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THE “UNITY” CONTROVERSY.

Since writing the above, I have met with the

following confirmatory evidence in Mr. Charles VOUR correspondent, "R. G.," "complains, in

Brooke's work, entitled, “ Ten Years in Sarawak.” 1 the November number of SCIENCE GOSSIP,

That gentleman says, on page 71, in reference to the that I have not been successful in answering Mr.

Dyaks: “The colour of their skin varies consider' Milton's objections to the theory propounded in the

ably, not so much between one tribe and another, as in May number. I will now, with your permission,

various localities ; and whether it be attributable to attempt to satisfy his cravings, and likewise pass different kinds of water, or food, or increase of a few criticisms upon the theory which he would

shade from old jungle, is a question. But there is substitute for mine. I should like to state, how

no doubt that all who reside in the interior are much ever, before commencing, that I in no way lay claim fairer than those who have moved towards the to originality in the few remarks which have excited mouths of the rivers, and a very few years is able to so much animadversion; my desire was simply to effect the change of appearance.” put old truths in a new light.

A third consideration which I brought forward, In support of the time-honoured idea that the l i.e., that my theory was the only one which acdifferent races of mankind sprang from one pair, 1 counted for the presence of brown adults amongst as stated in the Book of Genesis, and that the black races, the brown individuals being generally subsequent differences in colour and physique arose found in the highlands, was completely unnoticed. from the combined influence of solar heat and other | May I beg Mr. Milton and “R. G.” to devote their external agencies, exerted during a long series of best attention to this point ? years, I adduced the cases of the Arabic, Jewish, Mr. Milton cites the case of the "gipsies” to and Indo-Circassian nations, all of which have a | prove that races do not change colour by changing small minority of dark, and a large majority of white, climate, saying that “their residence here extends tribes amongst them.

beyond historic times; yet climate has as little assiI attempted to deduce from this undeniable fact

milated them in complexion as in temper.” Mr. that it was the minority which had changed colour, | Milton is very unfortunate in this venture, for it solely on account of the circumstances in which it happens that the gipsies, according to the best had been placed ;' for intermarriage with other races authorities, did not enter England, or, indeed, has been, in every one of these instances, strictly western Europe, till about A.D. 1427, when they forbidden. To this very plain and intelligible argu- pretended to have letters commendatory from the ment, Mr. Milton gave the following answer :- King of Hungary. Then, as to the last part of “It (history) does not tell us whether the Jews of the assertion, may I not fairly retaliate in the Cochin were or were not black when,' at the man- | style adopted by Mr. Milton, when treating of the date of Nebuchadnezzar, they went forth from the Malabar Jews ? How do you know what their land of the Euphrates to settle in Malabar.” Now, colour was when they arrived ? and how can you

his is scarcely an ingenuous reply, for Mr. Milton prove that their complexion has not been modified must know that the colour of all the Shemitic races,

by residence in our climate ? as represented on the walls of the Nineveh palaces 1 But while Mr. Milton is satisfied with demolishand on the Egyptian obelisks and temples, was not ing, or attempting to demolish, my humble theories, black, but a warm red-brown; and, just before, he “R. G.” boldly endeavours to raise his own upon had himself quoted these very monuments as un their ruins. Certainly, he is candid enough to condeniable authorities concerning the colour of the fess bis do not agree very well with Revealed Truth; negro 2,400 years ago!

but then they combine the amiable characteristics Again, to show how quickly changes in the of consoling the black (inferior) races, and flattering colour of entire races might be effected, I cited the the amour propre of the white (superior) nations. fact that all along the west coast of Africa, the Let me give them in “R. G.'s” own words : tribes on the coast were becoming extinct, and fresh “This is only one of the many arguments which tribes pouring in from the interior, and changing in | convinces me that man differs in species, and not in colour from brown to black on deserting their variety only. Is it not more in accordance with the native highlands--a result particularly noticeable idea of Divine justice to believe that several races according to Mr. Winwood Reade, a well-known of men have been created admirably adapted for the African traveller, amongst the Camma and Foulah character and circumstance of their places of abode, tribes. Mr. Milton could not disprove this, but &c?” And again : "I do not believe that any only replied by a sneer-intended, I presume, to l amount of education and training will ever give the depreciate the value of Mr. Reade's evidence. negro the intellect of the European, any more than Now, as Du Chaillu, Burton, and, indeed, almost it will deprive him of the capability he possesses of all who have visited this coast, mention this fact, withstanding the malarious influences of his native it requires something more than mere flippancy climate.” to explain it away.

