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miles for soft. All our grates were arranged for it, GEOLOGY.

with fire-brick sides (cheeks) and backs; for there is FISH BEDS.-Fish have been found floating dead

something in the ordinary iron sides and backs that in shoals beside submarine volcanoes-killed either effectually prevents anthracite fuel from showing to by the heated water or by mephitic gases. There

the best advantage. The grand essential is a are, however, no marks of volcanic activity in con

thorough draught through the fire; and to ensure nection with the ichthyolite beds. They abound, this we had round holes drilled in the fire-brick back as has been said, in lime, and the thought has often

communicating with a chamber, or flue, at the back struck me that calcined lime cast out as ashes of the grate, so as to convey the current of air from some distant crater, and carried by the winds,

through the fire and up the chimney. Anthracite might have been the cause of the widely-spread

coal is invaluable for cooking purposes; our English destruction to which their organisms testify. I servants were charmed with it, we never have seen the fish of a small trouting stream, over

complain of smoked viands. Cooks were satisfied which a bridge was in course of building, destroyed

with their own efforts in the frying and boiling line, in a single hour, for a full mile below the erection,

and, better still, we were satisfied with their skill. by the few troughfuls of lime that fell into the I strongly advise all married ladies, whose lords and water when the centring was removed.-Miller's masters are, in servants' phraseology, “very parOld Red Sandstone.

ticular” on the subject of good dinners (a few men

are so perfectly angelic as not to be affected in HUMAN REMAINS.—Human bones have been

temper by a badly-dressed dinner) to immediately found in the Lelim of the valley of the Rhine, at institute anthracite coal fires in their kitchens. Our Engisheim, near Colmar, in a marly deposit, in which housemaids never complained of “the horrid smoke,” the bones of a large stag were also found, with a nor the laundrymaid of those“ nasty blacks.” An molar tooth of the mammoth, and a metatarsal bone

anthracite fire gives out great heat, is clear, smokeof a bison. M. Faudel records this in the Comptes

less, and healthy All common grates can be fitted Rendus, and concludes that man lived in the valley

with brick hacks and cheeks at a very moderate of the Rhine contemporaneous with the fossil stag,

expense. We altered a large kitchen-range so as to bison, and mammoth, and that the appearance of

burn anthracite effectually.-Helen E. Watney. man in the country would have been previous to certain movements of the earth, which took place A STONE STANDARD.-In Iceland, the marks of after the deposition of the "diluvium," and which Frost are on a vast scale, but they are mingled with have given the ground its present physical con the work of Fire. These denuding and upheaving figuration.

forces are working natural engines-air, water, ice,

and steam, side by side,-and their marks are SUBMARINE ACTION.-In the year 1783 a sub

mingled. Marks made by glaciers upon igneous marine eruption took place six or eight miles from

rock are the same as those which are made by land Reykiavick, which gave birth to a new island a

ice, in Norway and Switzerland, on rocks of all mile in circumference, which, however, the fol

kinds; but the chips are different. Here ice-ground lowing year again disappeared. A submarine erup

glens are partially filled with lava; water-worn tion also took place about the same time seventy

boulders, pebbles, and sand, are smothered under miles from the same cape, which is said to have

sand which fell from the air; great stones have been thrown up pumice sufficient to cover the sea for a

cast through the air, and rest among glacial rubbish. space of one hundred and fifty miles around.

Snow is often blackened with ashes; ashes are Daubeny's "Volcanoes."

