Page images


HOLLY IN FLOWER. — I observed a holly-tree

(Ilex aquifolium) in flower last month, at PickersPRIMROSES.—While shooting at East Hothley, 1 leigh, near Malvern. It still continues in flower, at in Sussex, on Saturday, the 8th of December, I a very unusual time of the year, when other trees picked a fine bunch of Primroses; and on the fol- | are bearing ripe fruit.- Arthur D. Melvin, Dec., 1866. lowing day, one of my little boys found a bunch of

THE MOSS-ROSE.- Madame de Genlis tells us the ripe fruit of the Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) in this parish.-W. N., Uckfield.

that, during her first visit to England, she saw moss

roses for the first time, and that she took to Paris a PROLIFEROUS HART'S-TONGUE.—During the end moss rose-tree, which was the first that had been of last summer, a plant of the curly-leaved variety seen in that city; and she says, in 1810, “the culof the hart's-tongue fern (Scolopendrium vulgare), tivation of this superb flower is not yet known in which I had frequent opportunities of seeing, put France."-Sylva Florifera. out on the surface of an oldish frond two little

THE JORDAN ALMOND-TREE was first planted in brown specks, which grew and developed just as the

England in the reign of Henry VIII., 1548 (Hortus similar outshoots of the Asplenium bulbiferum do.

Keuensis). Dr. Turner notices it in the year 1645, In a little time, the mother frond began to wither, was cut off and planted in soil; the two young ones

and says, “Almond-trees growe muche in hyghe

Germany beside Sypre in a cytie called Newstat, flourished, put out roots, and are now healthy grow

and great plentye in Italye, and some growe in ing plants.- Leonard W. Sedgwick, M.D.

England, but I have hearde of no greate store of THE TRUE PAPYRUS.-The Rev. H. B. Tristram the fruyte of them that growe in England.” has communicated to the Linnean Society that he

THE MYRTLE.—It was upon a memorable occasion found the true Cyperus Papyrus L. in Palestine, by

that the myrtle was introduced into this country,the shores of the Lake of Galilee, sometimes grow

as it is said to have been brought from Spain by Sir ing to the length of sixteen feet. He afterwards

Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis Carew, in 1585, found, in the almost inaccessible marshes of Huleh

when they resided in Spain, and discovered the pre(the ancient Merom), many acres of the same plant.

parations for the Spanish Armada against us.-Sylva The stems are cut down by the Bedouins for thatching their huts and for mats.


This plant was only known to occur in the marshes of the White Nile, THE SWEET-Pea, the emblem of delicate pleasures, in Nubia, prior to this discovery, it having dis was unknown in the British gardens until the first appeared from Egypt.-See Journ. Linn. Soc., 1 year of the eighteenth century, when it blossomed in No. 38.

the garden of Dr. Uvedale, at Enfield, in Essex (sic), COCOA-NUT MILK.-A tropical sun soon makes

who is supposed to have been the first cultivator of one thirsty. I wanted “ a drink," and, for the first

this favourite flower in England, which has now time in my life, tasted iced cocoa-nut milk. Never

spread itself over the whole of Europe,-entering in my life have I drunk anything half as delicious.

every garden where the florist is disposed to Do not imagine that in the least degree it resembles

-" Lend a staff to the still gadding pea.” the small teacupful of sweet insipid stuff dribbled

Flora Historica. out from the cocoa-nut as we buy it here in England.

HOLY-Ghost PLANT.— The Orchid described in What we eat as kernel is liquid in the young nut,

your last number under the foregoing title is the Periand the outer husk soft enough to push your thumb

steria elata of our stoves. It may be seen in flower through. Surely the cocoa-nut palm must have

during the months of July and August, at Messrs. been specially designed for the dwellers in the

Veitch & Son's, Royal Exotic Nursery, or at any tropical world. It supplies everything uncivilized man can possibly need, to build his ships, rig, padale,

other nursery of eminence in the vicinity of London.

