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MICE EATING PUPE. I have just had twenty fine pupa of Sphingide eaten by mice. Is it generally known that they are to be numbered among the entomologist's foes? I went to put some fresh moss over the box they were buried in, and found the earth scattered about, and not a skin, or a piece of one, left.—Henry Ullyett, Folkestone.
We have heard and read of such propensities in mice, but cannot remember in what journal recorded. -ED.]
TERNS INLAND.-A correspondent writing from Kelvedon, Essex, informs the readers of SCIENCE Gossip for January, that he has “succeeded” in shooting a Tern in that neighbourhood. Surely it would have been a far more estimable feat if he had succeeded in preventing the bird from being shot, so that it might have been seen by other people besides himself. I have constantly visited, the spot and have taken others thither. I believe that most of our large ponds would be ornamented by these most elegant birds, were they allowed to live when they came. In 1865 I saw one skimming over the pond on Wisley Heath, Surrey. It was shot at by the landlord of the “Kut” tavern there (who has already three stuffed specimens in his parlour) : although he did not “succeed”in killing it, he so wounded the beautiful creature, that it flew away heavily, soon to be brought down by somebody more “successful ” than himself. Every naturalist should do all in his power to prevent this cruel and stupid practice of destroying all our most beautiful birds, or at least not himself join in it. Our rural districts would then be enlivened by many species of birds, which now only occasionally come, to be shot.-W.R. Tate, Grore Place, Denmark Hill.
A CURIOSITY OF NATURE.- A house-wife of Ringmer, Sussex, in breaking eggs for the Christmas pudding, broke one out of which, to her no small astonishment, dropped another egg, completely shelled, and about the size of a wren's egg. This latter she has preserved as a curiosity of nature.Brighton Observer. • Poor FELLOW !-A squirrel, which I have had for nearly two years, was attacked a few weeks ago with what seemed to me to be a stroke of paralysis -causing him to lose the use of his hind legswhich on Sunday last proved fatal. On looking at the body about an hour after death, I found a number of full-grown gentles issuing from it. Were they the cause of death, and of his losing the use of his limbs some weeks before ? If not, what was the cause of the gentles appearing so soon after death, as there was no smell or other sign of decay?-C. L. C.
Cat-FLEAS.-Being desirous of exhibiting the larva of the cat-flea at the Soirée of the Quekett Club, on the 4th January, I proceeded to collect eggs. A cloth was laid for puss to sleep upon late at night, and early in the morning the eggs were gathered. The first night gave 62 eggs, the second 78 eggs, the third 67, and the fourth 77. From these numbers, an idea of some of the troubles which puss experiences may be gained. Fortunately the eggs require very great fostering care to hatch them (our own brood all died two days after the soirée), or the owners of cats would soon find their pets an intolerable nuisance, because the species, to our certain knowledge, will attack man. Probably not a twentieth part of the eggs laid reach their full development.S. J. McIntire.
LEFT NO ADDRESS.-E. A., Chippenham, Wilts, would feel obliged by any reader furnishing him with the address of W. Winter, who, on Feb. 23rd, 1866, was residing at Mulbarton, near Norwich, and who advertised in SCIENCE GOSSIP late in the year
HYALONEMA.-At the meeting of the Zoological Society, January 18, 1867, an interesting paper was read by Dr. Bowerbank, F.R.S., on Hyalonema mirabile, in which he adduced many arguments in support of his statement, that the whole of this beautiful structure was a true sponge, and that the so-called "polypheads” on the crust which surrounds the long “glass whip” (as it has been termed), are, in reality analogous to the oscula of some British sponges, specimens of which he exhibited. This opinion has been vigorously disputed by Dr. J. E. Gray. Dr. Carpenter was present, and remarked that, having entered the room free from prejudice, he was convinced by the evidence brought forward by Dr. Bowerbank, that his view of the question was correct. The following amusing lines on the discussion appeared in Land and Water :
A FIGHT AT THE “Z00"" ABOUT A 200-PHYTE. When doctors the views on each other deride, It is often exceedingly hard to decide On the weight of the arguments offered by each In support of the doctrines they sev'rally teach. And whether their difference belong to Geology, Divinity, Chemistry, Physic, Zoology, When two masters in science are pleading their cause (Be they doctors of medicine or doctors of laws), Outsiders can only be modestly silent, And judge him in the wrong who appears the most vi'lent. Men of science well know there has been a contention "Twixt two eminent men of right honest intention, As to whether a "thing" in the national collection Stands nearest allied and in closest connection With the sponges; or whether it's really no lower In Nature's great scale than the class Polyzoa ; And this question of " Sponge or Zoophyte new," Very nearly occasioned a fight at the “ 200"
For the sake of the pun, the expression I use).
