« EelmineJätka »
CLEANING DIATOMS.-I shall be very greatly The larva turns its head from side to side with great obliged if you will favour me with a word of in quickness, as if by a spring, when disturbed, and struction as to the cleansing of diatoms. In com during this contortion I have frequently heard a sort mon with several friends beginning the study, I of snapping noise ; however I have observed that have been attempting the preparation of diatoms, some larvæ never make the noise, and others only both fossil and otherwise. We are all in the same occasionally, though all have the twisting motion of difficulty, and it still remains, after using all the the head; so the sound must be a voluntary pecuprocesses described in Mr. Davis's book of instruc liarity of the larva. I have once or twice heard the tions. After boilings in sulphuric, hydrochloric, | pupa squeak, but in each case a moth was proand nitric acids, and following every direction given, duced from the squeaking pupa in a few hours our diatoms are still mixed with a kind of flocculent after. Before the moth emerges, the pupa will often matter of which we cannot get rid. Water washings appear upon the surface of the ground, caused I and separations of every kind we can devise are all suppose by the movements of the enclosed imago.of no avail.-W. Winsford.
G. B. C., Ringwood. DEATH's-Head Moth.—I have several times had Pupa OP DEATH'S-HEAD MOTH PRODUCING the larvæ of the Death's-Head Moth brought to SOUND.-I see in your pages a discussion as to the me. Last year, as I had previously done, I put a l ability of the pupa of Acherontia atropos (Death's. larva of the above in the garden, under a glass Head Moth) to produce sound. One season I had cover, with some potato-leaves. In two or three a very large quantity of these pupæ; they were laid days it buried itself. After waiting about a fort on the surface of soil in a box, and covered with night, I took the pupa out of the ground; and as I damp moss; they were kept in the corner of a warm held it in my hand, between my forefinger and
room to facilitate the exit of the imago. Many a thumb, it made the same shrill, squeaking noise as time did the pupa “squeak," although more faintly I have heard the perfect insect make. The sound it than does the perfect insect, and it was noticeable made was similar, but much fainter.--W. F. Foottit, that this usually occurred shortly prior to the apNewark, Notts.
pearance of a moth. On first hearing these sounds
we concluded that an imago had emerged; not, howDEATH'S-HEAD LARVÆ.—I expected to see in
ever, finding any on the sides of the box, we sought your last month's issue of SCIENCE-GOSSIP an
among the moss, but without success. After a few answer from some of our leading entomologists to
such occurrences, we became aware that the sound the remarks of your correspondent as to the power
preceded an exit of a perfect insect. It was a usual which the pupæ of A. atropos have to produce noise.
remark, when the sound was beard by those in the The only authority which he mentions for this fact
room, that “another moth will soon be out." Of is Newman, but it has been recorded by many course no one now doubts the ability of the imago others, amongst which -are De Geer, Fuessly,
to produce sound; we could at any time elicit the Reaumur, Kirby, Spence, &c., some of whom your
“squeak” by giving the moth a poke, or by othercorrespondent will do well to consult before express
wise annoying it.-George Gascoyne, Newark. ing his doubts on the subject. Having myself
DEATH'S-HEAD MOTH.-Some correspondents in heard this noise, I trust a short account of my own observations may not be uninteresting to your
your last number expressed a doubt as to whether readers. Last season I had a large number of the
the larva and pupa make any noise. I cannot above species dug up, amongst which was a very
answer for the latter, but I have frequently heard a large and fine specimen. which. however, was
sound from the caterpillar. It was generally short unfortunately injured, having a small crack in the
and abrupt, like the tick of a watch, but sometimes cephalotheca or head-case, although so small that
more prolonged. I could always induce the creature but little matter exuded from it. Thinking that I
to make the noise by touching it rather smartly might save it, I tied some lint carefully over the
with my finger about the middle. It nearly always
turned its head round at the moment the sound crack, and in a day or two the injured part was quite healed. The other pupą were removed to the
escaped. The noise made by the imago is much breeding-cage, and being buried I had of course no
longer and shriller, and might really sometimes be chance of hearing whether they made a noise or
called a “sbriek.”—Henry Ullyett, Folkestone. not, but the one that had been injured I kept in a little damp moss, for the purpose of seeing if it
PRESERVING OBJECTS.-Can any of your readers would recover.
