be put on the taste of animalculæ or confervæ. This vial has till bottom of the tank, which may vary in depth from now been entirely free from any growth or cloudi. one to three inches. If sand from a sea-beach can ness other than the original impurities, which I be readily obtained, it is the most suitable ; but the have not succeeded in getting out.-E. C. B., Port next best is coarse river sand, such as the Thames land, U.S.

sand, commonly sold at the stone-wharves of London

for building purposes. It should be well washed CAT-FLEAS.-In Mr. MʻIntire's article under this until the water runs away clean; fresh water will title (SCIENCE-Gossip i., 278) a figure is given do very well for this, but it must be drained off showing the spinous fringe on the under side of the before the sand is put in. What is called silver head and on the pro-thorax, which agrees with my sand, and the common yellow earthy sand sold in own observations of this species. In the “Micro the shops for scouring, are not at all suitable, as graphic Dictionary,” article “Pulex," the dog-flea they will tinge the water after any amount of washis described a3 the possessor of these appendages, ing, the former with lime the latter with ochre. and the head of the cat-flea is referred to as “naked.” Small pebbles or fine gravel, likewise well washed, The figures on Plate 28 correspond to the letter may be used to vary the bottom with the sand. press. I shall be glad if some gossiper can en Masses of rock, of dimensions suitable to the lighten me on this discrepancy. My own specimens aquarium, should be put in, to afford shelter and were “taken from the life," and I keep no dog. concealment to such animals as like the gloom. To E. Marks.

afford this in the highest degree, a flat piece may be

set, like a table or cromlech, upon two or three upDEATI'S-HEAD MOTH (Acherontia atropos), right blocks; or two tall pieces may lean against Your correspondent in the August number appears each other, forming a rude arch, care being taken, to have some doubt about the pupæ of this insect whatever arrangement be chosen, that the masses uttering the shrill sound peculiar to the moth, and stand with stability. It is of little consequence I also question very much if, during the chrysalis what sort of rock is selected-limestone, sandstone, state, it has any power at all of producing sound. granite, conglomerate--but the rougher and the I have had from time to time many pupæ, but never more full of cavities and angles the blocks are, the heard the slightest noise from any of them, nor do I better will be the effect. ---Gosse's Aquarium. remember to have ever heard or read of an instance of pupæ producing sound, but, on the other hand, HYBERNATION OF BIRDS.-In Jesse's “Gleanings I have several times heard from the moth itself from Natural History" are included some of this singular shrill note, and I believe it to be a Gilbert White's, of Selborne, unpublished papers, peculiarity only exhibited by the perfect insect. - in one of which is the passage, “Repeated acT. G. D., Leeds.

counts of Swallows, in large numbers, being seen,

spring and fall, perched on branches of trees overINSECT-SOUNDS.-In books on British moths the

hanging the water, induce me greatly to suspect Death's Head is said to produce a squeaking noise, that House Swallows have some strong attachment and no other instance is given of either moths or to water independent of the matter of food; and butterflies producing a similar sound. I cannot but that if they do not retire into that element, they think this to be an error. In several butterflies I conceal themselves in the banks of pools and rivers have noticed that when caught they have emitted a during the uncomfortable months of winter.” The sound like that of a blowfly. Having caught a hybernation of Swallows, either by submersion or specimen of the small tortoiseshell (Vanessa urtica), concealment in holes and crevices, was a favourite on proceeding to nip it near the thorax I was struck theory of Mr. White's, and a subject that he tried by the sound it made, only differing in intensity to elucidate, but without success. Had the worthy from that caused by a fly under similar circum old naturalist known such a fact as that stated by stances.-II. H. 0. Farrell.