| In these extracts, "R. G.” evidently declares himself a believer in different centres of creation ages the great sandy desert of the Sahara was the for mankind, as well as for animals and plants. | bottom of the sea continuous with the MediterraThat is, he thinks that every distinct race had its | nean. Imagine, in the course of these changes, a own Adam and Eve. But then the following diffi-| stock of men shut off, and mixing with themselves culties suggest themselves. Did every race have only for untold ages, and at length hardening down separate progenitors ? What are the limits of this into something like what were called races among theory? If the black and white were separately | animals. Imagine another lot shut off in a different created, why not also the fifty different colo ured part of the world-in Australia; another in South tribes to which “R. G.” so touchingly referred in America; others in Hindustan; and the result enumerating the difficulties of my hypothesis? And would be distinct breeds originating even from one if “R. G.” concedes this, how can he account for homogeneous kind of men. These breeds were, he the universal diffusion of legends recording "the believed, what were now known as persistent modidescent of mankind from one pair," "the deluge," fications of mankind. They were persistent because “the confusion of tongues," &c. ? But if he they had persisted so long. They had become what repudiates the design of carrying out his theory to they were in virtue of the selective influences of such extremes, and allows that climate has power to the different localities in which they were shut up." modify races, then he adopts the principle for which “R. G.” will see in this a repetition, almost I contend, and our difference becomes no longer verbatim, of the assertions made, and illustrations one of essentials, but only of degree.

used,) in the August number of SCIENCE-GOSSIP. “R. G.” says, as I have shown, that you can no I, myself, cannot see how "R. G.” can call unhealthi. more educate the negro up to the European ness a comparative term, since malaria and other standard, than you can deprive him of the power of air-poisons can suit no human constitution living, resisting his own unhealthy climate. But is this and certainly nowhere is human life shorter, and true ? On the contrary, as has been shown in tribe-extinction more common, than on the malarious several letters to the Times, the black troops coast of western Africa. brought from the West Indies, to join in the “R. G.” makes merry over my supposed doubt as Ashantee war, had so completely lost the power, to whether white or red was the original colour of which their ancestors possessed, of resisting African man. I am inclined to think that the fact of the fever, that there were actually more black than great primitive nations of antiquity being red or white soldiers disabled by disease! It is well copper-coloured, proves that the original colour was known that the average duration of the negro's life white or yellow; that, as the more tropical and in America is far longer than that enjoyed by his arid regions of the earth's surface were reached, it relative at home, and that his physique is much | turned into red, and in isolated and low countries more strongly developed. These facts, then, seem | into a dark brown, very nearly approaching black. to prove that “R. G.'s” theory is not correct; “R. G.” says, why “may he (our progenitor) not they seem to show that the negro will bear removal have been black ? and instead of the negro being a from the place of his birth as well as any other degenerated white man, may we not be improved human being; and that, therefore, there is no negroes? If climate can degenerate, can it not ground for believing he was created only to inbabit regenerate ?" I believe it can, and that the superior his native land. Again, "R. G.” denies that great robustness and longevity of the negro in the New Consolar heat, an unhealthy climate, and complete tinent to his own compatriot in Africa, is due to this. isolation would produce a race marked by strong i As to his preceding questions, perhaps the opinion of physical peculiarities. On the contrary, he avers M. Quatrefuges, the celebrated French saran, may that a race subjected to such conditions would die have some weight. He says, “All travellers who out; and further says that “unhealthy climate” is have lived in countries where only the negro race merely a comparative term, meaning “a climate dwelt, have remarked that sometimes children were uncongenial to white men.” In order to show born of paler colour, less distant from the white "R. G.” that I am by no means peculiar in the type. This is to be explained by the influence of opinion he so flatly challenges, I subjoin the views white ancestors, whose type reappears exceptionally of Professor Huxley, extracted from a lecture

amongst their negro descendants. This reappeardelivered by him at the Birmingham and Midland ance of the ancestral type is what is called atarism; Institute, October 11, 1867. He said,—“Now and and as black children are never found amongst then a group of men were shut off for thousands the white races, it must be inferred that if the and thousands of years in a limited area, under negroes descend from the whites, the whites do peculiar physical conditions. Within the epoch not descend from the negroes." * I think I have immediately preceding our own-when the fauna now answered most of the queries of “R. G." and and flora were what they are now--the whole of Mr. Milton. I may add, in conclusion,-What is the southern part of Africa was a vast island, like Australia. It was perfectly certain that for untold

