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A CHILD BITTEN BY A VIPER.—The distressing NOTES AND QUERIES. narrative wbich follows has been communicated to

us. “Two little children, aged respectively nine Is THE POISON OF THE VIPER FATAL?-Your

and eleven, were looking for blackberries in Handscorrespondent who signs “ Henry H. Ullyett” asks if

worth Wood, yesterday (Thursday), when the there is any known instance of the viper's poison

younger (a little girl) was suddenly bitten in the having proved directly fatal, and I will tell him of

leg by a snake (supposed to be a viper). The elder one which I heard of from an eye-witness a few days

(a boy) screamed for assistance, but, being frighsince. Two summers ago a poor woman was found

tened at the reptile, ran to his home, in a lane dead on Poundberry, near Dorchester (Poundberry

adjoining the wood. His mother was at home, and is a wild kind of spot, a sort of waste); the body

came to the assistance of the girl (her niece). But was swollen and much discoloured, there were

the poor (thing was in her last agony. It looked evident marks of the bite, and the viper was dis.

piteously in her aunt's face, and died without saying covered curled up in her flannel petticoat. Some

a word.” Birmingham Daily Post, Friday, Sept. 13, respectable persons came forward to state that they

1867. had met the woman seemingly in perfect health [The above account was sent to us by five or six early that morning, on her way to the town. It correspondents, one of whom furnishes the following was late in the evening when the body was found, comment: “In reference to the paragraph from and the general opinion was that, fatigued by the yesterday's Birmingham Daily Post which I sent you, heat, she had sat down on the heath to rest, that I find by to-day's Post that Mr. Downes contradicts the reptile had made its way up her dress, and on the report, and says that there is no truth whatever her moving had bitten her on her side just where in any part of it. No death has occurred; no the small mark was visible, that the poison took | inquest is to be held; consequently the report is a effect almost immediately, that she became too wicked hoax.”] weak to continue her journey and died in a few hours. The youth a young relative of mine), FANGS OF SPIDERS.-At the risk of seeming very who saw the dead body, and the living viper, bard of belief, I venture again to refer to the will, I am sure, be glad to give Mr. Henry subject of spiders poisoning their prey. In vol. ii., Ullyett any further information in his power. I p. 229, Mr. Mills gives an account of the supposed remember when I lived in Carmarthenshire, South

poison gland of a spider. Now I don't quite underWales, hearing of a woman having died at Pembry, stand it. The fang ends in a point, but Mr. Mills a village distant about five miles from my home, says the gland is a sac, and that it is attached to of the bite of a viper: she had gone to Cwm the base of the fang by its narrow end. How could Cethin, a wood in the neighbourhood, to gather the wide end reach up to the point, and how is it sticks for firewood, and was bitten in the hand. attached to the aperture, and how can the poison She went to an old herb “doctress” who applied a get out as it is a closed sac? I have tried, but poultice of charms, and proper restoratives not however I cannot find anything more than the being administered the poor creature died. But muscular fibre, and, not succeeding, I left this, and there was a legend about these Cwm-Cethin snakes, tried for the aperture. First, as a transparent as the country folks called them. They were said object. As the late Mr. Beck said, I could not see to be red in colour, and to have the power of flying ; it, trying all kinds of ways. Most fangs are lined, one having, the tale stated, escaped from a vessel and of course, if there were an aperture, there would which had been wrecked on the sands about fifty be a break in the lines; but I cannot make out that years ago, consequently they were not true it is so. Then I tried as an opaque object, and in Welch vipers, but a highly poisonous importation, one or two fangs I thought I had found a most according to “Rural Natural History." Helen E. evident 'opening ; but discovered it was only a Watney.