-W.J. D. A. and sail them ; from its products too, he can make his houses, and obtain food, drink, clothing, and

DOVE-PLANT.— It may be interesting to some of culinary utensils. Strictly littoral in its habits, the

your readers to know that the Flor del Espirito cocoa-palm loves to loll over the sea, and let the

| Santo," or Dove-plant, Peristeria elata * (Hooker), frothy ripple wash its rootlets. This also looks like

is in cultivation in this country. It was introduced her link in the chain of Divine intentions. The as early as 1826, and flowered for the first time in nuts necessarily fall into the sea-winds and currents

1830, and a figure and description of it appeared in carry them to coral reefs, or strand them on desert the Botanical Magazine, vol. lviii., p. 3116. shores, there to grow, and, by a sequence of won

W.B. H. drously ordered events, in time make it habitable for man.-J. K. Lord's The Naturalist in Vancouver

* From TEPLOTEpa, a dove, from the resemblance in the Island."

shape and colour to that bird.

ASPHALT CEMENT. — The number of commuMICROSCOPY.

nications you have on the subject of making asphalt

cement from Mr. Davies's receipt, shows that many POLARISCOPIC OBJECTS.-I desire to direct at.

fail in their attempts to dissolve, the asphaltum in tention to a beautiful series of polariscopic objects which may easily be obtained from prawns, and

naphtha, and are driven to other expedients, such possibly from shrimps and other crustaceans. Under

as dissolving it in benzoli, turpentine, &c. Having

myself at once succeeded in this, I have since made neath the shell of these may be found, at certain times, a very slight, incomplete, and fragmentary

some experiments, with the view of finding out the deposit of crystals not much unlike the scales on

cause of disappointment. Procuring naphtha from

four different places, I found that two of the samples some fish. The crystals are of irregular forms and

dissolved the asphaltum readily, after its being various sizes, and are probably carbonate or oxalate of lime, and when united they appear to form the

broken up, allowed to remain in the naphtha 24 hours,

and then heated to about 190°; the other two had new shell of the prawn which is ready for use when

no more effect upon it than is described by Mr. the older shell has been cast away. On mounting

Rowley in SCIENCE-GOSSIP, vol. ii., page 263; the crystals or scales on balsam, and placing

clearly showing that the only difficulty is to get the them under a polariscope, they will be found to

right quality of mineral naphtha, when it is very easy exhibit the most beautiful iridescent colours; and

to dissolve the asphaltum in it. I may say the same so thoroughly and essentially polariscopic are the

with regard to the india-rubber : if the sheet or any crystals, that even without a selenite plate their

other kind is used which has been previously discolours are gorgeous.-T. P. Barkas, Newcastleon-Tyne.

solved, two or three days, occasionally shaking the

bottle, will generally effect a solution; the thick lumps HARDENING CANADA BALSAM.—At the Decem sold for erasing pencil-marks are not suitable for ber meeting of the Quekett Microscopical Club,

this purpose, being very difficult to dissolve. Before during a discussion on this subject, Mr. Hislop

making the quantity required, it is better to put a described the following simple and effective plan

spoonful of the naphtha in a small bottle, with a few which he had adopted with great success. He had

bits of asphaltum as a test, which will soon show its two plates of brass, 21 inches wide by 5 or 6 inches

dissolving power. Mineral naphtha and pure indialong, and of an inch thick, which were placed

rubber can be procured of Mr. Woolley, 69, Market on a tripod over a gas flame turned down to the

Street, Manchester, with which the operation may be blue, so as to keep the plates hot enough to be

begun and finished in two days, with the application unpleasant to the hand. After mounting the

of heat, or in four days without it.-E. Greenhough, objects, he places the slides on the brass plates;

Matlock. and on taking them off again in an hour's time, he BRICKS OF DASHOUR.-A celebrated botanist and finds the balsam in nine cases out of ten to be hard palæontologist of Vienna has recently published enough to scrape off and finish. No difficulty is some remarks on the bricks of the pyramids of found to arise from air-bubbles, and those which Dashour, which was built about 3,400 years before form of themselves disappear as the balsam be our era. One of them being examined through the comes hard.

microscope by the Professor, he discovered that the

mud of the Nile, out of which it was made, conTHE QUEKETT SOIRÉE.—The first soirée of the

tained not only a quantity of animal and vegetable Quekett Microscopical Club was held at University

matter, but also fragments of many manufactured College on the 4th of January, and, notwithstanding

substances; whence we may conclude that Egypt the inclemency of the weather, about 400 persons

must have enjoyed a high degree of civilization were present. Amongst the "attractions" of the

upwards of 5,000 years ago. Professor Unger has evening were Dr. Mary Walker, a living Stephano

been enabled by the aid of the microscope to discover ceros, Quekett's own microscope, and a curious

in these bricks a vast number of plants which at microscope exhibited by Mr. Burgess, which gave a

that time grew in Egypt.-Boston Post, U.S., Dec. field of apparently eighteen inches. These divided

8, 1866. a lion's share of attention amongst them. A large number of microscopes were exhibited by the mem

SEPARATION OF VEGETABLE CELLS AND Cubers, including the principal makers.