* British Jedical Journal.

the supposed use of this new theory of different of sight. The velocity with which bugs can run is centres of creation? It is opposed to the biblical something incredible. When on a smooth surface, account of the creation “R.G.” acknowledges, and they are able to go at a terrible rate; but if they seems unnecessary to account for the universal get in a blanket it is all over with them--the 'wool diffusion of man. When we find the same races of the blanket gets entangled round their legs, and often speaking nearly the same tougues, inhabiting they make a poor hobble of it indeed. In the places so far removed from each other as Easter corners where the bugs most cougregated I saw a Island (near South America) and Madagascar (off good many corpses (bugs' corpses) and transparent Eastern Africa), the northern extremities of Europe skins. This leads me strongly to suspect that bugs and America, the Andaman Islands (in the Bay of are cannibals, and “do each other eat ;” but as I Bengal), and the islands of Australia and Tasmania, saw none enjoying the pleasures of the table, I canthe frozen regions of Rupert's Land, and antarctic / not say for certain. I noticed two or three invalids, Tierra del Fuego, we must see that no such theory fat indeed, but suffering from a disease that immeas the one proposed is needed to account for the diately reminded me of the autumnal fungus which diffusion of mankind over the earth's surface. The attacks and kills flies (Sporendonema muscæ). wonderful similarity of customs and traditions, Whether this was the case or not, certain it is the whether preserved and practised at the Arctic circle bugs were marked with similar white powdery or in the torrid zone, the capabilities for locomotion rings (I have recently read of a spider being simi. and change of habitat possessed by all races in larly attacked). As I had a box of oil-colours with common, the identity of the physical conformation me, I thought I would give one or two a touch of of mankind in all essential points, prove that man is spirits of turpentine; and I found they lived a long homogeneous, and possesses, even in his lowest time (half an hour or more) when completely satu. degradation, an intellect which is capable of high rated in this elixir. I remembered hearing that salt cultivation, and a power of deducing conclusions and water was very fatal to bugs; I tried it, and from experiences which the wisest brute does not found it produced almost instantaneous death. share. These and other considerations amply prove There are two sorts of bugs, varying in shape-one to my mind, if not to that of “R. G.," not only the almost circular, the other very much longer. Can probability of, but the necessity for, a theory which you tell me, Mr. Editor, whether these two forms insists upon the acknowledgment of “ The Unity of represent the sexes? There is a certain odour Mankind."

F. A. A. attached to bugs, disagreeable (probably from its

associations) to some people, but in reality aromatic, BUGS.

and far from unpleasant-indeed I know people

who affirun the odour to be very agreeable. Many (Acanthia lectularia.)

persons cannot detect it at all, so delicate is it; VERY little appears to be known regarding the whilst others can discover the presence of bugs in a