Needham, offering to supply subscribers, at one guinea each, with thirty microscopic specimens, to be collected by him in his own and adjoining districts, in the course of the following year.
* I don't like employing this queer word “emporium,"
But I can't find another to rhyme well with " corium."
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
J. J. F.-Did you read the article on Wheat Mildew in our last?
H. R. L.-Or Mr. King, Great Portland-road, London.
T. W.-For British Ferns, consult Mrs. Lankester's book ; and for a list of Foreign Ferns suitable for cultivation, see Smith's "Ferns, British and Foreign,' both published at 192, Piccadilly.
W.W. S.-That subject is undergoing investigation.
W. L. H.-Toynbee's “ Hints for Local Museums, &c.," published by R. Hardwicke, 192, Piccadilly, at Is.
J. B. G.-l. We should decline. 2. “Our Reptiles," p. 166. 3. We know of none.
F. HORTON and A. BADGER.- Please send addresses, as letters await you.
All communications relative to advertisements, post-office
orders, and orders for the supply of this Journal should be addressed to the PUBLISHER. All contributions, books, and pamphlets for the EDITOR should be sent to 192, Piccadilly, London, W. To avoid disappointment, contri. butions should not be received later than the 15th of each month. No notice whatever can be taken of communi. cations which do not contain the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication, if desired to be withheld. We do not undertake to answer any queries not specially connected with Natural History, in accordance with our acceptance of that term; nor can we answer queries which might be solved by the correspondent by an appeal to any elementary book on the subject. We are always prepared to accept queries of a critical nature, and to publish the replies, provided some of our readers, besides the querist, are likely to be interested in them. We cannot undertake to return rejected manuscripts unless sufflcient stamps are enclosed to cover the return postage. Neither can we promise to refer to or return any many. script after one month from the date of its receipt. All microscopical drawings intended for publication should have annexed thereto the powers employed, or the extent of enlargement, indicated in diameters (thus : X 320 diameters). Communications intended for publication should be written on one side of the paper only, and all scientific names, and names of places and individuals should be as legible as possible. Wherever scientific names or technicalities are employed, it is hoped that the common names will accompany them. Lists or tables are inad. missible under any circumstances. Those of the popular names of British plants and animals are retained and regis. tered for publication when sufliciently complete for that purpose, in whatever form may then be decided upon. ADDRESS No. 192, PicCADULY, LONDON, W.
EXCHANGES. BRYUM ROSRUN in fruit fur Burbaumia aphylla.-E. M. Holmes, 2, Arundel crescent, Plymouth.
ORNITHORHYNCHUS PARADOXUS (stuffed) for shells, corals, or other objects of interest.-George Potter, 7, Montpelierroad, Upper Holloway, N.
OVULES OF Orcais, showing the embryo, mounted, for other objects.-J. H. Campbell, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh.
PAULONIA IMPERIALIS.-A few seeds for distribution.Stamped envelope to B., care of the Editor, 192, Piccadilly.
COWAGE.-Hair from pods of Mucuna pruriens for other good (unmounted) objects.-W. II., Stamp Office, Fordingbridge.
MOUNTED OBJECTS in exchange for other equally good slides.-Send lists to E. G. Towell, 10, Norfolk-street, Strand..
PALATES OF WHELK, mounted, for other objects of interest. -G. E. Q., 109, Long-lane, Southwark.
FLINT FLAKKS, Diatomaceous Earth from Toome Bridge, and Rock specimens, for fossils, shells, or microscopic objects. -William Gray, Mount Charles, Belfast
PHYLLACTIDIUM PULCHELLC'a offered for Heliopelta or Actinocyclus undulatus.-R. P. Aylward, ló, Cotham-street, Strangeways, Manchester
Birds' Eggs (British) offered for British Land and Freshwater Snails.-T. Hedworin, Dunston, Gateshead.