whitewashed with snow; water flows under the ANTHRACITE COAL. — A correspondent of the lava, and there freezes and forms subterraneous Times writes that,-“From constant experience of glaciers. Glacier rivers carry fine mud, which this coal in FURNACES he believes it is capable of glaciers grind; but it is mixed with volcanic dust, being applied as a perfect substitute for smoky sulphur, cinders, sticks, and all things which rain bituminous coal in houses.” Now as I have had con can wash from such a land into the sea. The seastant experience, for seven years, of Anthracite coal beach is strewed with lava and Arctic shells; in HOUSES, perhaps the readers of SCIENCE-GOSSIP American drift timber, mahogany, strange sea-weeds may like to know how to render this invaluable, of great size;" horse-eyes” from the West Indies; smokeless fuel available in their own residences. I dead puffins from the Arctic ocean ; fish-bones and used anthracite in every room in the house during the seals; and sometimes the Arctic current brings an

ice-fleet-it may be freighted with stones and mud down to the outer kitchens. We resided in the picked up at Spitzbergen, Jan Mayen, or Greenland. vicinity of anthracite, or, as they are there called, The surface of the land is a stone standard by which stone-coal mines—the Gwendraeth Works—and had to read geological hieroglyphics elsewhere.—“Frost we failed to use the hard coal, must have sent many | and Fire.

WATERTON'S PROCESS.-Do you know if the proNOTES AND QUERIES. cess by which Mr. Waterton preserved his natural

history collection, is known ? From a paper written POLLEN IN HONEY.-Fig. 15 of your Illustrations by Rev. J. G. Wood, in the Intellectual Observer in SCIENCE-Gossip is evidently the Pollen of “ Passi. for July, 1863, it seems it was not at that time. If flora,” and 25 that of “Enothera ;” the rest I can. it has since been discovered, and you can give it to not make out. Your paper is very interesting. the readers of SCIENCE-Gossip, you will be conW. T., Iliff.

ferring a great favour on many, who are disgusted

with the old mode of wire and stuffing.-H. M. G. WOODPECKERS' EGGS.-In my cabinet I have two woodpeckers' eggs which, during the last few

QUEEN APPLE.-The correspondent, E. W., Manmonths, have become thickly speckled with ash

chester, in the December number, wishes to know coloured spots. Can any reader inform me of the

about this fruit. In Disraeli's “Curiosities of Litecause, and how I can remove them? The eggs have

rature” (article “ Introducers of Exotic Flowers been in my cabinet more than two years.-H. Tasker.

Fruits, &c.”) is a quotation from Peacham's “ Em.

blems,” 1812– FIFTEEN - SPINE STICKLEBACK.-I have made

And red queen apple, so envide several attempts to keep the fifteen-spined stickle

Of school boles, passing by the pole ; back (Gasterosteus spinachia) in my aquarium, but and in a note it is stated to have been probably named have always failed to keep it alive for more than a after Queen Elizabeth; and it is added that apples month or so at the most, and even for this short | had become red by being grafted on a mulberry time only in the latter part of spring and beginning stock, known to Pliny. Mr. Disraeli says further of summer. I have never managed to keep it over that the race is not extinct. The only apple I can the winter. I attribute my failure solely to my not hear of approaching the above is a red-fleshed fruit, knowing the proper food to give them. In the called hereabouts "red ripe," no doubt well known spring and earlier part of summer I used to get a in the London markets.-W.D., Brenchley. small fly about the windows which they swallowed quite easily, and upon which they seemed to thrive; THE PAPUANS.-Has any reader of S. G, ever but as the season advanced these became scarce and noticed the following passage in Captain Cook's latterly disappeared altogether. I then tried them account of his first voyage? It seems extraordiwith the common house-fly, which, almost without nary, but from his remarkable truthfulness is proan exception, they were unable to swallow, although bably quite reliable. After saying that Messrs. they made great efforts to do so, and gradually they Banks, De Solander, and others, landed on the pined away and died. The other fish (Blennius coast of New Guinea, near the Cape de la Coltade pholis, Cottus bubalis, Gobius, &c.) I fed upon San Bonaventura, he proceeds :-" After they had beef which the sticklebacks never attempted to advanced about a quarter of a mile from the boat, touch; the reason of which I take to be the want of three Indians rushed out of the wood with a hideous any signs of life in the beef as it fell to the bottom shout, and as they ran towards the English, the of the tank; so they would not even bite at a fly foremost threw something out of his hand, which unless it happened to be making some motion on flew on one side of him and burned exactly like the surface of the water. Perhaps some reader gunpowder, though without making any report. who has been more successful in keeping them than the subscriber, may be able to say something on the "While the English gentlemen were viewing them, subject.-J. C. H., Glasgow.