your correspondent “G. W.," his theory would

have been much strengthened. I have myself seen LARVÆ IN MUSIIROOMS.-Can any of your readers Swallows taken out of the thatched roofs of old inform me in what manner the larva enters the cottages, and out of chimneys, in appearance very mushroom? I have frequently noticed immense like those described as taken out of the water near quantities of these-many half an inch in length, Dantzic; but in every case they were dead. From white, with nearly a black head,-and have been their appearance, they seemed to have crept into the much puzzled concerning them, knowing that the holes, and become torpid, and then, probably from food is so short a time coming to perfection. How cold, perished. Is it possible that birds of any old can the grub or larva be when it makes its kind, even in a torpid state, can exist for a lengthappearance; and if it has not been feeding in the ened period under water? The fact related by ground previous to the mushroom showing itself, your correspondent would seem to prove that they it must grow with amazing rapidity.-J. B. Waters. can.-R. 0.0..

BEECHES.-For several years past there has been CANARY ANTIPATHIES.—A friend of mine reading considerable mortality among beech-trees in some in the SCIENCE-GOSSIP a paragraph on canaries displantations of thirty or forty years' growth having liking blue, told me of a canary of hers that had the been quite emptied of those trees. The first symp same antipathy to black, and if, when dressed in that tom of disease which I have noticed is that portions colour, she approached the bird, it would nearly kill of the bark are covered with a substance resembling itself, by violently beating its head against the bars mould, but which seems to consist of the eggs of of the cage. All other colours had not the same some kind of insect. The following year, these effect.-B. L. W. having disappeared, the bark begins to separate from the tree and to decay, and in about two years 1

FORAMINIFERA.-I should feel obliged if any of the tree dies. Can you tell me whether the insect your correspondents would inform me whether the is the real cause of this? I have enclosed a little | Foraminifera portrayed in No. 26 of your journal of the substance containing the eggs.-R. 0. O.

are obtained from one washing, or from how much

chalk. I have washed a considerable quantity, BIRDS PREENING. I think the paragraph from

and though I find beautiful pieces of quartz and “Waterton's Essays,” in SCIENCE-Gossip for Au

shapeless masses of transparent and opaque material, gust,“ What's the bird doing?” is not altogether yet I find no fossil deposit whatever, unless the correct in the remark about the preening to clear pencils I see are such. Do I wash too much, and themselves of insects. Now, I don't think it fair throw away the shells, &c. ?-J.H. Gramshaw, M.D. to accuse “our feathered friends," when at their toilet, of being infested with vermin. Birds that

AN INVADING ARMY OF SNAILS.-On the 11th of become so infested do not preen their feathers, but

May of the present year, I was witness, with seven sit moping; and when they do move, it is by sharp,

other members of my family, to an extraordinary hurried movements and frequent lifting of the feet,

concourse of snails. I took notes of the occurrence evidently being annoyed, as though something was

at the time, and send them at the risk of their being a pricking their feet. Canaries, when so infested,

little out of date, having omitted to do so at the time. often stand quite still, looking suspiciously at their

A light accidentally held down to some hencoops in a feet or shoulders. Birds which often bathe and

yard adjoining the house, about ten o'clock on preen their feathers are free from, or seldom have,

Saturday, the llth of May, revealed a most extraany insects about the body or feathers. On the

ordinary and disgusting sight. Snails, with and other hand, birds that are more careless of them

without shells-chiefly the long black snail-were selves, and do not preen much, are very much in

climbing up the bars of the coops, filling the foodfested. For instance, the Woodlarks will sing and

pans and blackening the ground. The whole family be in good condition, but do not preen themselves,

was called out to witness it, and it was soon found and are mostly infested. I have a young Blackbird

that an army of these slimy creatures was advancing in my aviary. So assiduous is he, that he bathes

from the kitchen garden, the entrance to which was once or twice a day, and much of his time is spent

| about ten yards distant from the coops. A further in preening his feathers; and I think I could sately

search showed that some other hen-coops at the top say he has not any insects about him. Indeed, I

of the flower-garden were similarly but not quite so have seen young birds, without feather or stubble,

