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4. Abbot Ammonas said: Such be thy thought as that of malefactors in prison. For they are ever asking, “ Where is the judge? and when is he coming ?” and they bewail themselves at the prospect.
5. Holy Epiphanius said : To sinners who repent God remits even the principal; but from the just he exacts interest.
6. Abbot Sylvanus had an ecstacy : and, coming to himself, he wept bitterly. “What is it, my father?” said a novice to him.
He made answer: Because I was carried up to the judgment, O my son, and I saw many of our kind going off to punishment, and many a secular passing into the kingdom.
7. An old man said: If you see a youngster mounting up to heaven at his own will, catch him by the foot, and fling him to the earth; for such a flight doth not profit.
8. Abbot Antony fell on a time into weariness and gloom of spirit ; and he cried out, “ Lord, I wish to be saved ; but my searchings of mind will not let
And, looking round, he saw some one like himself, sitting and working, then rising and praying, then sitting and rope-making again. And he heard the angel say : “ Work and pray; pray and work; and thou shalt be saved.”
9. Arsenius, when he was now in solitude, prayed as before : “ Lord, lead me along the way of salvation." And again he heard a voice, which said: ** Flight, silence, quiet; these are the three sources of sinlessness.”
10. “ Which of all our duties," asked the brethren, “is the greatest labor ?" Agatho answered : “ Prayer; for as soon as we begin, the devils try to stop us, since it is their great enemy. Rest comes after every other toil, but prayer is a struggle up to the last breath.”
11. Abbot Theodore said : “ Other virtue there is none like this, to make naught of no one."
12. Abbot Sylvanus said: “Woe to the man whose reputation is greater than his work.”
13. Holy Epiphanius said: “ A great safeguard against sin is the reading of the Scriptures, and it is a precipice and deep gulf to be ignorant of the Scriptures."
14. Once a monk was told,“ Thy father is dead.” He answered : “ Blaspheme not; my Father is immortal.”
The Dead Sea.-The level of the from Connemara marble, “the variousDead Sea is at last finally settled by formed chambers—the shell of varying the party of Royal Engineers, under thickness-either very thin, and traCaptain Wilson, who were sent by the versed by fine tubuli, the silicate filling Ordance Survey for the purpose of sur- which resembles white velvet-pile, or veying Jerusalem and levelling the thick, and traversed by brush-like Dead Sea. The results of the survey threads, are both present. Although are being prepared for publication, the specimens were not so carefully The levelling from the Mediterranean prepared as those mounted for Dr. Carto the Dead Sea was performed with penter, still the structure was so plainly the greatest possible accuracy. The perceptible as to render the diagnosis depression of the surface of the Dead incontrovertible." Sea on the 12th of March, 1865, was found to be 1,292 feet, but from the The Mont Cenis Tunnel. The followline of drift-wood observed along the ing particulars of the state of the works border of the Dead Sea it was found at Mont Cenis will be read with inter that the level of the water at some pe- est. We owe them to a recent report riods of the ycar stands two feet six of M. Sommeiller, the engineer in inches higher, which would make the charge. The length of the tunnel from least depression 1,289.5 feet. Captain Bardonnêche to Modena is 12,220 meWilson also learnt from inquiry among tres, and, at the end of 1864, 2.32% the Bedouins, and from European resi- metres had been pierced on the Bardents in Palestine, that during the early donnêche side, whilst the work had ad. summer the level of the Dead Sea is vanced 1,703 metres from the Modena lower by at least six feet; this would end, making in all 4,085 metres- nearly make the greatest depression to be as a third of the whole distance. From near as possible 1,299 feet. Most of the the 1st of January to the 10th of June previous observations for determining of the present year the progress of the the relative level of the two seas gave work has been considerably augmented most discordant results. The Dead upwards of 654 metres having been acSea was found by one to be 710 feet complished. The excavation is now, above the level of the Mediterranean, however, retarded by a mass of granby another to be on the same level, by ite, which lessens the work of the maanother to be 710 feet lower, and by chinery by one-third. The presence of another to be 1,446 feet lower; but the this impediment was almost exactly most recent before that now given, by predicted by MM, Elie de Beaumont the Duc de Luynes and Lieutenant and Sismonda, who stated, as a result Vignes of the French navy, agrees with of their survey, that granitic rocks the present result in a very remarkable would be met with at a distance of manner.
