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VII. The chief object of Ortalda's work is to show how many mission. aries Italy gives to the Catholic Church. He gives the name, the grade in the hierarchy, and the residence of each, adding such items of information as will aid him in the object he has in view. We draw from his laborious work the following table, which, by way of conclusion, gives the final result of all his researches :
Italian Apostolic Missionaries in Foreign Mis
sions over the Whole World.
APOSTOLIC VICARIATES. MISSIONA'S. CATI'S. Siam, Western Vicariate
10,000 * Eastern **
30,000 Cochin China, East'n Vic'ate
30.000 Camboge and People of Laos 10
15,000 Tonchin, Eastern Vicariate
15,000 East Indies: Japan
12,000 Ara and Pegu.
8,000 Bombay, South Mission
13,000 Bengal, Western Vicariate (Calcutta) .
15.000 Bengal, Eastern Vicariate
4,000 Ferapolis – Native priests, Latin rite 28, Syriac 310
330,000 Canara, or Mangalor-Native priests 24
40.000 Qaidon--Native pricsts 17 .
140,000 APOSTOLIO DELEGATIONS. Persia, Mesopotamia, Kur
distan, and Armenia Minor Syria - Holy Land alone counts - -
28,956 APOSTOLIC PREFECTURES. Aden, in Arabia
1,300 Hong Kong, in China China: :
5,000 Hal-nou, Quan-tong, Quan-si,
40,000 India .
7,000 For the Dutch Colonies in India and Oceania
11,000 Laboan and adjacent places
of Milan ...
For the French Colonies in
WELCOME, my books, my golden store !
Translation from Ranzan.
From The Month.
THE ANCIENT FACULTY OF PARIS.
At the corner of the Rue de la Revolution, and not a trace of all this Bûcherie and the old Rue des Rats, corporate glory of the medical facult now known by the more dignified ap- now remains. The quarter of Paris pellation of the Rue de l'Hôtel Col- in which it stood, known formerly :bert, may still be seen, unless the un- the Latin quarter, long preserved sparing hand of “ modern improve- peculiar stamp and physiognoms, ment” has very recently swept it Here were the colleges of St. Miche, away along with so many other me- of Normandy and Picardy, of Lao, morials of the past, a dirty, dilapidated Presles, Beauvais, Cornouailles, and building topped by a round tower, that long succession of churches, con which you might take for some old vents, colleges, and high topper: pigeon-house. The half-obliterated houses, filled with a studious you:.. inscription upon an escutcheon on one which formerly crowded the Rue S of the facades of the edifice indicates, Jacques and the Rue de la llarpe. .. however, some heretofore high and these and many other sanctuaries a venerable destination-Urbi et orbi religion and of science, so intimates salus. If curiosity lead you to pene connected in the middle ages, cluster. trate into the interior of this dismal ed around the faculty. Here, in fari edifice, you find yourself, after mount was the centre of the university o ing a damp staircase, in a great circu- Paris, whose origin is lost in the ollar hall, divided into four irregular scurity investing the early medieval compartments. Abore some empty period. The methodical classificating niches hollowed in the thickness of the under the head of faculties of the di:. wall runs a wide cornice, the now-de- ferent studies pursued at that celebratfaced sculptures of which represent al- ed institution dates, however, from the ternately the cock-Esculapius's bird close of the twelfth century. These and emblem of vigilance-and the pe- faculties formed independent comparlican nourishing its young, the type of ies, attached to their common mothea, self-sacrifice-watchfulness and unsel. the university, like branches to the fish charity, the two great duties in- parent stem. cumbent on the professor of the heal. Disregarding all apocryphal pretesing art. You stand, in fact, in the sions to antiquity, we cannot assign midst of the ancient amphitheatre of the earlier date for the formation of the Faculty of Medicine. There studied, medical body into an independent corand there, in their turn, taught, the poration than the year 1267. About great anatomists of the seventeenth that time we find the faculty in poo century, Bartholin, Riolan, Pecquet, session of its statutes, keeping registe Littre, Winslow. This building was and affixing to documents its magire an old adjunct to a large and hand- silver seal. The term Faculty of some hotel belonging to the medical Medicine, it must be observed, is mudbody, coataining their chapel, library, ern. The title Physicorum Faculeus laboratory, a vast hall for solemn dis- or Facultis in Physica, was long preputations, with minor saloons for the servel. Whatever we may think of daily lectures, etc., with the addition the empirical practice and dogmatie of a large court and botanical garden. character of the medical art in those It was abandoned long before the times, we cannot but see in this ar ile
dication that natural science was even its earliest beginnings. It loved to then the recognized basis of medicine. describe itself as veteris disciplinæ reWe have here, if not a principle clear- tentissima. In those days men gloried ly understood and habitualiy followed, in their respect for antiquity. In at least an intuition and a kind of common with all the different bodies programme of the future. A memor- which composed the university of ial of the old designation survives in Paris, the medical corporation posour own country in the title of physi- sessed great privileges-exemption cian, while in the land where it origin- from all taxation, direct or indirect, ated it has been discontinued.