abundantly infested. The day had been showery, and scarcely any down on them, go through the

and it followed one of frequent thunderstorms and routine of cleaning their feathers. And the gland

great rain and hail. These storms followed, as your over the tail certainly does contain an oily matter,

readers may remember, on some excessively hot which is used by birds to put a gloss on their

weather quite unusual at that time of year. I cannot feathers, also to make them, to a certain extent,

well give an idea of the number of slugs and snails; resist wet. If a bird is closely watched while

some of those who saw them said there must have cleaning himself, one may observe him take the

been thousands. Salt was profusely applied, and the gland in his bill, squeeze the oil to the top of the

dead bodies were shovelled up next morning. Were gland, pass the side of his head over the gland, and

these creatures attracted by the barley-meal? What touch himself lightly about the body. This simple

sense led them to the coops? Why did they leave fact may be seen by taking notice of water-fowl

the gardens ? Had electricity anything to do with when preening themselves.-Chas. Rudd.

their appearance ?--L.


causation of what is called the Maelström on the may interest you to hear that the Cameroons

coast of Norway? What are its phenomena ? Does Mountain, whose volcanic fires have long lain

such a thing really exist ? as many tell me it is all dormant, is again in a state of active eruption. On

a myth. Is it in any way connected with our the night of the 15th inst., the lava seemed to rush

volcanic phenomena? or what gave rise to it?with tremendous force out of the east side, a few

C. T. Richardson. hundred feet from the top, then pour over in a grand cataract of fire, and flow off E.S.E. in a

Volvox QUERY.-I have recently taken Volvox crooked fiery stream down the mountain-side. The Globator in considerable quantities (the first I have molten lava poured out, from sunset, when it was ever found), but I cannot succeed in keeping these first seen, till after midnight, increasing in volume. more than a day or two. Are they all devoured by Clouds obscured the mountain next morning, but it the other inhabitants of the water? I have no has been seen burning thrice since. It is apparently microscopic friend to enlighten me, or I would not quiet now. There was no thunder for several days

trouble you.-F. G. Paine. preceding, but we had a gale of wind from the E.N.E.-an unusual direction-coming an hour THE HARVEST MOON.- What constitutes the before sunset on the 14th inst.: a tornado, in fact, difference of what is called the Harvest Moon? without thunder or rain, except a few drops. — There are not any two volumes giving similiar ideas Extract of a letter from C. Livingstone, Esq., H.B.M. upon the subject, and all are scanty and unsatisConsul, Fernando Po, to Dr, Hooker, F.R.S.

factory in their information.-C. T. Richardson. ,


J. H. R.- Galeopsis Ladanum and Carex ovalis.-J. G. B.

G. E. B. (Darjeeling).-Polygonum molle (Don), and Sym

plocos ramosissima (Wall.).-J. G. B. ALL communications relative to advertisements, post-office orders, and orders for the supply of this Journal should be

W.G.-The form and position of the basal ray-plates in addressed to the PUBLISHER. All contributions, books,

your little star show it to be Ophiocoma neglecta of Forbes and pamphlets for the EDITOR should be sent to 192,

(Br. Star Fishes, p. '30), Ophiura elegans of Leach (Zool. Piccadilly, London, W. To avoid disappointment, contri.

Misc., ii. 57), Ophiolepis elegans of Gray (Cat. of Radiata butions should not be received later than the 15th of each

B. M., p. 24).-P. H. G. month. No notice whatever can be taken of communi. CLARE.— The Beetle is a female of Saperda carcharias, not cations which do not contain the name and address of the at all common in Britain.-W. H. B. writer, not necessarily for publication, if desired to be with W. H.-We are not aware of any means of obtaining the held. We do not undertake to answer any queries not scientific journals for perusal, except by purchasing them, or specially connected with Natural History, in accordance

as member of some scientific society. with our acceptance of that term; nor can we answer i