give me a recipe for preserving insects ? In this position it was kept for
I want to about two months, during which time I repeatedly
keep them from summer until winter in some way heard the noise which your correspondent doubted.
that will keep them moist (and not injure them), so On being touched it would emit a noise resembling
that they may be dissected and mounted for the the chirrup of a grasshopper. After remaining in
| microscope as if fresh killed. I have tried spirit, this state for the time before mentioned, it gave
spirit and water, and also turpentine, but without up the ghost, much to my disappointment. The
much success. The spirit seems to do best, but it inmeans by which this noise is made is simply by the
jures some insects very inuch. If the object is dried, I
cannot succeed in softening it, so as to make it like pupa elongating and contracting their cases, the
a fresh-killed one. I should not trouble you, but I noise being produced by the sudden snap of the
cannot get this information, and I am sure many of rings resuming their original position after the contraction.-4. Mercer.
your readers must have felt the want of some ready way of disposing of newly-caught insects when time
will not allow of their being dissected at once.THE DEATH'S-HEAD MOTH (Acherontia atropos).
C. L. J. -I have during my entomological experience had dozens of larvæ--of all sizes-of this interesting and PRESERVING SPIDERS.-Can you or any of your peculiar species. I quite agree with Mr. Newman correspondents tell me the best way of preserving and other authors that in three stages of its | spiders, so as to keep them from shrivelling up, metamorphosis it has the power of producing a noise. | and retain their markings ?-B, W. S.
unfortunately in specimen, which, however
As DEAD AS A HERRING.–The following extract the sun is in the autumnal equinox; and this can from “Anderson on the State of the Hebrides,” | obviously only happen in our harvest month, Sepis quoted in “Selections from the Portfolio of the late tember. Hence the term "harvest moon.” Of course John Brady, Esq." (London, Whitaker, 1826). this rising of the moon at nearly the same time for “ The herring is a delicate fish, which is killed by a two or three consecutive nights occurs at every very small degree of violence. Whenever it is taken lunation, but as she is not at such other times nearly out of the water, even though it seems to have full, it attracts no observation. In the foregoing received no hurt, it gives a squeak, and immediately description I have assumed that the full moon occurs expires; and though it be thrown back instantly at the instant of the equinox, which it very rarely into the water, it never recovers. Hence arises the does; and that the moon's path coincides with the proverb 'as dead as a herring.'”—R. A.
ecliptic, while she really moves in a curve inclined
some 5° to it; but these suppositions, as will be COLOURED LABELS.-I am glad of an opportunity easily seen, in no way affect the principle on which to endorse the remarks made by “B. W.S.," p. 239,
the phenomenon is explicable.-F. R. A. S. respecting the desirability of attaching coloured labels to specimens in Museums, the colours being
THE MAELSTRÖM.-In reply to your correspondintended to designate different portions of the earth's surface. The plan is, I believe, in general
ent's inquiry on the above head, so very various use in France, if not everywhere on the Continent,
are the accounts given by different travellers of the and I have before now been struck by its great
Maelström (or grinding stream) that it is difficult utility. Each of the main divisions of the globe is
to arrive at any positive conclusion as to its real
magnitude. There is, however, no doubt of the marked by a special colour; say, yellow for Asia, black for Africa, and so on. The principal countries
existence of this strange whirlpool, the dangers of
which have been perhaps much exaggerated. It are made prominent by bars or squares, or some analogous markings of a different colour; for ex
is probable that the many traditions of Norway
have lent their aid to throw a balo of mystery over ample, a red bar on a black ground might designate
its dark waters. The Maelström is situated beEgypt. Tables of the colours, and of the lands
tween two of the South Lofoden Islands, lat. 67° 68' which they symbolise, are suspended in conspicuous
long. 16°. Lord Dufferin, in his “Letters from parts of the room. It is astonishing how much the sight aids the memory in fixing the locality of any |
| High Latitudes,” mentions his anxiety to visit this
far-famed phenomenon. He appears to have apgiven object; for of course the eye, and through it
proached the Maelström, but owing to the fearful the brain, is much more quickly and deeply im
height and raging of the waves, his little vessel had pressed by a piece of bold colouring, than by a
| to stand out to sea to prevent its being swallowed single name printed or written in one corner of a
up in the vortex. Bayard Taylor, in his “Northern card. It frequently happens that students, either
Travels,” referring to the Maelström, says that "it for the sake of comparison, or some similar pur
| is the general opinion that some of the rocks, which pose, wish to investigate the Fauna of a single
formerly made it so terrible, have been broken country or district only. To such the plan is in.