QUININE, Santouine, Salicine, &c. offered for monnted Microscopic Fungi.-F. W. C., 36, Hall-street, Birmingham.
DIAMOND BEKTLK (mounted) for other objects of interest. -J. R., 172, George-street, Aberdeen.
FERN SCALES from stem of Curtomium falcatum for other unmounted objects.-W. H. Reid, 12, Bonaccord-lane, Aberdeen.
MANE-HAIR of Lion for (ther unmountd objects of interest. -E. M, 6, Holford-square, Pentonville, W.C.
ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTIVE, 45 in. diameter, 5 ft. 6 in. focus, and portion of brass mountings, cffered for a complete 4 st. telescope of smaller aperture.-H. Davis, 24, Cornhill, E.C.
H. D. C.- The pumber of microscopists is so great that we fear we could not devote the space required to carry out your suggestion of publishing their names and addresses. S. B.-See our reply to D. R. in the December number.
J. H. M.-The first complaint of the kind which has reached us. Our copy for last year was bound at the close of the year, and there is not the least trace of the type "setting off” on the opposite page.
T. H.-Shere and Abinger for some species. Anywhere for the commonest. A large number of species of mosses mountainous districts alone will furnish.
E. W.--A complete list of British insects has been promised
Rye's "British Beetles” (Reeve & Co., 10s, 6d.) contains the Coleoptera, so also does Waterhouse's “Catalogue of British Coleoptera" (75. 60.). The only cheap work, with descrip. tions, is Stephens's “Manual” (about 68.), now almost out of date.
F. A. A.- Thistles will grow from seed as other plants.
A. G.–The water beetle is gabus bipunctatus, Fabr., very common throughout the country. The small beetle, Nipius hololeucus, Fald., is also common, and apparently very destructive.-R. G. K.
G.W.F.-Corky development of the bark, very common in the elm and hedge maple.
C.F.W.-Lists of British Mosses, 4d.: Mr. Dixon, Great Ayton), near Stokesley, Yorkshire.
W. B. M.-It is the ordinary commercial seal-skin which is derived from some species of Phoca inhabiting the Arctic seas.
W. R. T.-Your bog plant is Narthecium ossifragum.W. C.
S. M. P.-Your plant is hemp (Cannabis sativa).-W. C.
LEPIDOPTERA.- E. wishes for larvæ or pupæ, and will send stamps and address to any one who will assist.
M.'c. C.- Tate's " Land and Freshwater Shells," 6s., coloured: R. Hardwicke, 192, Piccadilly.
E. W.-The fossils are-1. Ammonites bifer, Quenst. ; 2. Corbis supraliassicus (n. s.); 3. l'ermicularia polygonalis, Low. Send address to R. Tate, Esq., Geological Society, Somerset House, London.
W. H. R.-The query was inserted in our first volume and never answered.
J. C.-The bodies on Sallow-Bark are a Coccus, but what species is not so easy to tell.
H. H. M.--The larva of one of the Bombycidæ (Lepido. ptera), but it is impossible to identify it, from the condition in which sent.
W. S. G.–The shell is a purple.coloured Lucuna puteolus. --R. T.
G. D.- We really cannot devote a column to answering your queries, which any book on British Birds would do for
BOOKS RECEIVED. “The Popular Science Review," January, 1867. London: R. Harawicke.
"The Technologist," No. 6, New Series, January, 1867. London : kent & Co.
“ The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science," No. XXV., January, 1867. London: Churchill & Sons,
* Intensity Coils, how made and how ured." By " London: Suter, Alexander, & Co.
"The Distinctive Characters of the principal British Natural Orders of Plants." Arranged in Tables by William A. Tiden, F.C.S. London: 17, Bloomsbury-square.