A. L.--The fern is Pteris tremula, Br.-J. G. B. qneries which might be solved by the correspondent by an appeal to any elementary book on the subject. We are D. W. R. — The caterpillar of Acronyeta Psi. always prepared to accept queries of a critical nature, and to publish the replies, provided some of our readers, besides the querist, are likely to be interested in them. We

EXCHANGES. cannot undertake to return rejected manuscripts unless BEETLES.-Carded specimens of British Beetles in exsufficient stamps are enclosed to cover the return postage. change for other species.-James Walkden, 89, Grosvenor. Neither can we promise to refer to or return any manu. street, Manchester. script after one month from the date of its receipt. All ZEOLITE or Needlestone (Crystals) from the Giant's Cause. microscopical drawings intended for publication should way, affording beautiful slides for the polariscope, in exchange have annexed thereto the powers employed, or the extent for other objects.-William Gray, Mount Charles, Belfast. of enlargement, indicated in diameters (thus : X 320 Eggs of Ringed Plover, Snipe, Teal, &c., offered for those diameters). Communications intended for publication of the Cuckoo, Kingfisher, &c.-Mrs. C. Battersby, Cromlyn, should be written on one side of the paper only, and all Rathowen, Westmeath. scientific names, and names of places and individuals ALPINE PLANTs in exchange for others in good condition, should be as legible as possible. Wherever scientific names T. Howse, Jun, Garrybank, West Hill, Upper Sydenham. or technicalities are employed, it is hoped that the common BRITISH MOSSES.--Specimens of fifty species for British names will accompany them. Lists or tables are inad. Grasses, Sedges, or Willows, Lists exchanged.-R. A., missible under any circumstances. Those of the popular

Leegomery-road, Wellington, Salop. names of British plants and animals are retained and regis ECHINUS SPINES. -- Acrocladia trigonaria from Feejee tered for publication when sufficiently complete for that Islands, unmounted sections for other objects.-Lists to E. purpose, in whatever form may then be decided upon. Marks, 6, Holford-square, Pentonville, W.C. ADDRESS No. 192, PICCADILLY, LONDON, W.

MELICERTA RINGENS may be obtained on application to A. Nicholson, Fareham. A small bottle or sealed quill should

accompany the request. W. E. M.-We regret our inability to inform you where you Fossil Wood, Fossils from the Chalk, &c., for other can obtain the deposit you require.

Fossils.-Address, F. Stanley, Harold-road, Newtown, MarB. L. W.-The “lumps" on willow leaves are galls pro gate. duced by an insect. If you will rear the insect from the

HIPPARCELA SEMELE, &c., for other Lepidoptera in good galls and send it, we will endeavour to name it for you.

condition.-D. Baxendale, Akroydon, Halifax. J. S.-We are informed that a complete catalogue of

RASPBERRY BRAND.- Aregma gracile. -Send stamped and

directed envelope to T. W. W., 53, Buckingham-place, British Mosses is in course of preparation.

Brighton. F. A. W.-In the winter, when living food for your frogs

Vicia SYLVATICA for Gonepteryx Rhamni, or Arge Galacannot be found, they will not require it. Have you really thea.-W. D. Robinson, 2, Shandwick-place, E. forgotten that reptiles hybernate?

POLARISCOPE OBJECTS (Crystals, &c., mounted) for exC. E. D. will only find what she requires by searching change.-- A. L., 61, Buckingham-road, N. through numerous volumes, such as Gould's “Birds of ACNANTIS LONGIPES, Diatoma vulgare, or Synedra Asia," &c. &c.

radians (mounted), for other mounted Diatoms.-E. Capron, J. B. L.-No. 1, Orthotrichum pulchellum ; 2, Bryum pseu.

Shere, near Guildtord.

BRITISH Land and Freshwater Shells offered for common do-triquetrum; 3, Climacium dendroides.-R. B.