from all public burdens, from all onBorn in the cloister, medicine long erous services or obligations. When retained an ecclesiastical character. we sum up all the advantages enjoyMost of the doctors in early times ed by this and other favored bodies were canons; and those who were and classes in the middle ages, the neither priests nor even clerks were reflection naturally suggests itselfstill bound to celibacy; a regulation what must have been the condition which remained in force long after of the poor, who possessed no privicouncils had decreed the incompatibil- leges and bore all the financial burity of the exercise of the medical pro- dens? In the days, however, when fession with the ecclesiastical state. standing armies in the pay of govern
The general assemblies of the fac- ment had no existence, when the king ulty were held sometimes round the himself was a rich proprietor with font of Notre Dame, sometimes at St. large personal domains, when national Geneviève des Ardents, sometimes at debt and its interest were things unthe Priory of St. Eloi; while, for the heard of, the ordinary imposts, as disordinary purposes of instruction, it tinguished from all arbitrary and accishared fraternally with the faculty of dental exactions, were, of course, very theology the alternate use of some much lighter than those of modern common room with a shake-down of times. Liberty in those days assumed straw in the Quartier St. Jacques. But the form of privilege; and its spirit by-and-bye riches began to pour in, was nursed and kept alive within the chiefly through the means of the lega- bosom of these self-ruling corporations, cies of members of the medical corps and in none more remarkably than in or other well-wishers; and, thanks to that of medicine. The esprit de corps the liberality of Jacques Desparts, phy- naturally existed with peculiar strength sician to Charles VII., the corporation in a body not merely organized for of doctors was finally installed in the purposes of instruction, but exercising abode we have just described. To the à liberal profession, of which it had general worth and respectability of the monopoly.* Hence a minute inthe body in the fifteenth century we ternal legislation imposed upon all its have the testimony of Cardinal d'Es- members, and willingly accepted in toutteville, who, in 1452, was deputed view of the interests of the bɔdy. Its by the Pope to reorganize the univers- alumni were aspirants to a life-long ity of Paris, and who found less to membership; whereas with us the reform in the faculty of medicine than medical man's dependence upon the in any other department. Indeed, no faculty virtually ceases the day he change of much importance was intro- takes his doctor's degree. He has duced, with the exception of the revo- nothing more to ask or to receive from cation of the law of celibacy, which the it ; his affair is now with the public; cardinal pronounced to be both "impious and unreasonable.”
* It is probably this peculiarity which caused
the medical to be considered as pre-eminently Independence of spirit and great
the faculty. Its practice brought it into intimate
contact with the world at large; and this has roverence for its own traditions were also doubtless led to the exclusive retention, in
this instance, of a designation common in its
origin to other departments of lescoiug VOL. II. 32
and the sense of brotherhood with his have attained to the high position colleagues in the profession is lost, it which we find it occupying in the is to be feared, not unfrequently in a seventeenth century. feeling of rivalry. But it was other One accidental cause, no doubt, of wise in the olden time. The day the importance of the doctors during which now sends forth the full-fledged the whole period which we are condoctor to his independent career drew sidering was their small relative nunthe tie closer which bound him to his ber. From a computation made by: order, in which then only he began to modern member of the medical pro take his solemn place. The honor fession in France,* to whom we are in and the interest of cach member thus debted for our facts, the average nunbecame common property, and un- ber of doctors in the capital from the worthy conduct was punished by sum- year 1640 to the year 1670 did na mary exclusion from the body.