TICLES.—The quickest and easiest method for

obtaining isolated cells is the plan devised by ACARI.-Any correspondents willing to aid in the Schultz, viz., boiling in a mixture of nitric acid and investigation of British Acari, with a view to the chlorate of potash. After being thus treated, boil publication of a work on the subject, are invited to | in alcohol, and afterwards in distilled water. Cuticles send specimens of mites, water-mites, or ticks, in- of leaves separate readily, even if they have been closed in quills, addressed to “Acarus,” care of the dried for many years. Mount in glycerine, chloride Editor, 192, Piccadilly, London, W.

of calcium, or weak spirit. - Fredk. Kitton, Norwich.

GEOLOGY. PRESERVATION OF Fossils.-Owing to the loose mineral character of the Tertiary deposits, in which most of the Mammalian and other vertebrate remains are found, consisting as these deposits chiefly do of sands, gravels, clay, or peat, their fossils are necessarily in a more or less friable condition, difficult to preserve entire, or to handle for scientific examination with safety. The substances generally used are glue or gelatine. For the bones of the larger Mammalia there is nothing better than the best glue; whilst for tbe more delicate bones of the smaller Mammals, Birds and Fishes, gelatine is the best, being purer, dissolving more easily, and imparting but little, if any, colour to the fossil. The consistency of these substances when used will have to be varied according to the structure of the bone; and as they also differ greatly in quality, it is impossible to lay down any definite rule as to the exact proportions to be used with a given quantity of water; this must be left to the judgment of the operator. As a general rule, however, all bones which have a coarse cellular structure, as the ends of large limb-bones, deer-antlers, &c., and also specimens from some deposits-for example, the peat-bed near Colchester, the fossils from which have their internal cellular structure either totally or partially destroyed-require the glue-solution to be of a consistency which will form a stiff jelly when cold; whilst for bones of a compact structure a much thinner solution, about the consistency of ordinary size, will suflice; if the solution is too thick, it clogs the absorbing power at the surface, and prevents its penetrating to all parts of the bone. The fossils should be thoroughly dried and cleaned from as much of the matrix as can be removed with safety; and if it can be managed, warmed before being placed in the solution. When the glue is all dissolved, and the liquid nearly at boiling heat (ebullition should be avoided, if possible), it is ready for the immersion of the fossils, and they should remain in it as long as air-bubbles rise to the surface; when these cease they will be sufficiently soaked. When taken out, they should not be drained, but laid in a position to retain as much as possible of the imbibed solution, until they are cold, when the glue will have set. Their position must then be shifted, to prevent their adhering to the board on which they may be laid. Any glue that may have drained from them may be then removed with a wet sponge. The vessels required are of the simplest kind. The common domestic utensils will answer for most purposes. The ordinary housecopper, saucepan, or, better still, a large-sized fish. kettle with its strainer. But whatever the vessel used, a strainer of some kind, on which to place the bones for immersion and withdrawal, is indis

pensable; for the copper nothing is better than a wire-sieve. For bones too large for the vessel used, the treatment will have to be varied. For long limb-bones, strong enough to bear their own weight when saturated, it is only necessary to place one end in the vessel, and ladle the solution over the other end for a short time, and then reverse their position. But for bones which will not bear such treatment, the only plan is to securely fix them to a board, and place them in a slanting position in the solution, and well saturate them with it by ladling. For these, and for long portions of tusks of the Mammoth, and horn-cores of the large species of Bos, a special vessel, about three feet long, one foot wide at the top, nine or ten inches wide at the bottom, and nine inches deep, made of stout tin or galvanized iron, with a handle at each end, will be found most useful. Occasionally fossils are found which are either too large or too friable (as skulls and tusks from their natural construction frequently are) to be placed in the solution : for these a different method must be adopted to preserve them entire. Cover the fossil with thin paper, over which-on the sides and underneath if possible-put a coating of plaster of Paris, just thick and strong enough to keep together; when firmly set, gently pour the solution boiling-hot over the fossil as long as it continues to absorb, to assist which it may be necessary to remove in a few places some of the surface-bone, which can be carefully replaced; in two or three days the plaster may be partly removed by sawing and in small pieces, taking care not to injure the fossil by jarring it; the paper will prevent the plaster adhering to it. But this process is never so effective as submersion in the solution, and may require to be repeated. Some bones are better for being dipped a second time, but not allowed to remain long enough in the solution to melt the glue they had previously imbibed. Delicate shells from the same kind of deposits may be treated, with care, in a similar manner with advantage.W. Davies, Brit. Museum, in Geological Magazine.