Echinodermata.-W. H. G., Vernon Cottage, Thornhill-road, G. C. B. (Darjeeling).—The plants are Isopyrum thalic. troides, L., and Hymenophyllum ciliatum, Sw., the latter new British Birds' Eggs in exchange for others.--James W. to India, although well known in tropical America and Asia.

Lloyd, Kington. and has lately turned up in New Zealand. Will our corre spondent forward herbarium specimen for one of our national collections.-J. G. B.

BOOKS RECEIVED. I. R. B.-You will find all particulars respecting mounting “ The London Catalogue of British Plants." Sixth edition. seaweed in “ Davies on Mounting, &c." (price 2s. 6d.).

London: Robert Hardwicke. 1867. T. P.-More extraordinary instances of tame fish than that

“The American Naturalist,” July, 1867. No. 5. Salem :

Essex Institute. you describe are on record. Did you never hear of the trained

"Proceedings of the Essex Institute." Vol. V., No. 3. gold fish of the Chinese?

Salem : Published by the Essex Institute, June, 1867. G. B. C.-Communications acknowledged but not inserted “A Trip to the Land's End," by the Rev. M. C. T. Sturman, should be considered as declined.

B.A.- London: E. Billing & Son, 152, Bermondsey-street. SuKWORMS.-We fear that Miss B. will be much disap. "The Naturalist's Circular for July and August, 1867." pointed in rearing silk and selling it. Dr. Wallace, of Col. London. chester, did supply eggs of the Ailanthus silkworm.

“Second Report of the Quekett Microscopical Club, July, I. R. W.-No. 4. Carex panicea; 5. Eriophorum angusti


“Symons's Monthly Meteorological Magazine,” No. XIX., folium.

August, 1867. London: E. Stanford. W. R.--No. 4 is Luzula campestris.--R. B.

"Country Life," Nos. I. and II. London: 10, Bolt.court, J. C. D.-Sphagnum acutifolium ?

Fleet-street. T. H., Jun.-No. 3, Bartramia fontana; 4, Homalothecium sericeum.-R. B.

COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED.-A. M. E.-T. H.. Jun. T. P. F.-The white substance on beech-trees formerly F. H.-B.-H. H. O'F.-R. B.-H. E. W.-P. F. & Co. classed as a fungus, under the name of Psilonia nivea, is an

E. A, B. (Cleveley).-C. B. B.-A. M.-W. E. M.-J. B. B.insect production.

B. L. W.-J. B. A.- F. I. B.-G.-A. G. W.-J. H.-C. E. D. A. G. W.-We are desired to inform you of your mistake,

-J. F. R.-D. C. B.-W. G.-S. C.-F. A. W.-B.-E. W.the fungus being the common Stinkhorn (Phallus impu

J. W. W.-J. S.-J. S. (Perth).-W. E. B.-A. S.-T. G.D.

R. A.- T. P.-I. R. B.-G. J.-W. H.- R. 0. 0.- E. M.dicus).

J. H. R.-A. L.-D. B.- M. A. G.-B. H.- F. S.-G. B. C.W. D. R.-No book published with coloured figures of all

R. R. S.- B. D.--James.-R. A. S.-P. P. W.- J. N. E. the British Neuroptera. Coloured figures of British moths A. N.-W. W. J.-L. L. S.- A. M. E.-W. D. R.- A. B.F.are contained in Wood's Index Entomologicus, which may be | C. R.-T. W. W.-J. B.-E. L. L.-J. H. G.-J. B. W.bad for about £4.

S. D. L. A.-G. D.-J. H. R.- E. C. B.-A. L.- W. K. BW. M. J.-No. 1, Pellaa hastata ; 2, Pteris longifolia ; 3,

J. B.-W. H.-C. T. R.-C. H. G.-J G , T.-F. G. P.Aspidium (Cyrtomium) falcatum.-J.G. B.

| D. W. R.-J. W. L.-G. T. K.-J. A. T.

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