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When the conjugation is complete, the combined contents of the two cells become an oval spore
ZOOLOGY. (figs. 8, 12), from which a new plant eventually
PARR OR SALMON.- As thus buoyant, elated, springs.
and self-confident, I proceeded onwards, I observed Fig. 7 represents a curious instance of a filament,
a boat, with a young man in it, anchored in strange which has conjugated with two others.
fashion a little on one side of the main stream down In ordinary cases the conjugation takes place as
which I was passing. The anchor consisted, in has been just described, but in some cases it takes
fact, of another individual, older than the occupant place in two contiguous cells of the same filament of the boat, who, standing in the water as deep as (fig. 9), and the contents of one cell pass over into
his somewhat long legs would allow, leaned his the next and form a spore.
weight upon the stern of the boat, and so held it When the plants have been kept a considerable
fast in its position. I passed them carelessly, and time in the same vessel, the contents of the cells
when but a few yards in advance, my attention was are sometimes changed into brown moving bodies
attracted to a small, struggling, brown fly, which (fig. 11), but whether these are zoospores or not,
had apparently just dropped into the water. Rushseems a little uncertain. The contents of the cells
ing towards it, and rising suddenly to the surface, are also changed into green zoospores, which escape
I greedily seized, and was preparing to swallow, the from the ruptured cell.
J. S. TUTE.
delicate morsel; but scarcely did it touch my lips when a slight but smart sensation, as of a thorn
pricking my mouth, was felt by me, and I found THE BLOOD-BEETLE.—That the scarlet fluid said
myself dragged by some invisible but irresistible by Westwood to be emitted from the joints of the
force against the stream, until, half choked, I aplimbs of this beetle is a fact, I can assure Mr.
proached the boat, into which, by the aid of a light Ullyett from personal observation. The beetle is
net, I was instantly lifted. I found myself clasped rather common on our“ down,” and often, on taking
by a dreadfully warm hand, and held, in spite of it between my fingers, it has emitted this scarlet fluid
my struggles, firmly until the hook, attached to the from the leg-joints next the body, as well as from
treacherous fly I had seized, was extracted, not the mouth.-Eliza C. Jellie, Redland, Bristol.
untenderly, from my wounded jaw. I was already more than half dead, limp, faint, and bleeding. “It's just a wee parr beastie," said the elder of the two, preparing to slip me into the water. "It's of no use putting it back," said the other ; "parr or not, it's dead.” “It may dee and be dom'd; I wash my hands of it,” was the reply with which my profane friend placed me in the water, carefully enough. I felt sick and helpless; without power to sustain my proper position, I floated, with my back downwards, until I rested against some long floating grass, a few yards from the boat, to which the eddy of the stream had carried me. Although too weak to move, I retained my senses, and heard the younger man say to his companion—"Why, John, what made you throw that poor little dead beast into the water again?” “Deed," was the reply, “yon beastie's just a smolt, an' there's a fine for killing sich like.” “But you killed a parr just now ?” “Ay.” “But you call this a parr?”
“'Deed, an' it's the fau't of those who gie the same Fig. 62. Triple Jargonelle Pear (greatly reduced). name to twa different fishes.” “What do you
mean?” “A' mean that there's a wee fish ye TRIPLE PEAR.-In September, 1856, I picked in | killed just noo ca’ed 'the parr' an' it's a fish of my garden, from a jargonelle pear-tree, a curiously itself, * an' has melt an' roe as every ither fish has, formed triple pear. In looking over an old folio a day or two since, I found a drawing of it I made at
* I have opened hundreds of the Burn Parr, Salmo Salmuthe time, and thinking it may have some interest | lus, male and female. I have seen them on their spawningfor the readers of SCIENCE-Gossip, I enclose you a beds, and taken them out of burns where salmon never yet
ascended, nor could by possibility ascend. I have baited copy. It would seem as though three blossoms had
hooks with the tough little beggars, and released them alive formed their fruit one within the other.- J. R.
after they had towed a trimmer for six hours about a loch; Keene, 4th February, 1867.
the salmon parr being as soft as a pat of butter, and endowed shallow water for the purpose; but after recruiting with about as much power of sustaining hardships. Doubt.