PETROLEUM. - During the past six years the United States of America have produced about 450 millions of gallons of petroleum. The average daily yield for 1866 bas been at least 12,000 barrels. The business of collecting, transporting, and refining it, employs as many hands as either the coal or the iron trade.- Professor Hitchcock.

Fossils OF THE LIAS.- Mr. Ralph Tate, Curator of the Geological Society, Somerset House, London, being engaged in the preparation of a monograph of the gasteropoda of the lias, for the Palæonto. graphical Society, begs to request the kind assistance of private collectors by the loan of specimens for examination and description. He would be pleased to exchange fossils of various formations for those of the lias.


skeleton of the frog and the stones, also, are open NOTES AND QUERIES. for inspection. It is natural to exclaim, how could

a helpless frog penetrate solid stone? It is not difRELATIONS AT SEA.—A very interesting paper

ficult, however, to imagine a live frog first enveloped was recently read by Dr. Günther, at the Zoo.

in mere mud, which afterwards hardens into solid logical Society, on the Fishes of Central America,

stone, ever remaining sufficiently porous to admit in which he brought zoological research to bear

air and moisture enough to maintain torpid existupon the history of earth-changes. It had been

ence; and which, like seed of natural vegetation supposed that the existing fauna of the Atlantic

buried immensely deep in the outer crust of the was quite distinct from that of the Pacific; but

earth, from its first formation, remains dormant, Dr. Günther finds (in a collection recently made by

until some accident brings it within the influence of Mr. Salvin), of the total number of species taken

the sun to re-animate or develope, and ultimately on both sides of the Isthmus of Panama, 30 per

exhaust its vitality. As to the age of the animal, I cent. to be specifically identical. Nay, they do not

offer no theory. — Simon Hutchinson, Manthorpe even appear to vary enough for Dr. Günther to be

Lodge. able to tell whether any given individual came from the Atlantic or the Pacific side. There was, there. THE APPLĖ.- The English name of this valuable fore, no doubt, a communication between the two fruit is evidently derived from the Saxon word oceans, since the existing species of fish came into æppel; and from which circumstance we may safely being; and the land across the isthmus near conclude that the fruit was cultivated in this country Panama is nowhere more than 400 feet high; while under the Saxon government, if not previously by to the north, through Lake Nicaragua, there is the Romans.-Phillips's Fruits of Great Britain.another tract, nowbere more than 150 feet above the sea-level. That these low tracts of land mark

LAST AND NEXT NOVEMBER STAR SHOWERS.the site of former sea-channels, is rendered still A comparison of the whole number of meteors more probable from the fact that in the Lake observed, with the numerical results of previous Nicaragua a sea-fish still exists, the ancestors of showers, shows that this shower was far less signifi. which were probably imprisoned by the land's cant than some of its predecessors. Whether other upheaval. Dr. Günther believes that there has parts of the world witnessed a grander phase in the been no such interoceanic communication since the

display than we in England did, we cannot say, for latter part of the Pliocene period; in which case, the

there is at present no authentic information on the persistence of these piscine specific forms would be

point. M. Coulvier Gravier, who ought to be an very remarkable. It is well known that, in ancient

authority, at a recent sitting of the French Academy Miocene times, one fauna extended on both sides of Sciences, suggested that the maximum display of of what is now the separating land; but the specific the epoch might be expected in November, 1867; identity of so many existing forms is quite a new

because, he said, the really great showers are thirtyfact.-British Medical Journal.