bubble of air, thougb it gives a capital representa

tion of an opening. Next I enclosed a bubble of ATOMECHANICS.-A novel chemical hypothesis is air in a fang, under water. This I could work backnow being taught by Professor Gustavus Heinrichs, ward and forward; but never a bit could I force it of the lowa State University, U.S. He assumes through the opening, if there be one, not even when that the atoms of the different chemical elements pressing the fang hard enough to break it. I have only differ with regard to quantity--the number and now and then seen what had something of the relative position of the atoms of some one primary appearance of an aperture, but it turned out only a matter; and since everything would thus be com deception. It is quite certain that if there be an posed of this one primary matter, be calls it "pan aperture, pressure should drive either air or water togen," and its atoms“ panatoms.” Professor out of it. Then, again, it don't seem to me to agree Heinrichs demonstrates that this hypothesis ex with the action of a spider. In killing an insect by plains the numerical relation of the atomic weights, stabbing it, you must do so in one particular part, and that the chemical, physical, and morphological and it will die very quickly-nearly as soon as when properties of the elements, and their combinations, a spider kills it. I think it will be found that a may be calculated just as the orbit of a planet is spider always grips a fly in the same spot. It does calculated. In answer to any doubt that may be not always die at once, for I have seen a fly retain raised as to the existence of " pantogen,” Professor life for a minute or more. Then the spider someHeinrichs asks, Can you mention one single pro how sucks the contents of the fly, keeping hold of perty which is not in some degree common to all | it all the while with its fangs, and turning it round elements ? the difference being simply quantitative. and round till a shapeless mass of skin is left, which The theory has at least the advantages of plausi- | he at last throws away. Very different is its action bility, and its development certainly opens a large to that of a snake, which bites its prey, injecting the field for useful research, owing to the enormous poison into the wound, and leaving it to produce its benefit which would result from the application of effect. I think this should be examined rather more the theory, should it prove to be a sound one. - before deciding that the spider kills its prey by Mining Journal.

driving two fangs into the poor fly, and injecting

poison, as it must do, from both, and then holding | FALSE CHAMPIGNON (Marasmius urens).-I think the fly by the same fangs while it consumes its con I was once poisoned by it in Bedfordshire. I well tents.-E. 7. S.

remember on my way home, late one evening,

gathering a quantity of champignons for supper; as HEDGEHOG ECCENTRICITIES. —-Whilst one corre it was dark, I imagine I gathered both species. I spondent writes sceptically on the subject of the did not cook them myself, neither did I examine communication in our last number, two others send them after they were taken from the basket; but I us similar narratives. In the face of four inde noticed at supper-time they were unusually hot, and pendent assertions of the fact, we think that the I thought the old woman who cooked them had put assumption is strongly in its favour, and that all

too much pepper in the stew. I never suspected who are still disposed to be sceptical must for a the fungi. In about half an hour after partaking while suspend their judgment.

of them, my head began to ache, my brain to swim,

and my throat and stomach to burn as if in contact Fossil COLEOPTERA.---In a freestone quarry near with fire. After being ill for some hours, a terrible Fifeness, the workmen recently came upon a fit of purging and vomiting set in, which appeared stratum of de-bituminized peat thirty yards in

soon to set me to rights, for after a day or so I length, fourteen inches thick, and about the same

was no worse for it.-Smith's Mushrooms and in breadth ; at the top it had somewhat the Toadstools." appearance of cubic coal, but gradually changing, till at the bottom it resembled a dirty sand. The WORMS IN COCKROACHES.— In reply to your greater part of it had been carted away as rubbish

correspondent W. Hanwell, the worms (?) found in before it attracted attention; but in wbat remained

cockroaches are doubtless Gregarinidæ. They are there were a few inches in the middle thickly

inhabitants, for the most part, of the bodies of instudded with the remains of coleopteran insects in

vertebrates, but are also found in vetebrate animals, a very perfect state of preservation. ': There were

and are very common indeed in the intestines of wing cases, mandibles, and legs of a dark but bright

the cockroach and earthworm. They may be said green colour; four species have been detected, but

to consist of a sac, enclosed by an almost structurewhether or not the same as any at present in ex

| less membrane containing a somewhat fluid subistence, I am unable to say. Along with them there stance, in which lies a delicate vesicle within which was a small piece of unfossilized wood, apparently is a more solid particle. In this group there is no allied to the bamboo, a fruit with a corrugated distinction of the body into separate layers, &c. shining pericarp, and a hazel nut was also stated to