they were shouting defiance, and letting off their

fires by four or five at a time. Our people could UNKNOWN OBJECT.-I shonld be greatly obliged not imagine what these fires were, or what purpose to any of your readers who would give me informa they were intended to answer. Those who distion respecting the following beautiful and interest charged them had in their hands a short piece of ing object, which I had an opportunity of observing stick, which they swung sideways from them, and in my microscope the summer before last. It was, immediately there issued fire and smoke, exactly I suppose, the larva of a fly or beetle; and the resembling those of a musket, and of as short a breathing organ was probably the part I noticed. duration. The men on board the ships who observed The creature was but a small speck on the leaf of this surprising phenomenon were so far deceived Anacharis, on which it quietly rested, looking like a by it, as to believe that the Indians had fire-arms. minute slug. Under the microscope it showed a To the persons in the boat it had the appearance of very ugly head. At the tail was a wonderful appa the firing of volleys without a report." Can this ratus, consisting of a number of loops. These were be some unknown engine of war of a pyrotechnic alternately drawn up or down, producing the effect character ? Have the Dutch, who have a settleof an ordinary paint brush, at one moment wetted ment in Papua, or any subsequent navigators, and drawn together, the next showered out and each observed the same phenomenon? These are inhair curling back at the tip. It is not easy to de teresting questions, which some one may possibly scribe, but most beautiful to behold. I should be be able to solve.-F. 4. A. glad to learn what this larva becomes in its perfect state, in the hope of obtaining specimens.-L. S. M., MARMALADE.-There is a tree in India known Ryde.

to botanists as Ægle marmelos. It belongs to the

orange family, and yields a fruit about the size and BLACK OR WHITE.—A friend of mine has a hen appearance of an orange, which makes a delicious of the Polish breed, which, six months ago, was of a preserve. The Dutch for many years imported this glossy black colour, but which has undergone a preserved fruit into Europe under the name of complete change, and is now of a snowy white. This marmelos,” a name by which it is known in transformation was not done by moulting, but by a Ceylon. In imitation of this preserve, and in corgradual change of colour.-H. L., Rose Hill, Old ruption of its name, originated "marmalade.”— Trafford.

E. Waring, M.D.

SQUIRRELS.-The disease described by C. L. C. plaining the presence of the "apple in the dumpas having killed his squirrel is known as the “Rot.” ling” than by supposing the crust to have been It is caused by too moist food. Bread and milk in raised and baked some hundred thousand years the shape of “pap ” will mostly prove fatal. I was ago.-L. applied to for advice in a similar case by a young lady who had a favourite grey squirrel, whose hind

CONOCHILUS Volvox.-Mr. McIntire, in the limbs were so paralyzed. I prescribed dry food, in

January number, remarks that the “ Conochilus the shape of hemp-seed and gingerbread, which was

Volvox"" will not live in confinement. Knowing a perfect cure. When a squirrel dies of the rot the

this, I was surprised to find that large numbers maggots appear externally; and, I presume, are en

made their appearance in my aquarium in October, gendered during life. The squirrel may be kept in

| 1865, and continued for nearly two months to health on a diet of hemp-seed, varied by a piece of

the delight of myself and microscopic friends. The bread dipped in milk only (not soaked), nuts, and

aquarium is rectangular, holds about seven gallons green buds. Let him drink his fill of water once

of water, and is exposed to a north light. At that daily, and stuff his bed box quite full of nice dry

time it had six gold fish in it, and the plants were hay, he will then amuse himself by biting it to

| Anacharis alsinastrum, Chara vulgaris, Valisneria pieces and making a very cosy nest.-John Hunter,

spiralis, and a species of rush (I don't know the New Malden, Surrey.