away, or that some submarine convulsion has taken valuable, as the eye catches almost at a glance
place which has changed the action of the waters." the reds or blues, or whatever it is in search of,
Weighing the various grains of information which passing by without an effort the colours in which
we can gather together, we may conclude that the it is not interested. I think that curators of
Maelström is a whirlpool of extraordinary violence museums would do well to turn their attention to
(produced by cross tidal currents and sunken rocks), this simple, but very efficacious, aid to knowledge.
which in an agitated state is most dangerous to -W.W. s.
small craft venturing. in too close proximity; but THE HARVEST Moon.-The following considera
the stories of ships not being able to venture nearer
than seven miles may be regarded as quite fabulous. tions may help your querist C. T. Richardson to comprehend the phenomenon of the harvest moon.
-H. Allingham. The moon rises later and later every night, as is perfectly well known, on account of her own proper
CRICKETS.-I have crickets in my house; they eastward motion among the stars. It is also familiar must leave it or I must. Can any of your readers to most people that in our latitudes objects on the tell me how to get rid of them? Two months ago same hour circle rise sooner as their declination is I had not one--now they are killed by the dozen, further north. Let us now, for simplicity of expla and still their numbers increase. In the early nation, suppose that the moon moves in the plane numbers of SCIENCE-Gossip, several of your corof the ecliptic. If your correspondent will trace this respondents told us what they eat, and very interest. circle on a globe, he will find that the arc of it com ing was their information, particularly to those who prehended between the vernal and autumnal equi. “hang them up in cages to sing” (page 84); but noxes is all to the north of the equator ; so that, they can imagine how much more interesting to me starting from the vernal equinox, our satellite is
would be the information I ask.-Geo. B. acquiring more and more north declination on each succeeding night. The sun, then, being in the FORAMINIFERA FROM SIELLS.- A few days ago, autumnal equinox, of course the full moon will be while looking at a Conch shell purchased from a directly opposite to it, or in the vernal equinox. As stall in Brighton market at least three years ago, she travels eastward from this, such motion must a few grains of a white substance dropped on my evidently retard her rising ; but it will be seen that | band from a small cavity in the shell, containing she is also travelling northward, which accelerates about half a teaspoonful of what appeared to be it, and it happens that these two effects almost sand, which, on examination under the microscope, neutralize each other for two or three days, when the | proved to be nearly all various forms of Foramimoon is about the vernal equinox. She then of nifera. An examination of the foreign shells in the course rises for these two or three nights at very possession of the readers of SCIENCE-Gossip will nearly the same hour. Now, the moon can only be probably furnish them with similar treasures.full in the vernal equinox-as I have said, when | J. Wheatley, Lewes.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
W. D. R.-The Beetle is Phrutora vitellinæ.-L.
J. W. 1.--The species of Aregma on Rose, raspberry, and
wild strawberry often approximate very closely to each other. ALL communications relative to advertisements, post office
Too much reliance must not be placed on the figure of a orders, and orders for the supply of this Journal should be addressed to the PUBLISHER. All contributions, books,
single spore. Some authors unite the rose and raspberry and pamphlets for the EDITOR should be sent to 192,
brands under one species. Yours is Aregma gracile if they Piccadilly, London, W. To avoid disappointment, contri.