four years apart instead of thirty-three, and the last

of these was that of 1833. Moreover, be called INSECTS IN CABINETS.-S. L. B. remarks, having attention to the fact that every very grand shower is read that camphor by its evaporation obscured and preceded by one not so grand in the year before it. injured specimens in cabinets, and should never be This was the case in 1832-33; whether it will be so used, desires a substitute. The caution originated this time we must wait till next November to learn. in a “mare's nest,” for the volatility of camphor, - The Gentleman's Magazine. which causes it to evaporate and deposit again on insects, will also cause it in turn to evaporate from

Is it PODURA ?— While searching for poduras them until no trace is left. Let S. L. B. try a lump

very lately, a black individual made its appearance of camphor under a tumbler, and after it is all

which I immediately recognized as a species new to evaporated, report to us how much residue he finds me. Its motions were far more rapid than those of anywhere. He may try “benzole” for a change,

poduras generally, and its antennæ, which were but will without doubt return again to camphor.

longer than usual, extended out straight instead of

curved over, as is mostly the case. On microscopic FROG IN OOLITE.-I beg to submit the following

examination I found it had twelve eyes, while all the certificate and observations to those who are inte

poduras I have met with have, I think, sixteen ;

but it possessed the curious forked tail, and was in rested in natural history :

other respects a good deal like the black podura “I, William Munton, of Waltham, in the county (Macrotoma nigra). I killed it with chloroform, and of Leicester, quarryman, hereby certify that I was on examining the scales, found to my surprise they witness to the discovery of the stone and frog, now were not like podura scales at all, but were more before me (in possession of Mr. Simon Hutchinson, like lepisma scales, pleated like those of Lepisma of Manthorpe Lodge, Grantham), in the stone saccharina and cross-striated like those of the seaquarry, at Waltham, from ten to twelve feet below

| side species, Petrobius maritimus, -- both of which the natural surface of the ground, in solid rock. | are figured in SCIENCE Gossip, vol. ii., p. 56. The When the stone was split, the frog appeared alive; scales are minute and very finely marked; many of in size equal to the cavity therein. It continued to them are pentagonal, more or less regular, and live about ten days after its release, and was after- | many of the form of those of Lepisma saccharina. wards preserved in spirit by the late Mr. Stow, of I have some recollection of having seen for sale, Waltham. Before the stone was broken, no crack slides of Lepisma-like scales labelled “Podura or crevice was anywhere visible. As witness my scales,” but I thought this an error on the part of hand this Ist day of December, 1866.

the mounter. Is the insect known, and what is its WILLIAM MUntox." name ?--J. McIntire. This discovery is familiar to persons now living [In the genus Orchesella, the individnals are at Waltham, besides Mr. Munton ; therefore, per characterized as particularly agile, and with six eyes sonal inquiry can be made by the sceptical, or on each side. See Templeton in Transactions silence, in future, will be most becoming The i Entom. Soc., vol. i., p. 93, Pl. xi.--Ed.]

MOVEMENTS IN DIATOMS.-On the forenoon of BLACKBIRDS.-Whilst my children were feeding December 25, 1866, I took a small gathering of the birds yesterday morning, our cat came down diatoms, comprising Campylodiscus spiralis and upon and devoured a fine cock blackbird. Three Pinnularia viridis. In several specimens of the hen black birds (I believe of the same brood) witlatter, I noticed an unmistakable movement of large nessed the circumstance from neighbouring trees. oily-looking globules, or granules, of which I As soon as Tom had finished his meal and departed, counted from two to six in each half of the several they gathered up the scattered feathers of their individuals I examined. This movement was of a brother, and carried every one of them away trembling and oscillating character, not unlike the amongst the trees of the garden. Was this done granular movement which may be seen going on in from sisterly affection, or from an instinctive feeling the ends of Closterium lunula, except that in the of reverence for the dead?-Ben, Snow. diatoms in question the granules did not retain the · grouping and rapid motion which distinguish them HALO OF A SHADOW.-Permit me to corroborate in the former, but passed at slow intervals through the statement of the Rev. J. S. Tute, as to the halo about one-fifth the length of half the cell. This of a shadow. I experienced a remarkable instance of granular activity could not, I think, be an error of this, one fine spring morning in 1865. Two friends observation; for I noticed it in many specimens, and myself had started at five o'clock for a walk, some of which were watched by me very closely for just as the sun rose above a hill on our right, casting a considerable length of time. Nor could it be our shadows on to the slope to the left below, some occasioned by the diatom's proper movement through fifty yards off. Our gigantic figures seemed to be the water, because some of the forms in which I surrounded by a "nimbus” of brilliant light, observed it were not moving, but were perfectly extending at least a foot and a half all round. The stationary at the time. I shall be glad to know if young wheat on which our shadows were projected any other readers of SCIENCE Gossip have observed was drenched with dew, and the reflection from the this movement ?-B. Taylor.