name). Pump-water was used for filling. Now,

in dipping for Conochilus, the most likely place to SHOOTING RARE BIRDS. I feel sure that every find them is amongst rushes. Could the rushes in true naturalist will agree with Mr. Tate in condemn the aquarium have had anytbing to do with their ing the shameful practice, which appears to be production in this instance? Through an accident sorely on the increase, of killing every rare bird,

I had last spring to remodel my aquarium, and supwhich, unfortunately for it, is led towards our pose I did not fulfil the same conditions, as they shores. It is almost impossible to take up any

did not again favour me.-John Davis, Stowopaper on natural history without meeting with market. numerous instances. Take, for example, the Wax

MICROSCOPIC CAMERA. --- In vol. ., p. 233, wing (Bombycilla garrula), which has appeared in great numbers during the few week's past.

SCIENCE-Gossip, is a description of a “Microscopic Where possible, every flock has been extermin

Camera Obscura." Whilst waiting for the Prism ated, and the birds have been sent to the nearest

there mentioned, any one can obtain an excellent restuffer. In the last number of SCIENCE-GOSSIP

sult by using a common looking-glass hung inside the there is an account of a country correspondent

box, and made moveable by an attached string shooting a female Great-spotted Woodpecker (Picus

passing through a small pulley on the top of the box. major). The gentleman who sends the information

After removing the eye-piece and adjusting the glass, is not quite sure in his own mind as to how it will

so that it may form an angle of 45° with the axis of be received, for he commences to say, Perhaps

the microscope, a beautiful image is visible upon the you may be interested, &c.” (p. 41). How such

paper underneath, which image is, of course, made wanton persecution can in any way be interesting is

to vary in its brilliancy by altering the intensity of a mystery to me! It would be very interesting is

the light.-U. W. instead of shooting the birds your correspondents OBJECT FOR MICROSCOPE. - In the January would watch their habits, and give us the parti number J. S. Tute mentions varnish evaporating culars; by so doing they would add to our know

as an object. Another interesting one is a small ledge of ornithology, whilst at the same time they quantity of powdered charcoal mixed with a little would bave the satisfaction of knowing that they spirit of wine, and put between two glasses. The had saved the lives of rare visitors. I wish, with

regular movement of the charcoal in the current Mr. Tate, that this “stupid practice of destroying

of the evaporating spirit is curious. A bit of chalk all our most beautiful birdscould be stopped, but or zinc dissolving in weak acid is a capital object I cannot see how it is to be done, because the temp

for the gas microscope.-E. T. Scott. tation of shooting a rare bird to add to a collection is too great to be resisted by many who call them DUST ON AQUARIA.-I dare say many of your selves naturalists.- Edward Simpson, Chelsea. readers who keep aquaria have been, like myself

much troubled by the collection of dust on the surFROG IN OOLITE.-In speaking of the discovery face of the water. Thisis a fertile source of annoyance, of a frog in the oolite, Mr. Simon Hutchinson says: especially in shallow aquaria where everything “Personal inquiry can be made by the sceptical, or depends on the clearness of the surface. I have silence in future will be most becoming." Why

adopted a plan which may not be original, although should personal inquiry be made ? What will it

I have not seen it mentioned anywhere. It is to prove more than Munton's letter proves? I sup. take a small gallipot, and to hold it just below the pose no one would care to doubt that he truthfully

surface of the water. In the other hand I hold a describes what he saw. But why should Mr. funnel with a piece of rag in it, into which I throw Hutchinson wish to compel people to a belief in his the contents of the gallipot as often as it fills. This explanation of the phenomenon, or else to silence ? I find speedily and effectually skims off all the dust One had thought that rational men had given up and leaves the water as clear as a looking-glass.such bigotry as this. Surely no sane person would George Gatehouse. now-a-days try to uphold such an absurdity as the existence of a frog in oolite mud. Why, how would BARN-RAT AND MARSH-WORM.--Have any of salt water agree with him? To say nothing of your correspondents seen the barn-rat feeding on minor difficulties. If Mr. Hutchinson will take the the marsh-worm (Lumbricus minor)? Last summer trouble to examine the stone quarries around Grant I saw several in the day-time feeding on this worm, ham, and especially those at Ancaster, he will find which they gathered up in their paws and eat like a plenty of fissures through which poor froggy might | squirrel, sitting up on their hind-quarters. They have come to grief in his wooing expedition. I often went below the surface of the water whilst think, sir, this is a much more rational mode of ex- | seeking for the worm.-H. Smith.