1,500 or 2,000 metres from the mouth
of the tunnel on the Italian side. Eozoon in Ireland.-The fossil Rhizopod is not confined to the Canadian Lightning.-M. Boudin has recently rocks. Mr. W. A. Sanford has discov- laid before the Academy of Sciences : ered Eozoon in the green marble rocks return of the deaths which have been of Connemara in Ireland. His asser- caused by the action of lightning in tion that it is to be found in these de France during the period 1835-63. posits at first excited very grave During these thirty years 2,238 persons doubts as to the accuracy of his ob- were struck dead. Among 880 victims servations. Since his first announce- during 1854–63, there were but 243 of ment of the discovery, his specimens the female sex; and in several instances have been examined by the distinguish- the lightning, falling among groups of ed co-editor of the “Geological Maga- persons of both sexes, especially struck zine" (Mr. H. Woodward), and this those of the male sex, and more or less gentleman fully confirms Mr. Sanford's spared the females. In a great number of opinion. In the specimens prepared cases flocks of more than 100 animals, attle, hogs, or sheep, have been killed, came to immense lakes, the termination while the shepherds or herdsmen in of which neither the inhabitants knew their midst have remained uninjured. nor could any one hope to do so, beEn 1853, of 34 persons killed in the cause aquatic plants were so densely Gelds, 15, or nearly half, were struck interwoven in the waters." This de
ander trees; and of 107 killed between scription holds good to the present 1811-53, 21 had taken shelter under day; and it is thought that certain trees. Reckoning, then, at only 25 per rocks seen by the centurions mark the cent. the proportion struck under trees, site of the Karuma Falls. Mr, Baker we find that of 6,714 struck in France describes his voyage down the Luta nearly 1,700 might have escaped the Nzige as “extremely beautiful, the accidents which occurred to them by mountains frequently rising abruptly avoiding trees during storms.
from the water, while numerous cata
racts rush down their furrowed sides. More about the Nile.-Another source . . . . . The water is deep, sweet, of the Nile has been discovered by the and transparent," and, except at the outadventurous Mr. Baker, whose name has let of the river, the shores are free from been frequently mentioned of late reeds. “Mallegga, on the west coast of among geographers. But this so-called the lake, is a large and powerful counsource is a lake only, the Luta Nzige, try, governed by a king named Kajoro, about two hundred and sixty miles who possesses boats sufficiently large long, and of proportionate breadth, to cross the lake." “ About ten miles which lies between the lake discovered from the junction," he writes, “the chanby Captain Speke and the heretofore nel contracted to about two hundred explored course of the Nile. The great and fifty yards in width, with little river flows from one to the other, form- perceptible stream, very deep, and ing on the way the Karuma waterfall, banked as usual with high reeds, the one hundred and twenty fect in height, country on either side undulating and in which particular it represents the wooded. At about twenty miles from Niagara Fall between lakes Erie and Magungo, my voyage suddenly termiOntario. But it seems right to remark nated; a stupendous waterfall, of that the true source of the Nile has not about one hundred and twenty feet peryet been discovered, and that it must pendicular height, stopped all further be looked for at the head of one of the progress. Above the great fall, the streams which flow into the upper lake river is suddenly contined between
-the Victoria Nyanza of Speke. That rocky hills, and it races through a gap, the two lakes are reservoirs which keep contracted from a grand stream of perthe Nile always flowing, may be ac- haps two hundred yards width to a cepted as fact; but to describe them as channel not exceeding fifty yards. sources is a misuse of terms. If Dr. Through this gap it rushes with amazLivingstone, in his new exploration, ing rapidity, and plunges at one leap should get into the hill-country above into a deep basin below." the Victoria Nyanza, we might hope to hear that the real source, the fountain- The Burning Well at Broseley.--Mr. head, of the Nile had been discovered. John Randall, F.G.S., writes to the It is worthy of remark that these lakes “ Geological Magazine" anent this exof the Nile are laid down and describ- tinct petroleum spring. The so-called ed in old books on the geography of Af- burning well has ceased to exist for rica. Ptolemy mentions them; and nearly a century. It was fed by a they are represented in some of the spring, and petroleum and naphtha also oldest Arabian and Portuguese maps. found their way from rents in the rock It is well known to scholars that the into the water of the well. Springs of Emperor Nero sent two officers expressly petroleum on a much larger scale are to search for the head of the Nile. “I met with in the neighborhood, and the myself," writes Seneca, “have heard the yield of them was formerly much two centurions narrate that after they greater than at preseut. Many hogshad accomplished a long journey, being heads from one of these were exported furnished with assistance by the king some years ago under the name of of Ethiopia, and being recommended “Betton's British Oil,” The rocks by him to the neighboring kings, they were tapped by driving a level through penetrated into far distant regions, and one of the sandstone rocks of the coal measures; but these are now drained, ment on them. 4th, In various places and very little is found to flow from nests of peroxide of iron were observed, them.