drops, each sparkling like a diamond, no doubt

produced the appearance described. I have freDaisy ANEMONE (Sagartia bellis).- I have

| quently seen it since, but never to equal this occahad two very curious specimens of Daisy Anemone, sion.-Daydon Jackson. born in one of my aquariums lately, one having three distinct heads, each with its proper amount of

HALO OF A SHADOW.-This curious phenomenon tentacles, which I have named Cerberus, and

(SCIENCE GOSSIP, p. 23) is quoted also in “Kæmtz's another two. Is this an unusual circumstance? I

Meteorology,"chap. xix.,under the name of Anthelie ; think it must be, as Mr. Gosse does not mention it

and J. S. T. is quite right in attributing it to in any of his books.-E. J. J.

diffraction:-“When the sun is near the horizon," LOPPING TREES.-Can any of your readers tell

says K., “and the shadow of a person falls on grass, me if the following lines in Tusser's “ Five Hundred

a field of corn, or any surface covered with dew, an Points of Good Husbandry” are founded upon fact;

aureola is observed around this shadow, the light of and if so, what is the scientific explanation ?

which is the strongest at the head ; this light is

owing to the reflexion by the stalks or straws, the In lopping old locham, for fear of mishap, One bough stay unlopp'd, to cherish the sap;

dew-drops, or the vesicules of a mist lying in low The second year after then boldly ye may,

strata on the sea. It is the brightest around the For dripping his fellows that bough cut away."

head, because the stalks situated in the proximity of And again,

that part of the shadow show all their enlightened " For sap, as ye know,

sides, while other stalks that are farther show enLet one bough grow;

lightened parts and others that are not; the stalks Next year ye may

being cylindrical, the aureola is somewhat larger in That bough cut away."

the vertical sense.” Fraunhofer attributed all this Also the reason for the following assertion :

to diffraction, and observations confirmed his theory. “Pluck broom, broom still ;

When reflected beams pass through other vesicules, Cut broom, broom kill."

these beams are also diffracted, and coloured rings F. A. 4. are the result. Anthelies were observed in the

Polar seas by Captain Scoresby, &c. (more partiCAT AND COCKROACHES.--Our house was per culars vide Kæmtz).-B. Melle. fectly free from cockroaches till June last, when we got a kitten, and immediately the cockroaches ap DOUBLE SHELL OF EGGS. - A gentleman in peared. The cat showed peculiar enmity to them, Cumberland had a hatching of the eggs of the and used to hunt and eat them by the dozen every Moscovy duck sent him; one, from its very large size day; and always after being fed, she would go (it weighed over five ounces), was supposed to under the grate to hunt for them. Some weeks contain a double yolk, and was therefore broken for back she, having been ill for a long time, was taken domestic purposes, when a second shell was disaway; and from that very day the cockroaches dis covered inside. The enclosed egg was of the appeared also, one solitary individual having been ordinary size and appearance. The interval between seen on one occasion since; and since he came to the shells was filled with a fluid resembling the grief, not one has appeared. Can there be any con ordinary white of egg, but rather thinner.-W. Gain, nection between their disappearance and the removal Tuxford, Notts. of the cat? It seems more than a coincidence, and her enmity to them makes it remarkable.-M. A. CORDON BLEU.-In answer to a query, SCIENCE

GOSSIP, vol. ii., p. 262, I said, p. 283, Ampelis CATS AND Rain.—“ Cats sitting with their backs cotinga was cordon bleu; I found since, another to the fire an indication of rain." Can you inform bird bas also that name, viz. the Sucrier gamtocin, me in your next number if the above statement is Cynniris collaris, Vieil.-cordon bleu of Levaillant but vulgar gossip, or whether it is a scientific (vide Lev., “Hist. des Ois, d'Afrique,” Pl. ccxcix., truth? If the latter, on what grounds ?-W.B. B. pp. 1, 2).-B. Melle.

« EelmineJätka »