an' ye'll find it in rivers an' burns, an' abune water- frisking about and licking my hands with great falls, an' in mountain tarns, where no saumon ever delight. He stood quite Christian-like while I yet was seen or could get, an' it's streekit an' bar- bathed him well with warm water. He soon resumed red all the same as the young saumon-parr; and it's his old tricks, and returned to the forsaken fragjust the confusion of ca’ing the twa by the ae name ments of carpet with increased vigour; and I am that's raised a' the fash that's made about the | happy to say Rover is himself again. I can account ‘edentity,' as they ca' it, of the parr with the young for the skewer finding its way there from the fact saumon." "Then you believe that the parr is not that the dog was in the habit of having meat occathe young of the salmon ?” “If ye ca' the young sionally from the “cat's meat man,” which is sold saumon the parr, the parr is the young saumon; on skewers, and he must have had a lot thrown to but there's anither parr that has a better right to him before it was taken from the skewer. I have the name, an' it's a pity that twa fish should be since compared the skewers, and find they are not bund to hae but ae name betwixt them.”- Auto. | like the common butcher's skewer, but are made of biography of a Salmon.
pine. - James Rowley. DOG IN TROUBLE.—A singular mishap befel a HEN WITH CAT AND KITTENS.—At Falking. young Retriever of mine when he was about four
| ham, Lincolnshire, in the early part of last October months old. Up to that time he exhibited all the
(1866), was daily seen the following curious instance playfulness, and distinguished himself for mischief
of maternal affection. A hen was sitting upon her as much, if not more than the majority of pups, but
eggs for hatching; she had them taken away from at the age of four months he suddenly became
her, but still she persevered in keeping on her nest. serious; the change was so sudden I could not
One day, when away to feed, an old pussey took account for it. If I attempted to draw him out
possession, and kittened five kittens within it. On with a bit of his favourite carpet, which in his
the hen's return, instead of being disconcerted at the younger days was his delight, he would only survey
intruders, she took to both cat and kittens, and with it well with his head, first on one side and then the
the same assiduity as if her own chickens began other, and sometimes attempt to seize it, but he
and continued to regularly brood them, always pullwould recollect himself and turn away, evidently
ing any stray kitten under her wings, and, if any disgusted with it. At first his behaviour was a
curious person, on viewing them, displaced one, source of amusement to me; he appeared at times
would make as great a disturbance as if one of her half inclined to play, and at the same time as if he
own chickens had been taken from her. During had made up his mind not to do so; in fact, he
this singular attachment she would always make became quite a droll dog. After he had been in this room for the old cat to suckle them. She was state for about a week, I was patting and caressing
allowed to have them under her care for three weeks; him one day when I chanced to touch him rather
then she was prevented going to them, and aproughly on his left side, which made him wince and
parently suffered a great loss by the privation. howl, which drew my attention moro closely to the J. Ward. spot, and on examination I found a slight swelling just beyond the last rib. I concluded he had been SPAWNING OF THE FROG.–Perhaps the following wounded, bathed the place with warm water, and fact may be interesting to some of your readers. examined it carefully every day. I began to get
| It is, I believe, generally stated in works on Natural rather anxious about poor Rover, as he was evidently History that the frog spawns about the middle of in great pain, and the least touch on the swelling March. Now, although such may be the case in other made him whine piteously. He continued in this parts of England, certainly here in the South of Devonstate for about three weeks, and by this time the shire the spawning takes place at a much earlier swelling had increased considerably, when one period. For the last fifteen years I have observed morning my attention was called to the dog, and
that in the absence of frost the frogs in this imon going out to look at him I observed a slight mediate neighbourhood spawn on the 14th or 15th discharge from his side, and on examining it I of January, and so punctual are they to the day, that slightly bent his body, when to my astonishment I have always succeeded in capturing some dozen the point of a wood-skewer protruded from his side. | for observation on those dates. The spawning takes I immediately took hold of it and drew it forth. place in the night, and the little creatures, being I thought it would never end; it came out at last, subsequently weak and exhausted, remain for the a perfect unbroken skewer five-and-a-half inches next twenty-four hours immediately under and long. I could scarcely believe my own eyes; but covered by the cake, or else slightly buried in the there was the skewer in my hand, and poor Rover