A Boy CHARMED BY SERPENTS.-The Mays FREDERICK J. Foot.-Those of our readers who ville (Kentucky) Eagle says that a boy, four or five remember the interesting chapter on Sea-Anemones years of age, in Bracken county, was in the habit, | (SCIENCE-GOSSIP, vol. i. p. 155), by F. J. Foot, during the whole of last summer, of going out in the M.A., will regret to learn from an obituary in the woods near his home to play with his "pretty Geological Magazine for February, that on the things," as he called them. After much persuasion evening of the 17th January a number of people were one day, his mother was induced to follow him to skating upon the ice of Lough Kay, near Boyle, in his playgrounds to see what attracted him so much, Ireland. Two of them having ventured upon a when, to her horror, she discovered her little darling weak portion of the ice, it gave way, and they fell playing with a trio of huge black snakes, wholly | into the lake. Seeing their extreme danger, Mr. unconscious of his peril. The boy was completely Foot came to their assistance, and in a noble effort fascinated, and would advance and retreat, and sport to save their lives, lost his own. They were both and dally with his hideous comrades as if he were in rescued, but he was drowned. Mr. Foot was at. the charmed circle of his brothers and sisters. The tached to the Irish Branch of the Geological Survey, mother, in terror, ran to the house crying for help, and though only thirty-six years of age, had commuwhen the father of the child rushed to the rescue of | nicated many useful and interesting papers to the the boy, and, after some difficulty, killed the snakes. Natural History Society of Dublin, on botany and Wonderful to relate-and we have this information zoology, as well as written several geological from a gentleman of unquestionable veracity--the notices. little boy soon took to his bed, from which he never arose. He pined away and died, an early victim of

BIRDS BREEDING IN CONFINEMENT.-Can any the fascination of the serpents.--New York Times, of your readers give me any information so that I Can the above be true ?-J. B.

may get my birds to breed? I have pairs of the

following birds :-Siskin, Snow Bunting, Bullfinch, Twin Trout.-I paid a visit the other day to Goldfinch, Brown Linnet, Lesser Redpole, and Mr. King, of Portland Road, whose name is so well Canary. I have them in a room, and feed them on known to the public for his exertions in connection hemp, canary and rape-seeds, and in summer I supwith the recent calamity in Regent's Park. He has ply them plentifully with green food, but for all just now-or had when I called-a curious lusus

that I cannot get them to build; the canary is the nature, a sort of Siamese twin trout, hatched on

only pair that breed. If I could get any hints that the premises. This extraordinary joint-stock fish

would tend towards inducing them to breed, I should

be very glad. They seem to be very healthy and some of his brother Co.'s. There are two distinct tame, and very seldom fly against the netting or bodies, but only one tail; and as the two bodies the window.-A. Pickard. don't always take the same thing into their respective heads, the common tail has its work cut out to AQUARIUM PEST.-Last year some of your corsteer them. I have never heard of a case of the respondents mentioned, under this name, the nests sort before. I also saw the curious parasites, found of the fresh water snails that are so apt to appear in the gills of a salmon, which were recently ex on the sides of an aquarium; others said there was hibited at the meeting of the Quekett Club. Mr. no need to remove them, as they were "greedily King is an ardent naturalist, and has devised a devoured” by the fish. My children have a freshscheme for the employment and amusement of the water aquarium, on the sides of which upwards of young, which I for one should be glad to see taking 100 of these nests have appeared within the last the place of purposeless postage-stamp collecting six weeks. So far from being “greedily devoured,” He suggests that schools, or the young people of not one has been touched either by fish, newts, or various neighbourhoods collectively, should make beetles; every tiny egg, moreover, contains a black gatherings (in duplicate) of the natural objects of spot, which must be the embryo snail. Why, then, their districts. A central bureau should be estab do they never hatch? Some of them have been lished, where prizes would be given for the best there more than a month; and last summer, collections, and where exchanges might be effected. being curious to see what would come from them, By these means, the study of natural history would we removed from the aquarium some aquatic plants be promoted, and museums established in various covered with them, and kept them for many weeks parts; not to mention other advantages. The idea in a separate glass jar, with no living creatures seems to me a very good one.-Torn Talk, in Fun," to molest them. If they are the eggs of (the Feb. 9.