As they live entirely by absorbing the juices of have been found in the same deposit. The rock their "host" through their membraneous coat, they containing that stratum is a gritty sandstone, about are devoid of mouth and alimentary canal. The fifty feet in thickness, and has always been con

most striking signs of life shown by them are sidered as belonging to the lower carboniferous certain expansions and contractions of their bodies. series, and does not appear to be unconformable to Some have a constricted body, some are stalked the rocks on the beach in the immediate neighbour with horny beads, but generally gelatinous, and not hood, which undoubtedly belong to that system; distinguishable.- Archibald Litersedge. indeed, what seems to be a part of it is overlaid by them. But the fact of these remains being so CLEANING AQUARIA.— I have seen various modes different from those which are said to have existed of cleaning aquaria suggested, but know of none so during the deposition of the carboniferous strata, efficient as the following:--Take a small piece of makes it a matter of almost positive certainty that coarse brown paper, and apply it to the side of the they are the product of a more recent era, although, aquarium, and rub it freely over the surface. If the on the other hand, that is almost incompatible with aquarium is large, roll up a mass of the paper into the lie of the rocks; but on account of the over. a ball, and scrub with this. This method entirely lying soil, and of the way in which the quarry is removes all confervoid growth, and has the merit of wrought, it is very difficult to obtain a complete not scratching the glass.-L. section. The upper part of the deposit was about ten feet from the surface, and, according to the

OPHIOCYTIUM.—The species figured in the June report of the workmen, above it was solid rock. number of SCIENCE-GOSSIP, p. 127, as 0. majus, Another brownish deposit was found, but void of

seems to be rather the 0. apiculatum (Näg.) Figures organic remains.-S., Fifeshire,

of both forms may be seen on Tab. iv. of Nägeli's

“Gattungen Einzelliger Algen,” from which it would POISONED BY MUSHROOMS.—A year or two ago, appear that majus, in addition to being much larger, a man in the north of England cooked a large affects a sigmoid rather than a spiral mode of batch of what he called mushrooms for supper, and growth. 0. apiculatum I found in March, 1853, succeeded in poisoning his wife and family to death, amongst other algæ, cbiefly Tetraspora gelatinosa, and himself nearly so. Part of the things be cooked in a small boggy pool on Cannock Chase, Staffordwere sent to me for identification, and lo! he had shire.--Robert C. Douglas. gathered everything he could lay his hands upon; large and small, sweet and foul-off horsedung CHARA.-I fancy that there is something parrotten palings, or wherever he could find anything ticularly favourable to the growth of conferva in with a stalk, and a top to it after the manner of an the sulphuretted hydrogen-like smell which all the umbrella. When he had buried his family, and characeæ emit. If water-snails won't keep the recovered his own health, he carelessly walked into aquarium free, I know not what to suggest-the a well, and either killed or much damaged himself, March shell and the Trumpet snail are the best I forget which. I mention this to show the sort of scavengers. The singular crust of carbonate of men they are who poison themselves with mush lime with which the stems of some of the genus rooms. They would poison themselves with any are covered, renders them pretty objects in an thing else if they had the opportunity, would get aquarium. Sir David Brewster made an interesting under a cart-wlieel, or do any absurd thing.-W.G. discovery relative to these minute particles of lime. Smith's " Mushrooms and Toadstools."

-Helen E. Watney.

DOUBLE HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera Periclymenium)-(G. R. R.)— The double-flowered honey. suckle is not of very frequent occurrence, nor is it, so far as we know, in cultivation. In your specimen the blossoms are more than ordinarily numerous, and very closely packed. Each flower is “ doubled" by the formation of two or even three additional corollas within the first; the stamens and ovary are wholly wanting, but the calyx is present in the form of five small leafy teeth. It would be very desirable to introduce this variety into gardens, for which purpose cuttings should be at once taken. There is a similar variety occasionally met with in hedges, which is equally curious, but decidedly less generally attractive, inasmuch as its blossoms, though double, are all green and scentless. — M. 1. M.