are really distinct. butions should not be received later than the 15th of each
H. G. L. D.-1, Achillæa. 2, Five shillings. month. No notice whatever can be taken of communi. cations which do not contain the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication, if desired to be with
EXCHANGES. held. We do not undertake to answer any queries not specially connected with Natural History, in accordance Good BRITISH LEPIDOPTERA for good exotic shells.-Send with our acceptance of that term; nor can we answer lists to W. Cash, 14, Clarence-street, Halifax.. queries which might be solved by the correspondent by an Forkign LAND Shells for good British marine.-E.C. J., appeal to any elementary book on the subject. We are
Eldon Villa, Redland, Bristol. . always prepared to accept queries of a critical nature, and
SILURIAN CORALS and Fossils in exchange for Ammonites to publish the replies, provided some of our readers, besides
or fossils of other formations.--H. M. Gwyther, Whittington, the querist, are likely to be interested in them. We
Oswestry. cannot undertake to return rejected manuscripts unless
TODEA PELLUCIDA (seedlings) for any other Todea, except suficient stamps are enclosed to cover the return postage. Neither can we promise to refer to or return any manu
barbary and Africana, or any Hymenophyllum except Tunscript after one month from the date of its receipt. All
bridgense.-H. J. Charlton, 2, Richmond-grove, Everton, microscopical drawings intended for publication should
Liverpool. have annexed thereto the powers employed, or the extent British PLANTS.-Ajuga chamapitys, Spiranthes antum. of enlargement, indicated in diameters (thus : X 320 nalis, Phy, orbiculare, and others, for local species, especially diameters). Communications intended for publication Scotch and Alpine.-W, R. Hayward, Heath Villas, Penge. should be written on one side of the paper only, and all MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL.- Early numbers for microscopic scientific names, and names of places and individuals
objects neatly mounted.-M. Webb, bookbinder, Ventnor, should be as legible as possible. Wherever scientific names
Isle of Wight. or technicalities are employed, it is hoped that the common
PCPx of F. CONSPICUATA for good British Lepidoptera, or names will accompany them. Lists or tables are inad.
pupæ of the same. - W. M. Cole, 93, St. Helen-street, missible under any circumstances. Those of the popular
Ipswich. names of British plants and animals are retained and registered for publication when sufficiently complete for that
TARANAKI STEEL Sand for other objects.-E. M., 6, Holpurpose, in whatever form may then be decided upon.
ford-square, Pentonville, W.C. ADDRESS No. 192, PicCADILLY, LONDON, W.
WRENTHAM DEPOSIT.-Good slides in exchange for other good objects.-W. Freeman, 2, Ravensbourne-hill, Lewisham.
road, Greenwich. J. G.-We are of opinion that if tobacco possesses any dis. MACROGLOSSA STELLATARUM, A. bucephala, or Arge infecting properties at all, they are exceedingly minute. ! galathea, for Thecla quercus or Leucophasia sinapis.- James Many believe that camphor and tobacco smoke are either of Glass, Chipping Norton, Oxon. them disinfectants. It is undoubtedly a popular error in both
CAST SKINS of larvæ of Day fly (mounted) for other mounted cases. If the only defence which a smoker can advance in
objects of interest.-W. Blackburn, 1, Portman-street, Whalley favour of his pipe is its disinfectant power, we fear that i
Range, Manchester. logically he must give it up.