snail, why does nothing come from them ?

L. H. F. SHELL MONEY. - It is somewhat curious, that these shells (Entalis sp.) should have been employed AMONG WASPs. — One day last autumn I obas money by the Indians of N.W. America, that is, served a small cluster of wasps on the ground, by the native tribes inhabiting Vancouver's Island, busily engaged in moving round some object in Queen Charlotte's Island, and the mainland coast their centre. After a few moments' observation, from the straits of Fuca to Sitka. Since the intro their movements allowed me to discover that the duction of blankets by the Hudson's Bay Company, object of their assiduous attentions was a queen the use of these shells, as a medium of purchase, wasp, which they were engaged in attacking, exactly has to a great extent died out, the blankets having in the same manner as the working bees do the become the money, as it were, or the means by drones, when about to lay up their winter stores. which everything is now reckoned and paid for by In both cases they attempt to tear or destroy the the savage. A slave, a canoe, or a squaw, is worth wing, especially at its attachment to the body, with in these days so many blankets; but it used to be their mandibles. The issue of the assault I cannot so many strings of Dentalia. In the interior, east record, as the whole combatants soon took flight. I of the Cascade Mountains, the beaver-skin is the could only observe that, like the drones, the queen article by which everything is reckoned, in fact, the wasp's defence seemed very languid. Are these money of the inland Indian.-J. K. Lord, F.Z.S. struggles usual ?-G.4. W.

BLOOD BEETLE.-In your interesting periodical Gram Pará and Maranhão; and lastly, in the year for this month appears a short paper signed “Hy 1790, the government again took this branch of Ullyett," on the natural history of the “ Blood commerce under its own care, because it had Beetle. From his description I imaging it to be declined considerably under the bad management of that kind known more generally as the “Oil the company.-Spix and Martius' Travels. Beetle,” numbers of which may be found in most hedgerows in the early months of spring. The NAPOLEON's Willow. Having been frequently figure he gives appears to be a male insect, the asked the history and age of the tree called Napobroad tarsi of which are not, as he supposes, for leon's Willow, which grows in the Royal Botanic merely holding on to vegetation, but chiefly for the Garden at Kew, I send you the following account fulfilment of higher duties belonging to its sex. of it. Soon after the death of Napoleon I, in 1821, The female has the tarsi slender and narrow: an ex Thomas Fraser, then a young gardener at Kew, was ample is given in a woodcut, indifferently executed, engaged to proceed to St. Helena, for the purpose in « Wood's Common Objects of the Country," of growing vegetables to supply the East India Plate J., fig. ll. It is a matter of regret to me, and Company's homeward-bound ships that touched at perhaps to others, that in Rye's “British Beetles” that island. He returned in 1825, bringing with many of the most familiar, and by no means least him Tree Ferns and other interesting plants of the interesting, varieties are not figured.-J. Hawkes, island, and amongst them a twig of the willowM.D.