PLANTAIN—(J. G.)-Your specimens belong to the panicled variety of Plantago major, P. major var. paniculata. Our common plantains seem very liable to changes of this kind in their flower-spikes, but what is curious is that to a great extent each species has its own special form of variation; thus in Plantago major we have the inflorescence (as in your specimen) forming a much-branched pyramidal panicle, covered with small bracts, but rarely producing perfect flowers. A corresponding variation, so far as we have observed, does not occur in the other species. In other cases the lower bracts of P. major become large and leaf-like, the flower-spike remaining simple, or sometimes dividing irregularly into two or three divisions. The “Rose” plantain, sometimes found in old-fashioned gardens, is a form of P. media in which the bracts form flat leafy tufts at the top of the flower-spike, the flowers themselves being generally deficient, though when they are produced the tuft gradually lengthens out so as to assume more or less of its normal spike-like aspect. This modification does not occur in the other species. P. lanceolata and P. maritima are sometimes found with much-branched or compound spikes, with perfect flowers. P. lanceolata, too, may be sometimes met with a rosette or tuft on the top of the flower-stalk, the rosette being composed of leaves and secondary flower-stalks, so that the whole looks like a miniature plant raised on the top of the flower-stalk. As there are numerous intermediate forms, the above must be taken as a general statement only.-M. T. M.

THE ELK.-Your correspondent F. A. Allen, in SCIENCE-GOSSIP for September, page 199, states that "the bones and antlers of the elk are found in the peat-bogs of Ireland and the Isle of Man, in excellent preservation ; but we have no records of their existence in our land, even in the time of the Romans.” Allow me to inform him and your readers generally that the bones and antlers of the elk have been found here in Kent's Cavern, in the Brischam Bone Cavern, and I believe they have also been dredged up from Torbay. Those found in Kent's Cavern are supposed to belong to a period greatly anterior to the time of the Romans.A.J.D., Torquay.

THE Ass.-Lightfoot says that in many parts of the Highlands of Scotland, at the birth of a child, the nurse or midwife puts one end of a great stick of this tree into the fire, and while it is burning receives into a spoon the sap or juice which oozes out at the other end, and administers this as the first spoonful of liquor to the new-born babe.-Sylva Florifera.

NOVEL SITUATION FOR A CHRYSALIS.- A few days since I was scrambling over the rocks at the back of the north fortifications, in search of anemones and other marine treasures, when my thoughts were turned from zoology to geology by seeing a large piece of rock-which had been thrown by the sappers from the works above-lying at my feet, and which contained three or four tolerably perfect specimens of Cerithium portlandicum and an Ostrea. Wishing to obtain at least one of the fossils, and having no tools, I resorted to the primitive method of dashing the stone against a rock, in order to split it into pieces small enough to carry hoine. After several trials, it broke into three pieces; but as a matter of course the finest Cerithium was shattered by the concussion. As I was mournfully gazing at the fragments, my eye was attracted by something in the last whorl of another shell. I looked closer, and there, snugly laid, was a little chrysalis. What renders this remarkable is the fact that this portion of the shell is quite an inch from the surface, and that the aperture in the centre of the volutions seems far too small for the larva to have crawled through. I cannot, neither can those friends to whom I have shown the stone, detect a crack which might have served for a passage-way. Can any one elucidate the mystery, or must it, like the presence of a toad in an almost similar predicament, remain a questionable point ?--questionable only as to how it got there, not to the fact of its being there, for I have it now lying as first found within the whorl ; indeed I could not remove it without destroying it. Should it ever cast off its pupa dress, I will send a description of the perfect insect; but I much fear the severe concussions it has received have quite destroyed its dormant life.-M, Pope, Weymouth.