"The Life of a Salmon." The Antobirgraphy of the late Salmo Salar, Esq., comprising a Narrative of the Life, Personal Adventures, and Death of a Tweed Salmon. Edited by a Fisherman. London: Day * Son Limited. 1867
** Hooner & Co.'s General Spring Catalogue for 1867." Hocper & Co., Covent Garden Market. 1967.
H. B.-We do not dabble in mesmerism.
THE RHYTHM OF FLAMES.
A light in sound, a sound-like power in light,
N days of old | it differently.” Thus, to begin at the wrong end of
passes it by, as a vulgar sound, without recognition. the mythology At O the flame quivers, and if you give I the Conof Paganism in tinental sound of our e, it is strongly affected. A,
describing the as we pronounce it, is again a dead letter, but let it elder and more gentle of the sound full, like Ah !, and it oscillates violently and offspring of Fire and Vapour, convulsively. Then in combined sounds it has its had they but dreamed of the | favourites. At the words "boot," "bout,” and strong attractive powers of "beat,” uttered in succession, it'passes the first by music over flame. In our without notice, at the second it gives a start, but at matter-of-fact days no rival to the third, as if conscious of the threatened indignity, Orpheus and Eurydice will it is fairly thrown into violent commotion. spring into being, and yet | The Professor's heart is evidently bound up in the myths would be so far his favourite. How would it respond to Longkindred as proving
fellow's definition of love-should he utter it ?That things inanimate have moved,
Love is the root of creation: God's essence. Worlds And, as with living souls, have been
without number inform'd
Lie on His bosom like children : He made them for His By numbers and persuasive sound.
purpose onlyIn a recent lecture, delivered by Professor Tyn. Only to love and to be loved again. He breathed forth
His Spirit dall at the Royal Institution, on “the rhythm of
Into the slumbering dust, and upright standing it laid its flames," or, as the more familiar title expresses it,
Hand on its heart, and felt it was warm with a flame out on “sounding and sensible flames," a flame of mar
of Heaven. vellous sensibility was exhibited, some twenty
Quench, O quench not this flame! It is the breath of your
being ! inches long, which fell down to eight upon the slightest tap on an anvil, placed at a considerable For be it known the flame follows the recitation of distance, and which responded to every tinkle of a verse as keenly as a critic, oscillating at intervals bunch of keys, or a few pence shaken together in | more or less violently, according as it picks out the hands. The slightest vibration of sound affected sounds to which it can respond. With true feminine the flame, which gave recognition sensibly when the instincts it is startled by the plashing of a drop of lecturer walked across the floor, and was set in rain, and sibilation, or even the sound of a sibilant, violent commotion by the creak of his boots, the in however distant part of the lecture-room, throws rustle of a silk dress, or even the crumpling of a | it immediately into violent convulsions. bit of paper. In that true London “Cave of Mys It is always difficult fairly to adjust to each tery,” the laboratories beneath the lecture-room, pioneer in opening up new sources of scientific this flame, said the Professor, “is called the 'Vowel investigation his share of the merit and of the Flame,' because the different vowel sounds affect gratitude due to him. Trivial discoveries at first, No. 27.
often cast aside as soon as brought to light, and | smith would apparently have hammered away to no contradictions piled up upon no better foundation, purpose, was severed in two by a stream of air. are in general the germs of every branch of science; | This done, no sooner was a whistle sounded than so the world, wisely perhaps, awards to the master | the flame started; a knock on the table caused the mind that unravels the tangled web and makes all separated flames to re-unite and form for an instant clear, the full title of an original discoverer. The a flame of the ordinary shape. In the second sounding of a hydrogen flame in a glass tube was experiment, a steady, clear flame, issuing from a first noticed by Dr. Higgins, in 1777. Since then circular orifice, four inches in height, was insenthe subject has been investigated by Chladni, Desible to sound. Raised to ten inches, it responded la Rive, Faraday, Wheatstone, Kundt, and others. | by a slight quiver to the whistle; at sixteen inches, The action of sounds of a definite pitch on flames the increased quivering showed the flame to be on inclosed in tubes has been investigated by Count | the brink of roaring, and with a little increase of Schaffgotsch and Professor Tyndall. Indeed, under the pressure it roared, shortening itself at the same the latter, “The Philosophy of Flame” has for years time to eight inches; reducing the pressure, the