mud in the immediate vicinity; hence it is very was quite conscious of the relief, as he began easy to catch them, as they generally select very weather has retarded their operations, but the night SWALLOWS IN ALGERIA.-I saw lately a book before last the thaw set in, and yesterday the ice advertised with the title “A Winter with the had nearly disappeared. Supposing that froggy Swallows,” and having procured a copy, I was might require twenty-four hours to recover from surprised to find that the locality of the swallows' his torpidity, I, this morning, sallied forth to my winter residence was Algiers. I had always ima. accustomed hunting ground (for they always appear gined that the supposed winter residence of swallows to frequent the same place year after year), a road was somewhere in the centre of Africa; and Rev. side gutter or small ditch not having more than three H. B. Tristram, in his interesting work entitled or four inches of water in the deepest part, and | "the Great Sahara,” states that in that region the scarcely two feet broad. Here I found about a dozen | Arabs informed him that “for one Swallow in cakes of spawn which had evidently been deposited winter they have twenty in summer. The natives during the night, and I immediately caught ten are perfectly familiar with the fact of the swallow's frogs for my fernery in a distance of less than thirty | emigration, as they say they go to visit Timbuctoo, yards. Now as most persons having microscopes | the El Dorado of Arab and Swallow” (p. 398). I are always glad to be provided with a few frogs for myself have passed twenty-five successive winters observation, I think if they note the days on which in Algeria, either at Algiers or Oran, and from the frog begins to spawn in their neighbourhood, repeated observations I found that the swallow they will, another season, be able to secure an ample arrived on the 6th March, but an occasional swallow supply.-George Dansey, Devonport.
their strength for twenty-four hours, they move off less the young salmon is the part, but the parr is not always the young salmon.
and are no longer to be found. This year the severe
may be rarely observed flitting about in the month
of January, if the day be very fair and warm. Silk.-Heliogabalus was the first Roman who | Swallows, and quails, and corncrakes arrive at wore a garment all silk, which must have been
Algiers almost simultaneously, although the great about the year 220 A.D. The Emperor Aurelianus, l emigration of these birds may be put down at the who died in 275, denied his empress a robe of silk
end of March.-G. Munby, Wood Green. because it was too dear. In the year 555, some monks, who had been in India, brought some eggs
Insect Pests.-Can we wonder at the increase of the silkworm to Constantinople, where, in time,
of the insects which destroy our fruits, and at the they produced raw silk, which was manufactured at
great loss sustained by those who have extensive Athens, Thebes, Corinth, &c. Charlemagne sent
orchards and gardens ? The birds are the only Offa, king of Mercia, a present of a belt and two
possible agents to counteract the deadly unseen silken vests, in the year 780, which is the earliest
insects which are every hour being bred almost account we have of silk being seen in this country.
everywhere. Nature has formed the bird's eye for -Phillips's “ Fruits of Great Britain.”
detecting insects where the eye of man is useless.
Wholly destroy the birds, and the fruit is wholly THE STRIKE (Enneoctonus collurio).—There is a destroyed. --The Gentleman's Magazine. popular idea that this bird always has nine impaled
NESTING OF THE GREY WAGTAIL (Motacilla creatures at hand, and that when it eats one it catches another, and with it replaces the one which
boarula).-During the last season I found a nest of
this little bird in a hole on the banks of the Ouse, has been eaten. In consequence of this notion, which prevails through several counties, the bird is
a position, to me, quite new. Another was found called nine-killer. The generic name, Enneoctonus,
in a barn. This nest was of a curious construction. is composed of two Greek words which have a
The nest from top to bottom was six inches in similar signification. So strongly is this idea held
height, and much clay was woven in among the by some persons, that I have seen a treatise upon
bents. That portion of the nest in which the eggs instinct, where the shrike was gravely produced as
were deposited was unusually neat.-John Ranson,
Linton-on-Ouse. an example of arithmetical powers possessed by birds. These theories generally fail when confronted
MALE GALL-FLIES.-Startling as the announceby facts. I have seen numberless shrike's nests, | ment really was in the first instance, it still appears and though in some cases there may bave been nine that we have a want of evidence to prove that a impaled animals, in some there were more, and in male in the genus Cynips has any positive existence. others less.-- Rev. J. G. Wood's “Homes without -F. Smith, in Ent. Mon. Mag. Hands.”