YELLOW VIOLETS.-A few years since, whilst travelling in Norway, I spent a day or two on the Fille Fjeld, and, searching for microscopic objects in a small copse a few hundred yards from the station at Maristuen, I was surprised to discover, amongst other wild flowers, a large number of yellow violets, the sweet odour of violets being as powerful in them as in the English violet. Upon mentioning the fact to several botanical friends, upon my return to England, they expressed some doubts about the flowers being violets at all, hinting that I had probably mistaken the wild pansy for a violet. However, although no botanist in the scientific sense of the term, I am sufficiently well acquainted with the external characters of the commoner plants not to be so easily deceived by a mere general resemblance; and, in addition, the wild heartsease, which is so wonderfully abundant in some parts of Norway, was ready to my band for comparison. Will some botanical correspondent kindly inform me if yellow violets are known to botanists, or whether those observed by me were an accidental departure from the normal colour of the flower ?-Ediard H. Robertson.

HINT ABOUT LABELS.-During a recent visit to Neufchatel, I noticed in the Natural History Museum there a plan of labelling specimens which may be worth recording. Different parts of the world, Europe, Asia, Africa, America, North and South Australasia, &c., are distinguished by different colours, and the labels surrounded by a border of the colour or colours indicating the district to which the specimen belongs. In the case of insects, the pin is stuck into a small paper disc of the proper

colour. The geographical distribution of animals is |thus brought very plainly before the eye.-B.W.S.


ALL communications relative to advertisements, post-office

orders, and orders for the supply of this Journal should be addressed to the PUBLISHER. All contributions, books, and pamphlets for the EDITOR should be sent to 192, Piccadilly, London, W. To avoid disappointment, contri. butions should not be received later than the 15th of each month. No notice whatever can be taken of communi. cations which do not contain the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication, if desired to be withheld. We do not undertake to answer any queries not specially connected with Natural History, in accordance with our acceptance of that term; nor can we answer queries which might be solved by the correspondent by an appeal to any elementary book on the subject.

W. J. B.-The prevailing form on the Raby slide appears to be Surirella biseriata.-J. B.

IGNORAMUS is quite worthy of the signature adopted. We neither attempt to name objects from description, nor to answer anonymous querists.

H. M. H.-No 1, Hogweed, Heracleum spondylium.
G. A.-Very probably of Mr. Kennedy, Covent Garden.
M. A. L.-We are not partial to guesses or guessing,
HARVEST Moon, Maelström, and answers to several other
queries, are unavoidably postponed for want of space.

J. R. W.-No. 6, Bartramia fontana; 7, Myrica gale.R. B.

T. H., Jun.-No. 6, Hypnum striatum ; 8, 9, 11, Hypnum cuspidatam.-R. B.

R. B.-Bryum atropurpureum.
F. W.-No. ), Barbula fallax ; 2, Dicranella varia.-R. B.

W. E. H.-The scaly (metamorphosed bud) gall on oak is called the “artichoke gall," and is very common.

M. C. T. S.-Archæology is beyond our province.

W. D. N.-British Neuroptera. A list of British species is included in Morris's "Catalogue of British Insects." There is no special work on British Neuroptera. Curtis's British Entomology, republished by Reeve & Co.; the section “Neuroptera” may be had in parts separately. A catalogue of British Neuroptera is published by the trustees of the British Museum.

J. P., Bridgewater.-Consult fig. 167 at p. 181 of our volume for 1866. Is it not the same?

J. D. R.- If you send us in a quill specimens of the parasite, we will inform you.

J. C. D.--The Colias Edusa is common enough on the Sussex coast this autumn.

A. W.-The eleventh number of Newman's British Moths, with each species figured, is advertised to appear in the middle of October.

G. 0. may obtain Nitella or Vallisneria (growing plants) of Mr. Kennedy, Covent Garden Market, W.C.

H. C. is a careless reader of SCIENCE-Gossip, or he would have noticed what he calls “Fungi on oak leaves" figured and described as “ Galls," in vol. ii., 1866, p. 228, fig. 217.

W. T. H.-Place the animal in an ant's nest, and they will anatomize it for you.

A. J.--No. 1, Bryum pseudotriquetrum; 2, Hypnum stellatum; 3, Hypnum exannulatum.-R. B.

E. C.-Bryum capillare.-R. B.

s. H.-Did not enclose name and address, nor stamped envelope for name and address, which was requested, and we have no authority to publish it here. T. H., Jun.--Not a Veronica at all, but Alchemilla arvensis,

H. W. is thanked, but a long extract from Middleton's Geography is scarcely the answer required to the query about the Maelstrom.