been one of the leading subjects of investigation in flame was again extended to sixteen inches. It did the laboratories of the Royal Institution. The not roar, but was on the point of roaring, standing, jumping of a fish-tail flame in response to musical | as it were, on the brink of a precipice, and the sounds was accidentally discovered by Professor whistle then forced it over, upon which it roared, Lecomte at a musical party in America. In passing simultaneously shortening itself, as it did before a candle with steadily burning flame rapidly through | under the increase of pressure. “And herein," says the air, an indented band of light is produced, and a Professor Tyndall, “is the true explanation of all the slightly musical vibration indicates the rhythmic phenomena of these 'sounding or sensitive flames,' character of the motion. The solution of this that the sonorous pulses furnish the supplement of problem, and of those which follow, is the subject / energy or force necessary to produce the roar and of Professor Tyndall's lecture, and, as like another | shorten the flame:" The pitch of the note chosen to Columbus, he has broken the egg, by his aid we force this flame over the brink of the precipice on shall comprehend another of these ideas which which it rests must be equal to the occasion. Four cluster round that comprehensive phrase, “the con tuning-forks, vibrating respectively 256, 320, 384, servation of force," as clearly as he has laid before and 512 times in a second, produced no effect on a us “heat as a mode of motion.” But to proceed : a certain flame. But besides these fundamental notes gas flame having been introduced into a tube these forks will sound a series of notes of very high sufficiently long and wide, the current of air passing pitch, producing 1,600, 2,000, 2,400, and 3,200 over the flame produces a vibration, which, by the vibrations per second ; and to each of these the flame aid of the tube's resonance, becomes a musical jumped in response, but most energetically in sound. Thus, from a tube three feet long the response to the highest note. musical note will be rich; from one six feet long it will be an octave lower; and in a tube fifteen feet long the deep bass vibrations have an intensity of
THE SWALLOWS. such power that in the lecture-room, filled by an audience of some six hundred persons, pillars, floors, TINDER this heading appeared in a recent seats, gallery, and audience are all sensibly shaken. U number a most interesting letter from E. L. The note rises in pitch as the tube diminishes in Simmonds, telling us that early in November, length, and the intense heat of the sounding column 1865, when at the mouth of the river Niger, in West produces a greater number of vibrations than any Africa, “innumerable swallows passed for a whole organ pipe of the same length. The flame in a tube day together over his head from seaward, flying in 177 inches long vibrated 459 times in a second, and a northerly direction," and he asks, “could they be another in a tube 108 inches long 717 times in a coming from America ?" Now, as the several second. These vibrations consist of a series of partial habitats of these most interesting birds, and their extinctions and revivals of the flame, forming, when periodical migrations in the different parts of the viewed in Wheatstone's rotating mirror, a series of world, have engaged my attention for many years flame images of transcendent beauty.
past (as indeed the columns of the Field and your Other equally interesting experiments served to own SCIENCE Gossip pages will attest), I will conillustrate the subject : one, which recalled the way dense, in as few lines as I can, all the information in which boys teach jackdaws and jays to speak, by which I have been enabled to collect from French and splitting their tongues; and another, as more plainly | English works, regarding the hirundines of Africa. showing the cause of the phenomenon, must, how. Now these may be classed geographically as four ever, suffice. The bright flame of a fish-tail, which distinct species-according to what I learn from appeared perfectly insensible to all sounds, musical that Ornithological text-book, the Ibis—and those or not, and to which Handel's Harmonious Black. I again may be subdivided latitudinally into north and South African hirundines, as respects the for comfort and nidification; whilst the swallows of equator (their divisional line of habitat demarcation). the Cape, Natal, and the Mozambique Coast, are Now swallows, like all migrant birds, regulate their driven to the south, for their temperate climate and yearly emigrations and immigrations by that conserva generative purposes, in October or thereabouts, tive instinct which impels them to seek ever for the yearly; which accords, indeed, with Dr. Livingmost genial climate, and to escape from the extremes stone's narrative, and the accounts of Le Valliant of