tree which grew over the tomb of Napoleon. This

twig on arrival was found to have become decayed LEFT NO ADDRESS.-In your last number, E. A. at the lower part, but the upper portion, which was inquires the address of W. Winter, late of Mulbar only a few inches in length, being green and fresh, ton. Like E. A., I was induced to subscribe for I placed it under a bell-glass as a cutting, where it entomological specimens, and not having heard from soon rooted and became an established plant. A Winter, I wrote to a gentleman in Suffolk named paragraph having appeared in the newspapers by him as a reference. From this gentleman, I announcing the fact that a plant had been received learn that Winter left his home last spring, ostensi. at Kew from Napoleon's tomb, and the far-famed bly to go to London, since which time he has not names Bonaparte and Waterloo being still fresh in been heard of. He left behind him his books and the public mind, many visitors came to see it, instruments, a very few debts, and a wife and “especially on Sundays;" and on one Sunday, before family, who have since been obliged by distress to the hour for opening the Gardens, the crowd was have recourse to parish relief. I am informed that so great, that by its pressure the bolts of the gate Winter, who was a parochial schoolmaster, and gave way, and those who were foremost fell, others always bore a high character for honesty and in falling over them, so great was the eagerness tegrity, had up to this time always fulfilled his evinced to get a sight of this willow. In 1827 the engagements. If his friend H. Bales be likewise tree was planted where it now stands, near the “non est inventus," I fear the case looks suspicious ; walk, which was a continuation from the then but any how, the wife and children are the greatest public entrance, the willow in question being the sufferers. I have sent them a trifling help, and if first conspicuous object seen on entering the garden. any charitably disposed reader will give them a few For the first twenty years of its growth it had the stamps, I shall have pleasure in forwarding the con- advantage of being sheltered by a high trellis fence tribution.-H. W. Livett, M.D., Wells, Somerset. and shrubbery, which passed near it. It is now

We are sorry to add to the above that, from forty years old, and although it grows in dry, light letters which we have received, we are in a position

soil, it has attained the height of 40 feet, the spread to state that Winter's engagements for 1863-4 are

of its branches being 44 feet, the circumference of some of them still unfulfilled, as well as those of

the trunk near the ground 8, feet, and its height 5 last year. -Ed.

feet, at which point it divides into three main stems.

Coming from St. Helena, it was at first thought to BULBUL OF THE EAST.-In reply to S. M. P., | be a distinct species, but it soon became e there are several Asiatic birds known by the name

that it was the coinmón Salix babylonica.-J. Smith, of “ Bulbul.” Pycnonotus pygaus is the Bulbul of Gard, Chron., Feb. 2, 1867. Hamilton, and Pycnonotus hæmorrhous is the Bulbul of Jerdon. Another species is called the Hill bush WEST-INDIAN Ticks.-Mr. Sells has stated that Bulbul, and another the yellow Bulbul. Phyllornis in Jamaica dogs as well as cattle and horses are very Jerdoni is the common green Bulbul, and a species subject to the attacks of ticks of large size, and of thrush (Merula Boulboul) is sometimes called

which are occasionally so injurious to the latter as Bulbul. The name probably belongs more strictly to cause their ears to drop down without the horses to one of the first two species above named.

having the power of raising them again; indeed it

is a regular custom once a week, whilst the horses ORCHIL WEED.-The dyer's lichen was first ex. are out at grass, for them to be driven bome to be ported from the islands of the Archipelago to Venice, “ licked,” the parts infested being rubbed over Genoa, France, and England, for the use of the dyers. with lamp oil, no other remedy having been Towards the commencement of the last century it

discovered. — Journ. of Proc. Ent. Soc., vol. i., was discovered in the Canary Islands, and was soon placed among the regalia of the Spanish Crown. This excited the attention of the Portuguese, who BEDEGUAR.-H. W. K. desires to be informed of collected it without restriction in the Cape de Verd the origin and meaning of Bedeguar, as applied to Islands, Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Azores. In the mossy galls of the wild rose. the year 1730 the Jesuits asked of King John V. the privilege of collecting the Hervinha secca; but MALE COCKROACH. — Can any of your corresthe Crown took advantage into its own hands, and pondents tell me the use of wings to the male cockfarmed the right of collecting it. At a later period | roach ?-for I have never seen or heard of it flying. the lichen was ceded to the mercantile company of -E. F. B.

p. lxviii.

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