DIPTERA.-The only work on British Diptera which we know of, that approaches completeness, is F. Walker's Diptera, 3 vols., 8vo., published by Reeve at 25s. per volume.

BLUE PIMPERNEL. - Several correspondents send us notices of the occurrence of the Blue Pimpernel, which is by no means rare.

M. S. B. H.-The fly is Tabanus bovinus, and commonly called the “Horse Fly.”-F. W.

S. C.-Cases of caddis worms; nothing novel.

J. S.-No insects, only a crushed leaf, in your letter. We suppose it was the common aphis found on beans.

W. W. S.-The species called Chaitophorus aceris, Koch.. in Walker's list, is the same as Aphis aceris of SCIENCEGOSSIP, p. 204.-F. W.

R. V. T.-The grass is Gastridium lendigerum, rather an uncommon species.-J. G. B.

J. B.--Your variety of caterpillar of Death's-Head Moth is well figured in pl. 3 of Fuessly's Archives.

J. G.-Hints on the Formation of Local Museums. London. Hardwicke. One Shilling.

C. E. D.-Too much of a list to insert, and queries without conscience to answer for one individual. We may do a little for you.

B.T.-No. 5 is Notania loriculata; 6, Membranipora pilosa. -E. C.

X.-A common complaint. We fear that we cannot help you.

VICIA SYLVATICA for Gonepteryx rhamni, or Arge
Galathea.-W. D. Robinson, 2, Shandwick-place, Edinburgh.

LEPIDOPTERA of South Coast in exchange for others. -
J. D. R., Conservatory Cottage, Charlton, Dover.

GREENSAND Fossils (Cambridge) in exchange for Silurian fossils.-Rev. J.S. Tute, Markington, Ripley, Yorks.

PLUMATELLA REPENS in exchange for any other freshwater Polyzoa (except Cristatella mucedo) in a living state.C. J. Richardson, Old Change, E.C.

ALPINE PLants in exchange for rare British or others. 1 T. Howse, Jan., Garry bank, West Hill, Upper Sydenham.

COLEOPTERA and LEPIDOPTERA, well set, and in good condition, for other Coleoptera.-J. Barlow, 1, Thompson-street, Stantonbury, Wolverton, Bucks.

RECENT SHELLS.-Vertigo edentula for other British Shells. -J. Beaulah, Bracken Hill, Brigg.

Fossil Fisi TEETH and Bones (mounted) for slides of Photographs.-John Sim, West Cramlington.

RICHMOND EARTH, for good mounted objects.-W. Freeman, 2, Ravensbourne Hill, Lewisham-road, Greenwich, S.E.

FossiLS FROM CHALK, London Clay, and Woolwich Beds, for fossils from other formations, - F. Stanley, 3, Daneterrace, The Dane, Margate.

PLANORBIS ALBUS and P. LINEATUS. I have a few to dis. tribute, on receipt of stamp and small box.-W.H.G., Vernon Cottage, Thornhill-road, N.

BRITISH BIRD's Eags in exchange for British Lepidoptera (Nocturnæ).-Send lists to F. Jonas, 13, Canterbury-villas, Maida Vale, London.

AMPHORA MINUTISSIMA parasitic upon Nitzschia sigmoidea for other rare Diatoms.-E. W., 21, West-street, Banbury.

GORSE WEB-SPINNING MITE (see SCIENCE-GOSSIP for June), in exchange for mounted objects.-J. C. White. Montpellier House, Budleigh Salterton, Devon.

BRITISH FERNS.-Rare plants for other varieties. Ironsand and Kawri Gum from New Zealand, for other objects of interest.-J. E. M., Woodfield, Moseley, Birmingham.

ELPERIA PULVAGO, Dianthæcia capsincolu and Larentia cesiata, for other Macro-lepidoptera.-A. Ford, 38, Mowbray.. street, Sheffield.