LADA OVU and KYNCRONELLA TETRAHEDRA from the W. M. C.- Impossible to tell, from its crushed conditio
lias, and spines of CIDARIS from great oolite, for small fossils what the insect is.
from other formations.-E. W., 21, West-street, Banbury. W. R. F.-The moss was undoubtedly Funaria hygrometrica,
Good BRITISH LAND SHELLs for Limnæa glutinosa, Unio which is very common.
margartiferus, &c.- Thos. Ball, Brigs, Lincolnshire. E. C. J.-We have no knowledge of the name.
MONSTERA DELICIOSA.- Pollen. Stamped envelopes, ad. J. B. L.-The American Moth Trap was fully described and dressed to Charles T. Parsons, Portland-road, Edgbaston. figured in Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, vol. ii., p. 199.
*.* Announcements of Exchange will not be inserted in C. H. G.-The Domestic Barometer you describe is much
future unless written in full (with the scientific names distinct). more general than you suppose. We saw it in use in Norfolk
and in the form in which it is desired that they should appear, many months ago.
Only objects of Natural History are eligible, and the M.A.--We do not know the Coccus on ferns as a species
paragraphs should not exceed three lines of printed matter. peculiarly attached to those plants, it is very like the species found on the rose, and may have strayed by accident to the ferns from some other infested plant.-I. O. W.
BOOKS RECEIVED. A. M. E.-We are not aware that any are published.
C. A. J.-Two or three species of Serpula have the tufts The Quarterly Magazine of the High Wycombe Natural banded with blue. Animals in aquaria require little or no History Society, No. VI., October, 1867. Wycombe : feeding. Lean raw meat in small fragments is recommended.
W. Butler. E. B.-Don't trouble about feeding them, especially if the
Hooper & Co.'s General Autumn Catologue. Covent Garden tank is large, and not overstocked.
Market, London, J. G. A.-It is a gall, but what insect produces it we cannot
“The Naturalist's Circular,” No. XVII., October, 1867. inform you ; probably a species of Cecidomyia.
London: Henry Hall. H. T.-Consult “ Bechstein's Cage Birds," or “Beeton's
"Country Life,” Nos. VII. to X., October, 1867. London : Home Pets."
Bolt-court. M. C. T. S.-- The Maidenhair Spleen wort is a troublesome
"Everybody's Year: book," a Popular Annual for 186s. fern under cultivation ; at least around London.
London: Wyman & Sons. C. L.-Common as swallows in summer.
B. L. W.-The subject was so extensively commented upon COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED.-G. M.-W. W. S.-F. T.in all the Natural History journals, a year or two since, that W. M. C.-T. H. H.-W. R. F.-M. J.P.-W.G. S.-H.D.we cannot afford space to repeat it.