V history and habits of our bed-bug; and as I room by the scent alone. A few days ago I found was recently quartered in a room where there was the curious bug-scented Agaric (Lactarius quietus) an unusually large allowance of these creatures, and in Epping Forest. The odour of the specimens as the very thought of sleep was out of the ques. | found was very strong, and represented the contion, I thought I would notice some of the habits of ! centrated “otto of bugs." In neighbourhoods these appalling creatures, and send the notes on to where bugs abound, what becomes of the defunct SCIENCE-GOSSIP, in the hope of some other corre-l creatures? I have been told, but I do not know it spondents adding thereto. The wall of the sleeping. | for truth, that sometimes when the flooring boards (?) room was papered with a white paper ornamented of dirty old houses are taken up, the spaces between with spotty flowers. The first thing I noticed was the joists are completely filled with dead bugs, that when the lamp was placed near the wall, to which the labourers have ere now removed in solid facilitate observation, the bags, with one accord, masses with spades, and carted away. Notwith. scampered to the dark spots, and, there resting, standing that every precaution is taken, bugs will became immediately invisible--in fact, they pre- now and then put in an appearance in houses where tended to be spots, and not bugs at all; they the utmost cleanliness is observed, and if not soon evidently loathed themselves. Bugs, if hotly pursued routed, they speedily establish a colony. A day or on a perpendicular surface, let go their legs and two ago I saw one in a freshly-opened newspaper, drop to the floor. After taking a few steps, they i They are not uncommon, associated with lice, in and either dip into crevices, or pretend to be heads of upon 'busses and cabs; on the seats in the parks tin-tacks, or stains on the wood. They fall by a the latter are common enough. In some waremovement of the legs, and a slight upheaving of houses in the city bugs are abundant; some shops head and tail. The movement is instinctive; for are positively swarmed with them. They are very when they are on a flat surface?, I observed them liable to be imported into new and clean dwelling. make the same motions, evidently trying to fall out ' houses unless a strict watch be kept.-W.G. Smith.

FANGS OF SPIDERS.

I next bought a very large spider (species

unknown to me) at Gardner's, in Holborn, and in "The point envenom'd too!

its enormous fang saw the expected hole so plainly Then, WENHAM, to thy work!”

and of such a size that I immediately thought of

HAMLET, Act v., Sc. ii. | “E. T. S.." and how completely he had “put his N O character so bad but an apologist may be foot in it!” 11 found for it: those wily murderers the The aperture is not merely an oval slit, as it is spiders have an advocate in "E. T. S.,” who is generally figured, but the side towards the point is retained to prove them innocent of all poisonous deeply bevelled, thus facilitating the emission and intention or ability. But the case is a bad one ; for direction of the venom. the criminating evidence-both direct and circum. ! “E.T.S.” does not mention on what species he has stantial- is overwhelming.

made experiment, which is an important omission, As a modest witness for the prosecution, permit | as it is quite possible that all spiders may not be me to state briefly what I have done and seen, aided | venomous. Now, if your correspondent still remain by that able detective, Wenham's Binocular. I took, incredulous, as is very likely, pray let him call on a female garden spider (Epeira diadema), soaked it | me, and he shall have proof the most certain,-proof in weak spirit and water for a fortnight; drew the i ocular and proof binocular. mandibles from their half-rotten attachment, and ! 24, Cornhill,

HENRY Davis. found, protruding from each basal joint, broken filaments of muscle, and the rounded end of a large i The same subject has brought us the following gland. I then broke up a portion of the horny renrarks by another correspondent:--integument of one' mandible, and easily detached "E. T. S.” reopens a question which I thought most of the muscle, leaving the glandular sac had been settled, in its main features, by the comattached by a thread or duct to the fang, in the munications that have already appeared in your interior of which it could be traced for some columns. He objects that he cannot find the distance. “From information I had received poison-bag of the spider nor see the orifice in the (Mic. Dic., art. ‘Arachnida'), 'I expected to find fang; and he cannot understand how the poison the poison-bag encircled by muscular bands, and,' could be expressed from the end of a "closed sac.” indeed, so found it; the fibres coiling spirally and I can assure your correspondent that the unsatisvery regularly round it. The other mandible was factory results of his experiments are due to defective immersed in a solution of "caustic potash, which manipulation. The spider to be operated upon

should be soaked in water for forty-eight hours. The second joint of one of the mandibles may then be seized laterally with the forceps, and pulled from the head. The jaws will come away together, and the two poison-bags will be exposed, the broad ends being free, and the narrow ends still attached within the fangs. If it be desired to get the entire bag with the extreme point of its neck, the spider must be left in soak for a longer time. The poison gland I have not seen ; indeed, I have not looked

for it; but there is little doubt that it lies immei diately behind, and is attached to the broad end of

the bag. I think I can see the mark of the attach ment. These bags vary in size; a mounted one which I have just measured is about one-twelfth of an inch in length, exclusive of the neck or duct. They are clearly membranous, and are covered with bands of striated muscle obliquely disposed. There is therefore no difficulty in understanding how the poison is expressed from the bag, which it will be seen is not quite accurately described as a "closed

sac.” We are told that in the case of the poisonous Fig. 282. Fang and poison-bag of Spider x 50 ; a. point x 800.