as if an iron instrument had once been
there, but had been corroded away in The Origin of the Salt in the Dead Sea. course of time. Mr. Kinahan draws -One of our most distinguished explo- particular attention to the circumstanrers of the Holy Land attributes the in- ces that “few metals corrode as fast as tensely galine character of the Dead iron, and that, while stone and bronze Sea to the hill of Jebell Usdum. This would last for ages, iron would disapis a huge ridge of salt, about a mile pear, owing to corrosion, in a comparawide, and running N.E. and S.W. for a tively short space of time." distance of three iniles and a balf, then due N. and S. for four miles further. The Gibraltar Cave Fossils.-Mr. It is situated near the southern extrem- Busk in his paper on this subject says: ity of the Dead Sea, and renders that The rock in which the caverns of Gibportion of it much more salt than the raltar were found is limestone, and exnorthern portion. Further, Mr. Tris- tends for about three miles from north tram thinks that it is the proximate to south, at an elevation varying from cause of the saltness of the Dead Sea, 1,400 to 1,200 feet. It is geologically the drainage to which has been dissolv- divided into three nearly equal portions ing away portions of salt, and carrying by cleavages which separate the higher it to the Dead Sea, ever since the eleva parts of the rock on the north and tion of the ridge of Akabah separated south from the central and lower part. the latter from the Red Sea, or since At the southern face of the rock there the desiccation of the ocean, which ex- is comparatively low ground, the Windisted to the Eocene period, presuming mill Hill being about 400 feet above (which seems most probable) that the the level of the sea; but the strata fissures of the Ghor were of submarine there are inclined in an opposite direcorigin, and that the valley itself was tion to the great mass of what is termduring the Tertiary period the north-ed the “Rock of Gibraltar." In the ernmost of a series of African lakes, of Windmill rock the caverns have been which the Red Sea was the next.-Geo- found, and in these latter a great quanlogical Magazine.
tity of bones was discovered. The
bones, which were mingled with potIron Implements in Crannogues.-In a tery, flint implements, and charcoal, letter addressed to the London Reader, appear to have been deposited at differby Mr. George Henry Kinahan, some ent periods, and were found at various important points relative to the an depths, the lowest being fourteen feet tiquity of iron, and the necessity for below the floor of the cavern. Those seeking for traces of this metal, have in the lowest layer consisted of the been dwelt upon. While investigating bones of mammals, several of which one of the largest crannogues or artifi. were of extinct species. They were, cial islands in Loughrea, County Gal. imbedded in ferruginous earth partially way, Ireland, he found only stone im- fossilized, and were covered with staplements, with the exception of a rude lagmite-no human bones were with knife, which appeared to be of some them. Above this layer were depossort of bronze. But he observed facts ited the remains of about thirty human which would seem to indicate that iron skeletons, with fragments of pottery, implements had been in use among the flint implements, particles of charcoal, inhabitants of the crannogues. These and a bronze fishing-hook. Some of facts are as follows: 1st, All the stakes the pottery had been turned in a lathe. that were drawn had been pointed by and bore evidence of classic art. In a sharp cutting instrument, as were evianother cavern, discovered upder the denced by the clean cuts. 2d, Pieces foundation of the military prison, the of deer's horn that were found had remains of two isolated skeletons wero been divided by a very fine saw, as was also found. Only one skull had been proved by the absence of marks of discovered there, and that had been graining on the surface of the sections. sent to Mr. Busk, who remarked that 3d, On some of the bones there were the lower jaw transmitted with the crafurrows, evidently made by sharpcn- nium did not belong to it, showing ing fish-hooks or some pointed imple that there must have been another skul.