C. W.-W.R. H.-W. B. (Limerick).-C. A. J.-J.G.-J. W. T. L. D.-We cannot afford to guess.
H. R.-A. M. E.-H. J. C.- E. T. S.-J. W.--C. W. B.
J. T. Y:-R. A.-L. L.-F. K.-E. C. J.-J. C. W.-C. D. B. G. We had received a copy of the "List of British
J. B. L.-C. D.-M. A. L.-R. T.-T. J. S.-G. G.- J. B.Insects" from the author when we made the announcement.
C. J. T.-T. H. M.-J. B. W.-H. M. G.-W.C.-W. C. C.The publisher's name was erased, but the author afterwards
J. W. W.-G. Green.-H. E. W.-C. H. G.-J. R.-G. B.replied to a querist that it was published by Longmans.
R. B.-E. S.-F. S.-H. W.-W. T. H.-E. T. S.-W. W. Beyond this our own knowledge does not extend.
L. L.-T. L. D.-S. B. M.-J. H.-T. B.-F. A.-J. C. H. F. C. W.-Nos. 1 and 2, Diatoma elongatum. 3 and 4,
C. A.-H. G.-A. C.-E. B.-E. W.-E. J. L.-B. L. W.Diatoma vulgare, front and side views.
W. B.-K.-C. L.-S. M.-T. R.-M. C. T. S.-W. D. R.SEA-HORSE (Hippocampus). - We are informed that Mr. B. G.-J. B. B.-H. T.-J. G. A.-J. G.-W. F.-B. (no 1) King, of Great Portland-street, has some of these singular K. Teignmouth (not eligible)-J. R.-H. J. B.-F. W. C.-fish, "all alive," which those who are interested therein W.H. E.G. M.-C. N.-J. F.0.-W. J. S.-J. W. 1.-W.B. should take an early opportunity of seeing.
-H. G. L. D.-H. G.-C. T. P.
the damp cold
HE last rose of the dank woods, shaking down the brown nuts,
Summer, with snapping the dead branches, and tossing the red all its perfume rustling leaves from his path ? Have we not felt bis and pleasant as cold hand on our shoulder, and, shuddering, said, sociations, has “Yes, the Winter is here?” Did we not love the shed its fra- | blooming Spring, with its bursting buds, fragrant grant petals on Violets, and yellow Primroses ? Did we not rejoice
when we first saw the Spotted Arum, and caught a
That hangs in its clear green bell ?
And did we not laugh outright when the Hawing sun
thorn donned his mantle of odorous blossom ? And So beautiful,-
did we not love, too, "the thousand charms be. are whirling in a “dance of longing to the Summer's day”-the sweet birds death” over thelbare fallows. carolling the morn, the fresh breeze laden with the The air is crisp, the breeze is odour of new-mown hay, the glowing noon with its keen, and
glittering swarms, the beauteous flowers, the rich There is a fragrance in its breath | green leaves, "the voices of the forest range, and Which is not of the flowers, but the music of the rill ” ? And when Autumn came, death.
did we not love it, too, with its broad rich fields The sights that attract the eye, the sounds that
of yellow grain, its rich ripe fruits and gorgeous greet the ear, and the odours that invade the nose,
foliage ? Did we not stay to hear the soothing all declare
hum of “the yellow Bee in the Ivy bloom"? Did That there hath passed away A glory from the earth.
we not revel in its crisp cool air and yellow light,
its glorious days and just less glorious nights ? Myriads of insect forms which lately thronged the air have retired from active life.
A solitary Dragon-fly flits now and then, ghost-like and grim,
The warm sun is failing, the bleak wind is wailing,
The bare boughs are sighing, the pale flowers are dying. through the fitful gleams of pallid sunshine. The
And the year Thrush and the Blackbird are mute, and the Skylark On the earth, her death bier, in a shroud of leaves, dead trills an intermitting lay. The Hooded Crow and
Is lying, the Coddy-moddy Gull stalk in stately silence over slain by the ruthless hand of pitiless Winter, and the gossamer-webbed fields. Spring, with its smiles her garments, once so beautiful, are torn from her and tears, its toils and hopes; Summer, with its corpse, and scattered in tatters, stained by the sanglowing vigour and glorious promises; Autumn, guinary fingers of her destroyer! How can we with its anxious cares and rich enjoyments, are all | welcome him, or how can we rejoice at his coming, gone, all passed away; and Winter, boisterous in for does he not drive away joy and gladness from his exultation, rashes over the hills, down into the the earth, and bring desolation and death ? valleys, and away through the woods, wild with
Behold, fond man, glee at the prospect of a coming time when he shall See here, thy pictured life ; pass some few years be monarch of all he surveys. Have we not already
Thy flowering Spring, thy Summer's ardent strength,
And pale concluding Winter comes at last, seen him on the hill-tops, shaking the folds out of
Thy sober Autumn fading into age, bis ermine mantle, and heard him crashing through Andshuts the scene.