snakes the immediate cause of the emission of the

venom is purely mechanical, the erection of the destroyed all the soft parts, but cleared the fang fang creating a pressure upon the reservoir; but I sufficiently to allow an evident orifice to be detected do not think there is any similar arrangement in the near the point, and an internal channel therefrom spider. And this, taken in connexion with the disto be faintly indicated.

position of the striated muscle, suggests an inte

VIOLI

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resting question, whether the spider may not have , angles much produced; frequently mixed with the the power of ejecting or withholding the poison at typical form. will, in which case your correspondent's opinion | Var. Y, with five incurved sides, and only differs that flies killed for food are not poisoned may be from the preceding variety by the greater number correct. The examination of the orifice near the of sides. This variety appears to be rare, as I know end of the fang (or first joint of the mandible) is a less easy matter, but it is a mistake to say that it cannot be seen by transmitted light. If it were a simple perforation, of course there would be no difficulty, but being only an opening into the channel of which it is the termination, it is necessarily rather obscure. Still, I have traced it in a specimen mounted in the ordinary way in balsam, and if glycerine jelly be used, it can generally be seen readily enough with an inch object-glass. I shall be most happy, if your correspondent lives in London, and will drop me a line, to show him both bag and

0000° orifice.

JOHN T. Young. 32, Mount Street, New Road, Whitechapel.

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THE GENUS AMPHITETRAS.

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THE genus Amphitetras was constituted by

Fig. 283. Amphitetras antediluviana, var. y. 1 Ehrenberg for the reception of those species of Diatomaceae whose frustules assume a cubical of only one locality in which it has been found, viz., form. This generic distinction has, however, been Hayling Island, Hants, in which it was rare. a and rendered valueless by the discovery of four-sided B were more plentiful in it. (Fig. 283, 400 diam.) varieties of Triceratium. Professor Smith says that Dr. Greville describes and figures, in the “Tran“the projection of the connecting membrane beyond sactions of the Royal Micr. Soc.,” vol. xiii., pl. ix.. the suture of the valve is a circumstance that first

| fig. 27, a form which he calls Amphitetras nobilis, meets us in this genus.” This characteristic is not, and which seems to differ from var. y in the prohowever, peculiar to the genus Amphitetras, as it duced tubular apices. His species was detected in occurs in Biddulphia.

dredgings from the Red Sea. The mode of growth (in zigzag filaments) was at one time considered of sufficient importance to remove it far apart from its near relation, Triceratium; but the discovery of a species of Triceratium growing in zigzag chains has destroyed that distinction. A valued correspondent of mine states it as his belief that all recent species of Triceratium will ultimately be found growing in that manner; but

Fig. 284. Amphitetras antedi. Fig. 285. Amphitetras whether the genus Amphitetras should be merged

crucifera, X 800. in that of Triceratium, or the two genera formed into a new genns with somewhat enlarged generic Var. O, with three straight or slightly convex sides, character, is a question which will require a more angles widely rounded; in other respects like the perfect knowledge of the two genera than we at typical form. Rare; in a small gathering from present possess. The species and varieties I am Joppa. (Fig. 284, × 400 diam.) about to describe I think belong to the genus Am Amphitetras crucifera.-Valve minute, with prophitetras as at present constituted.

duced mammiform apices; surface of valve minutely Amphitetras antediluviana.—The so-called typical punctate, with a cruciform blank space extending form of this species has cubical frustules, cohering from the centre to the angles. Cleanings from West at the angles, forming a zigzag filament; valve Indian shells. (Fig. 285, x 800 diam.) square, with straight sides, and the angles more or Amphitetras ornata (?) var. B.-Valve with sides less rounded; the surface has coarsely cellular slightly incurved; angles produced, mammiform. markings. This species is variable in size and Central portion of valve reticulate and punctate; widely distributed.

the broad portions of the angles apparently girt Var. B has the sides deeply incurved and the with a punctate and costate band. This variety

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luviana, var. 6 x 400.

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