the different atmospheric conditions of cold and and other naturalist observers and writers. Now, heat, rain and drought. Now these conditional I have always assumed that the equatorial calm belt states of the atmosphere are reversed yearly in of constant precipitation, as referred to above, Africa, according to the sun's position in the divides permanently the North African from the ecliptic; and the monsoon rains are regulated South African swallow as to migratory movements, by the solar declination, according as that and the periods of moulting and incubation, and all luminary is north and south of the equator; | I have read on the subject confirms this my convicwhilst that equatorial belt of perpetual condensa tion; for, as the climatic conditions of North and tion, 300 or 400 miles broad (as described by Captain South Africa are reversed, so are the animal pheMaury in his great work on physical phenomena), nomena depending thereon (as it is in India, Ausand which vibrates latitudinally, agreeable to the tralia, and the two American continents). Whence sun's position, between latitude 5° south and lati- then were the swallows seen by E. L. Simmonds tude 15° north, is ruled by the same influence. coming, and whither proceeding, in November, What then are these climate repellents, and how do 1865? Why-selon moi-they were the hirundines they operate locally, as regards the great African of Lower Guinea, the same as Dr. Livingstone peninsula ? Why thus. On April 13th, the sun is speaks of in 1855, as seen at Loanda in June (but yearly vertical to Sierra Leone, Katunga on the not those he saw in migratory transit at Kuruma Niger, and the southern uplands of Abyssinia; and in December, 1852; for these last were Cape of what is the result of the sun's declination being then Good Hope swallows); and as the S.W. monsoonat nine degrees over this belt of Africa, from west which blows on the coast of Upper Guinea, and into to east ? Why, that the deluging monsoon the Gulf of Guinea-is over about the end of Octorains, following the sun as they do, inundate the i ber, these birds were returning thither for their countries south of latitude go to the extent of winter hybernation, south of the mountains of Kong, 500 miles, and 300 miles to the north thereof-em- | as the European swallows do to the north and bracing thus to the southward, Fernando Po, the north-east of that chain, but 500 miles and more to Cameron Mountains, the mouths of the Niger River, the northward.
H. E. AUSTEN, the Gold, Slave, and Ivory Coasts; to the west
Lieutenant-Colonel and M.B.M.S. ward, Sierra Leone, and the Gambia Settlements; St. Helier's, Jersey. to the northward, the mountain sources of the
N.B. — The Abyssinian swallows pass into rivers Gambia and Niger, and the affluents of Lake
Eastern Europe, Syria, and Turkey in Asia, in Tchad, with the vicinity south of Timbuctoo; and to
summer; and the swallows of Lower Guinea the eastward, on the other side of Africa, Magadoxo,
oscillate migratorily between Cape Frio in latitude Afan, Somanli, Gallas, Abyssinia, and Nubia, col
68° south and latitude 8° north probably. lectively. Now this solar movement regulates all the hirundines that hybernate north of the equator, and which emigrate yearly to Europe, and Asia, and
ATROPOS. the Azores, in April, earlier or later, according as the monsoon rains, set in.
THE insertion, in the last number of SCIENCE Now what occurs six months afterwards, namely, 1 Gossip, of an extract from my Monograph of on 13th October, when the sun having re-crossed the British Psocida ("Ent. Month. Mag.”), wherein the line, and become vertical to those parts or | I avow myself a sceptic as to the ability of Atropos Southern Africa that lie north and south of latitude. to produce an audible sound, following Mr. Chaney's 9° south? Why this! The same advancing clima. | article in which he distinctly claims for the insect tic foe (the sun's attendant ever), the deluging rains the attribute of causing a ticking, induces me to say which drove the swallows to the north, as he moved | a few words on the subject. Without wishing to towards the tropic of Cancer in April, now chases / call in question Mr. Chaney's powers of observation, them to the south, when that luminary is moving in I still think that some error has occurred, and shall October, towards the opposite tropic of Capricorn. remain an unbeliever until I catch Atropos, flagrante And thus the migratory movements of the African delicto. I shall be only too glad if Mr. Chaney hirundines are reversed geographically; for when will forward to me living examples of the insect which the sun is advancing northward in April, the Sene- have been seen and heard in the act of “ticking." gambian and Abyssinian swallows seek their tem- Having been as a boy brought up in a then wild part perate, food-abounding countries, Europe and Asia, I of Essex, which, though actually not twenty miles