And though at all times in the midst of life we and lichenologists, so that the one may assist or are in death, Winter is still the time of death, as correct (as the case may be) the other. death is the winter of our lives; and as in propor There is every reason for believing that orchill tion to our love of Summer must be our sorrow at will not be superseded by the coal-tar or other dyes; its departure, so in proportion to our love of life and that the Lichen-dyes are of sufficient importance must we look forward to its termination with to commerce to merit an exbaustive examination by regret. The fear of death is but the complement modern methods of research. I am persuaded the to that desire for self-preservation which He who result would be to raise still higher the comparative made the beating heart implanted there, and, place or value of the Lichen colouring-matters Whatever crazy sorrow saith,
among accredited commercial dyes, and to develop No life that breathes with human breath
| and utilise some beautiful colours which have been Has ever truly longed for death.
hitherto ignored (such as the brilliant reds produced Midst racking pains and overwhelming griefs, i from parietinic acid by the action of potash). death may, and often docs, appear the lesser evil, l. It is not irrelevant, I think, here to express the but
opinion that our two International Exhibitions were "Tis life-whereof our nerves are scant,
most useful in indicating distinctly the past and Oh life-not death, for which we pant:
present-and, to a certain extent also, the futureMore life, and fuller, that we want.
applications of Lichens to the purposes of the dyer or But death will come, as came the Winter, surely, colorist; and the same is probably true of the similar incvitably; and as we
Expositions at Paris. But I regret I cannot speak
in the same terms of commendation of the illusSce the leaves around us falling, Dry and withered, to the ground,
trations of Lichen-products contained in our
principal public museums. The Museums of the salutary warning is refreshed in our minds,
Economic Botany at Kew and Edinburgh, the “Work while it is called to-day, for the night
Technological Museum of the Crystal Palace, the cometh in which no man can work." W. C.
Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, and the
museums in various provincial towns, contain suites LICHEN-DYES. *
of specimens illustrative of the pictorial appli
cations of Lichens. Of these, the best I have seen T DESIRE particularly to avail myself of the ! is that of Kew. But in none of the museums which I present opportunity of directing the attention I have visited have I found the illustrations in of this section of the Association to what I am question properly cared for or arranged: in compelled to regard as the present insatisfactory ! none is there what I consider as anything anslate of the chemistry of Lichens-more especially of proaching a fair display of the colorific value of the Lichen-llyes. I have studied the literature of Lichens. In the majority of instances the fluid this subject for nearly twenty years, and my in- dves are destroyed from want of due aëration or quiries have led to the conclusion that-
oxygenation, apparently; many colours are faded I. The results obtained by analysts are — fre
from undue exposure to light; many articles are quently at least-not stated with due perspicuity.
unnamed, while others are wrongly named. In a II. The nomenclature of the various colorific or
word, there is a necessity in all cases for rearrangeother principles is most confused.
ment by a lichenologist possessed of competent III. What are apparently the same principles chemical knowledge. Moreover, marvellously few are described under different names by different are the standard works of reference, whether techauthors.
nological, chemical, or botanical, which contain IV. Error and confusion havc arisen in some
correct accounts of Lichens, their products and apmeasure from the inaccurate determination of the plications. Even the recently issued " Treasury of botanical species operated on.
| Botany" perpetuates obsolete terms and exploded V. There is a want of concentration and clas- errors which only serve to confuse and mislead the sification of the results obtained in Britain and the student. Continent up to this date, with the desirability of a uniform and simple nomenclature.
| THE STUDY OF NATURE.- From the schoolboy to VI. There is room for a new series of researches the philosoplier, all grades find in it something to be undertaken conjointly by competent chemists
admirably suited to their minds. It brings us into
while quickening our sense of the infinite marvels * Being the concluding paragraphs of a paper “ On the Present Uses of Lichens as Dye-stuffs," read before Section
which surround the simplest object, teaches us B (Chemical Science) of the British Association at Dundee, in
many and pregnant lessons which may help us September last, by Dr. Lauder Lindsay, of Perth.
through our daily needs.-Leves' Seaside Studies.