DIAMOND BEETLE.–At Rio Janeiro the brilliant “CARDINALS.”—A large and hideous species of
Diamond Beetle, Eutimis nobilis, is in great request spider, said to be found only in Hampton Court
for brooches for gentlemen, and ten piastres are often Palace, is known by the name of “ Cardinals.”
paid for a single specimen.- Cowan's Curious Facts. This name has been given them from a superstitious / DOMESTIC SPIDERS.—Sir Hans Sloane says that belief, that the spirits of Cardinal Wolsey and his the housekeepers of Jamaica keep large spiders in retinue still haunt the palace in their shape.- Notes their houses to destroy the cockroaches, with which and Queries, vii., 431.
they are infested.
occurring in the Bracken. This fern is very aburBOTANY.
dant in the district in which the urn was discovered,
and most probably portions of fronds were placed DOMBEYA ANGULATA.—The stamens in this plant, in the receptacle before the ashes of the deceased as in all the Malvales, may be looked upon as com persons were deposited in it.- Quekett's Lectures on pound, while the ordinary stamen corresponds to a
Histology. simple leaf; the groups of stamens in the Mallows and allied orders may be regarded as the equivalents
PAPYRUS IN EUROPE.—The true Papyrus grows
abundantly on the banks of the river Anapas in of compound leaves, united together at their bases. Some of the lobes or leaflets of these compound
Sicily, not far from Syracuse, fully 10 or 12 feet leaves bear anthers, while others are destitute of
high, with stems 6 or 8 inches in circumference, and anthers, and constitute the barren stamens or stami
with large tufts on the top. This is the only instance nodes. Some light is thrown on the uses of these
of the free growth of the Papyrus in Europe. barren stamens by an examination of the plant now
M. H. under consideration. In the fully expanded flower, ENORMOUS BOLETUS. - My friend, Mr. F. C. the inner surface of the upper angle or point of each Penrose, has just sent me a tracing of the section petal is about on a level with the stigma and with of an enormous specimen of Boletus luridus, found the tip of the barren stamen, the outer flat surface by him. The circumference is exactly three feet, and of which latter, as well as the adjacent portion of the pileus and stem, are stout in proportion. It was at the petal, are often dusted over with pollen, the true! first mistaken for a milking stool left out by accident stamens, nevertheless, being at a considerable dis- all night, but on closer acquaintance turned out to tance beneath these organs. In less fully developed be a gigantic fungus of the Boletus tribe. — flowers the barren stamens may be seen curving W.G.S. downwards and outwards, so as to come in contact with the shorter fertile stamens, whose anthers open
THE EVENING PRIMROSE.- This North American outwardly, and thus allow their contents to adhere
| flower was first sent from Virginia to Padua, in the to the barren stamens. These latter, provided with
year 1619, but at what exact period it reached their freight of pollen, uncoil themselves, assume
England is uncertain, since Parkinson is the earliest more or less of an erect position, and thus bring
author who notices it; but it must have been some their points on a level with the stigma, whose
time previous to 1629, as in his “ Garden of Pleasant curling lobes twist round them and receive the pollen
Flowers," which was published in that year, he from them. The use, then, of the long staminodes
speaks of it in a more familiar style than he would seems to be to convey pollen from the short fertile
| have done had it been of late introduction. This stamens to the stigma, which, but for their inter
author calls it Tree Primrose of Virginia.-- Flora vention, could not be influenced by it. The presence
Historica. of pollen on the upper and inner corner of the
DIVINATION BY RIB-GRASS.—It was once, and petais is readily explained by the fact that, owing to
perhaps still is, a custom in Berwickshire to practise their position and peculiar form, they all come in
divination by means of “kemps” (Plantago lancontact with the ends of the staminodes and the
ceolata). Two spikes were taken in full bloom, and stigmas, and hence they too get dusted with pollen.
being bereft of every appearance of blow, they were These arrangements would therefore seem to favour
wrapt in a dock leaf, and put below a stone. One self-fertilisation, and they show how an organ
of them represented the lad, the other the lass. spoken of sometimes rather contemptuously as
They were examined next morning, and if both barren, rudimentary, imperfect, or the like, may yet
spikes appeared in blossom, then there was to be play an important part both in the architectural plan
"aye love between them twae ;” if none, “the course of the flower, and in its life history.- M.T.N.,
of true love" was not“ to run smootb."-Johnston's Gard. Chron., Jan. 26, 1867.