BRITISH MOLLUSCS.- Prepared tongues of Cyclostoma and other species, for the Animals of Valvata, Assiminia, Testacella, Clausilia or Ancylus.-W. R. May, 20, Trinidad. place, Islington.

BOOKS RECEIVED. “Mushrooms and Toadstools: How to distinguish easily the differences between Edible and Poisonous Fungi,” with two large sheets containing figures of 29 Edible, and 31 Poisonous Species (coloured). By Worthington G. Smith. London: Hardwicke.

“ Letter to His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch on the Quadrature and Rectification of the Circle." By James Smith, Liverpool : E. Howell.

“ The American Naturalist.” No. 6, August, 1867. Salem, U.S., Essex Institute.

“The Naturalist's Circular, August and September, 1867. London: H. Hall.

“Country Life.” Nos. I to 6. London. Aug. and Sept.

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HERE is, it would | Lichens, are "immediately discarded as unsaleable ;"

appear, a radical while Mr. Bell, factor on the Kinfauns estates, gives difference of opinion me a similar assurance as to the diminished value of between lichenolo oak-bark when infested by Lichens.* Mr. Gorrie, gists on the one Horticultural Editor of the Farmer, and one of the hand, and arboricul. niost experienced and discriminating arboriculturists turists on the other, in Scotland, Mr. Moore, of the Sydney Botanic as to the effect on Garden, New South Wales, and other practical

authorities, whose opinions carry great weight in ber and bark of the such a question, have borne similar testimony. My trees on which it occurs, of inference from their testimony is that they regard Lichen-growth. Lichenologists Lichens as true parasites, living, in great measure have been in the habit of de at least, at the expense of the bark on which they scribing Lichens as deriving occur ; interfering with its healthy action and their nourishment wholly from growth. While regarding Lichen-growth, however, the air-as non-parasitic—and as in a certain sense, or in some measure, a cause of as making use of trees simply unhealthiness or disease in the trees which it affects, as bases of support.t Some, es they also admit that, in a certain other sense, it is a pecially of the earlier writers, result of unhealthiness or disease. The evidence not only deny any possible appears uniform that Lichen-growth should never harm, but demonstrate a con occur in forests or nurseries, which are the subject siderable amount of actual of proper care, where the trees or shrubs are properly good, in so far as Lichens at-| thinned, t where the conditions of healthy growth

tract moisture to the trees on are sedulously provided. Not only so, but I am which they occur, and thus assist in their nourishment

assured that the disease of Lichen-growth, when it and growth. All“ practical men,” on the other occurs, can be removed or dissipated by removal of hand, all those who are concerned with the cultivation of timber, bark, or fruit trees, without theorising on

* He writes to me (March, 1867), “ It is much against the the subject, are unanimous in describing Lichens as

growth of the trees as well as the bark. You will scarcely detrimental to growth, and as depreciative of value.

find it in a good thriving plantation." My friend Mr. Anderson, of the Kinnoull Nurseries, + My own observations are here somewhat at variance Perth, tells me that trees or shrubs coated with with the statements of Arboriculturists. In the Kinfauns

Plantations I find some trees bare: others copiously covered : * The substance of a paper read before Section D of the but the latter are as frequently in vigorous life, with a British Association at Dundee.

plentiful foliage, as dead. It is impossible in such instances to • Nylander, in his "Synopsis " (Introduction, p. 1), says that infer that Lichens are necessarily either a cause or result of the majority are exclusively nourished by the atmosphere. disease. Moreover, all my experience in different parts of the

Berkeley in the" Treasury of Botany ” (p. 679), says Lichens world goes to prove that Lichen-growth is most abundant are " distinguished from Fungi by their not deriving nourish. and vigorous in those sitnations, which are most freely exposed ment in general from the substances on which they grow, but to light and air : of which familiar illustrations are to be found from the surrounding medium."

in maritime rocks and Druidical stones, that are frequently Vide “Tentamen Historiæ Lichen um." By J. A. Luyken, “shaggy" with a plentiful mantle of Ramalina scopulorum M.D. Göttingen, 1809, p. 32 and seq.

and other Lichens. No. 35.


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