in the cavern, though no trace of it had by rotation they decrease ; but as the been found. There was nothing in the solar surface passes away in the same form of the skull to distinguish it from manner, this influence causes it to the ordinary European type; but the break out into spots on the opposite bones of the leg were remarkably com- side. The question is also proposed, pressed; for which appearance it was whether the falling behind of the facudifficult to account. Since Mr. Busk's læ may not be the physical reaction of attention had been drawn to this char- the motion of the spots detected by Mr. acter, he had observed a similar com- Carrington, the current passing upward pression in the leg-bones of other hu- and carrying the luminous matter fall man skeletons which were known to ing behind, whilst the current coming be of great antiquity. Whether this down from a colder region moves forconformation was to be regarded as a ward, carrying the spot with it, and acrace-character, or was produced by counting for its deficient luminosity. special occupation or habit, Mr. Busk Social Science Revielo. would not venture an opinion upon.Social Science Review.
The Arctic Expedition.-The Open Py.
lar Sea again.—Last month we publishSun's Photosphere. From a strict ex- ed an extract in which it was stated as amination of the sun-pictures obtained the belief of the writer that there was at Kew, near London, and from Mr. an open Arctic sea. Here is another Carrington's maps, Mr. De la Rue and opinion which we find in the London assistants have arrived at the conclu- Reader of a late date: “We have resion that the sun-spots are cavernous, ceived from the Royal Swedish Acadeand lie below the general level of the my of Sciences a map of Spitzbergen, luminous surface, whilst, on the con- with explanatory remarks in illustratrary, the faculæ are elevated above the tion (by N. Duner and A. E. Nordenslatter. The reason that the faculæ kiöld). This beautiful map is the reappear brighter is, that on account of sult of the two last expeditions undertheir height above the solar surface, taken to explore that group of islands. they are less dimmed by passing through It is based upon astronomical observaits atmosphere. They further conclude tions, made at about eighty different that the sun's luminous surface is of the places on the shores of Spitzbergen, nature of cloud, and that the spots are with prism-circles by Pistor and Marinfluenced by the planet Venus. They tins, mercury horizons and good chronfind that the faculæ retain nearly the ometers by Frodsham and Kessels. The same appearance for days together, observations were calculated by Profesand consider them to be small particles sors D. G. Lindhagen and Duner. The of solid or liquid matter in suspension, latitude and longitude of seventy-ninc and composed of the same cloudy mat- different points are given—the longitude ter as the luminous surface of the sun.' of Sabine's Observatory, determined as They notice that in the majority of 11° 40' 30'', being taken as the starting cases the faculæ appear to the left of point of the longitudes. The value of the spots, as if they had been abstracted such a map is at once apparent. All from them, and, rising to a greater ele- the highest mountains were ascended Tation where the velocity of rota- during the expedition, and the height tion is greater, are consequently left be- of twenty-eight peaks is given; the hind. They remark that all the spots highest being Lindström's Mount of which are seen on the solar surface 3,300 English feet. The permanent about the same time show a resemblance snow-line commences at about 1,500 to each other; for instance, if one spot in- feet. The whole interior country forms creases to the central line or past it, an- an even ice plateau, here and there inother will do the same; if one spot di- terrupted by rocks. There are many minishes from its first appearance, an- good harbors, and on this map the other will do the same; if one spot places are marked where the explorers breaks out on the right half, another anchored. Fish, fowl, and reindeer are will do the same. It appears from Mr. to be met with in great numbers. We Carrington's and all the Kew pictures, quote from the memoir as bearing upon that the influence of Venus is exerted one of the most interesting questions of in such a manner that as the spots ap- the day. During the last years the proach the neighborhood of this planet idea has been vindicated that the Polar