“Eastern Borders." FERNS BURIED WITH THE DEAD.—An urn, dug' PLANTS IN AUSTRALIA.- A number of European up in the island of Anglesea, was, with its contents, genera of plants indigenous to the country, or at brought to me for examination by Mr. Albert Way. | all events from their situations giving reason to After having determined the presence of human suppose so, grew in the vicinity of this river (Murbones belonging to an adult and to a child, pro rumbidgee); among others the “sow-thistle” (the bably to a mother and her offspring, certain fila. young tops of which are eaten by the natives just ments were found adhering to the inner surface of before the plant commences to blossom), a small the urn; these were of a brown colour, and arranged | red poppy, the crow-foot, a dock, geranium, and in definite order like the veins of leaves. Upon "shepherd's purse" were abundant, and they are microscopically examining sections of these, scalari seen very far in the interior, beyond this place.form vessels were noticed precisely similar to those Bennett's “Wanderings.”
amusement with me for a number of years, and as MICROSCOPY.
the process is simple, and the results highly in
teresting, some of your readers may perhaps be GLASS-CELLS.—I beg to enclose a rough sketch
disposed to put my plan in practice. I proceed of a simple and inexpensive form of an instrument,
thus :-After selecting about eight grains of good now made, but in a most complicated way, and at a
wheat, and an equal number of the infected ones, cost which many would not care to incur. The one
I wrap them in pairs in small pieces of paper, and figured below can be made at the cost of about a
thus plant them in my garden. Here the damp shilling. The advantages of this instrument are
earth causes the good grain to vegetate, and at the same time resuscitate the cels; and as the wheat plant grows, they enter the fibrous roots, and passing up the stem, enter the ear and deposit their eggs. It is somewhat difficult to detect them in the stem; for this purpose I take a stem long before there is any appearance of the formation of the ear, and cut very short sections, which I bruise in a drop of
water, , or a glass-slide; but the more easy and Fig. 54. Glass slide drilled with three holes.
pleasing part of the process is to watch them in the infected grain from the first entrance till their maturity. To do this, it is requisite to have the wheat growing close at hand, so that daily access to it can be had, and the time I recommend for commencement is as soon as the grain begins forming in the ear. The first object to be sought is the parent eel filled with eggs. These, when first extruded, are of a dark colour, and opaque, but gradually become more transparent, at which time the young eels will be seen curled up in various figures, and slowly moving round in their shells, from which they ultimately break forth and con. tinue to live on the farinaceous matter of the grain till all is consumed, when they become torpid, and so remain till brought again to life by means similar to those which gave activity and instinct to their parents. With a low power, no difference can be seen between these and the Paste Eel, except the greater activity and varied sizes of the latter. But the difference is very marked when carefully examined with a high magnifier.-4. Nicholson.
TOURMALINE.—This is a true Proteus among Fig. 55. Side view. Fig. 56. Upper view.
stones: it imitates almost all the gems by the variety A, cell drilled in the slide. B B, common paper screws.
of its colours. Thus there are brown, green, blue, D D, thin glass covers above and below.
yellow and red Tourmalines, and of these there are
a great variety of tints. It is principally in Ceylon great, enabling an insect (say a Daphnia or Cyclops)
that the brown and hyacinth-red Tourmalines are to be kept in water in the field of an inch-and-a-half,
found, sometimes mixed with those of some other or two-inch objective, while the thin covering plates, colour. In Spain they are chiefly brown; and in enable circulation of blood, &c., to be clearly seen
other parts of Europe a variety is found of a darkunder even these low powers. A 4th works well also
brown approaching to black. Of late years it has with this instrument. I trust that this may be of
| acquired additional importance from its application service to my fellow microscopists.-J.W. Mencher. | in the examination of objects by polarized light;
P.S.-The drilled slides can be obtained of for if a plate of brown Tourmaline be cut parallel Mr. Charles Baker ;) the screws at nearly any to the axis, it absorbs one of the polarized pencils stationer's.
of light.-Jackson's " Minerals.” VIBRIO TRITICI.-Allow me to add a supplement SOLVENT FOR CAOUTCHOUC.-I recommend the to Mr. Fox's remarks on the Wheat Eel, contained best benzole as a solvent for asphaltum and indiain SCIENCE-GOSSIP for January. The rearing rubber, the best I found after experimentalising for of these curious creatures has been a favourite months.-H. B.9)