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PREFACE.

In the following pages the author has endeavoured to give a brief yet comprehensive outline of the present position in regard to the question of sewage disposal.

It has been a task of no little difficulty to compress within the limits of 320 pages all the information which might appropriately find a place in such a treatise, but although it has been necessary to deal with many of the various topics in a concise manner, every endeavour has been made to present the whole subject in such a way as to make the book useful, not only to those surveyors, sanitary engineers, and local-Government officials who are specially concerned, but also to candidates for the different examinations (including that for the Medical Officer's Diploma in Public Health) in which Sewage Disposal is one of the subjects. The division of the work into short chapters, together with the analytical table of contents, will render it easy of reference, and it is hoped that the Appendices on the Laws of Rivers Pollution, Drains, Sewers, Sewerage, etc., and on the acquisition of lands therefor in England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, which are additional to the usual matter found in works upon this subject, will be of service to those acting either for public bodies or private owners.

The author has been allowed to exhibit his deep interest in the work of the Benevolent Fund Committee of the Surveyor's Institution by dedicating a moiety of his profits on the sale of this book to the Fund under their charge.

CONTENTS

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PREFACE

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CHAPTER VIII

Sewer ventilation-Duties of local authorities—Sewer gas-

Detrimental Constituents of, different Acts for Eng-
land and Wales, Scotland, Ireland-Dissemination of
foul

gases —Open ventilation—Chemicals—Charcoal
traps—Keeling's exhauster and destructor-Untrapped
gullies—Tall escape shafts (Fig. 10)—Street lamps
affixed to--Flushing tanks—Self-cleaning velocity-
Shape of sewer-Rainfall a factor—Shone and Ault's
ventilating system (Fig. 11)-Webb's system (Fig. 12)-
Oil lamps in conjunction with—Subsoil drainage-
Porosity of soil necessitates concrete for bedding conduit
-Special claim for reinforced concrete-Separate system
for large quantities of subsoil water-Powers of authori-
ties to enforce separate drains—Royal Commission
unfavourable to separate system-Depth of under-drains

Pipes for under-drains Disconnecting chamber

necessary-Position of

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CHAPTER XIII

Land treatment-Further facts-Dispersal of effluent-

Danger greater in artificial filters and clay lands-Loss
of nitrogen-Danger to health of well-managed sewage
farm -- Berlin sewage farm — Management- Teaching
simple tests to Managers--Factors for consideration-
eight principal ones—Comparison in cost of treatment
-Report of fifth Royal Commission—Classes of Soils
(Table 3)—Comparison of cost of land treatment (Table 4)

-Class of soil-Method of working—Cost of labour distri-
buting-Gross cost of land treatment-Return from sales

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