exceed 110. Compared with the pop Unfortunately this esprit de corps ulation of Paris, which is reckoned a had its bad as well as its good results. 540,000 souls, this gives one doctor It produced a certain narrowness of for every 4,900 of the inhabitants mind, a love of routine, and no slight The medical corps is now 1,800 strong, attachment to professional jargon. while the population has risen only to It is not that the faculty was actually 1,740,000. Great as is this increas the enemy of all progress, but progress of population, greater, we see, propor must come from itself. As no associ- tionally, has been that of the medical ation of men, however, can enjoy a practitioners, who are at present as 1 monopoly of genius, useful and bril- to 940. If sickness was as prevalent il liant discoveries emanating from other the seventeenth century as it is now, quarters had to encounter the hostility and recourse to physic and physicking of the chartered body. This spirit as frequent, we can imagine that the was exemplified in its animosity toward faculty must have necessarily occupied surgery, long a separate profession, a distinguished position. Many offers in its prejudice against the doctrine of now undertaken by public institutionis the circulation of the blood, because an or by government devolved, also, a! English discovery; against antimony, that time on the faculty, which to the because it originated with the rival best of its ability supplied the want Montpelier school; against quinine, sanitary regulations, and exercised a because it came from America. To kind of medical police, including the these subjects we may hereafter recur; supervision of articles of diet. Al in the meantime we note them as in- this must have helped to swell them stances of medical bigotry, which ex- importance. A large proportion of posed the profession to just ridicule, the doctors received during this selezo but which has drawn down upon it ed period of thirty years were Paricensure and disesteem of perhaps a ians; and nothing is more commo% somewhat too sweeping character. It than the perpetuity of the professic would be unfair to judge the ancient in certain families. This circumstance faculty solely from its exhibitions of must have combined with the corporas. foolish pedantry and blind prejudice; reverence for their traditions to inte"; and it is our object on the present sify their attachment to & recipe occasion to give a slight sketch of its system, and to strengthen that spirito constitution and internal government, union which is a source of power. Tl: such as may enable the reader to form respect which the lower bench paid to a juster and more impartial view both the upper, and the young to the ancient of its faults and of its substantial merits. Indeel, without some solid Vaurice Rarand. Docteur en Xerias titles to general esteem, it would seem Denmarès Lettres Lex Vi laius on
V -V , Iustitutions, Doctrine Paris improbable that the faculty should 100 Didier,
and by "young" we mean young in entering in its great registers all facts eir degree, not in years—must have interesting to the corporation which ntributed toward the same result. occurred during the course of his adrequired ten years of doctorate to ministration. The account of each dialify a man to take his place amongst aconate is headed thus: is venerable class ; and the statutes e prolix on the subject of the re- “In Nomine Omnipotentis Dei, Pue rect due to the ancients from their tris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sincti. Innors on the bench; a respect which cipit commentarius rerum in decanatu as to be marked by every external ... gestarum." of deference.
Amongst other topics judged worthy Bat the first and great tie which of registration is a necrologic notice of Dunl all the members together was members deceased durint the period. ligion. To profess the Catholic faith Take as a specimen, which marks at as long an essential condition of ad- the same time the high estimation in ession to the examinations. The fac- which the diaconate was held, the aclty gave an energetic proof in 1637 of count given of Merlet's death in 1663. je importance it attached to this funda. He was the ancient of the company,” teatal rule, when it withstood the press- and had been remarkable for the zeal 1solicitations of the king's brother, the he exercised in its behalf. The then Duke of Orleans, in favor of a certain dean, the illustrious Antoine Morand, Brunier, the son of his own physician pays the venerable doctor a visit just ind a Protestant, although the prince before he expires; and the dying man
niescended to address a flattering let bre:ks out in a kind of Nunc dimittis ler to the dean of the faculty, signing - Now I can die conterted, since it himself - Votre bon ami, Gaston," and has been given me to behold once more although his request was backed by a the dean of the faculty.” Valot, the topal injunction. The sovereign must king's physician, who had come to see pels bow to the authority of the stat- the patient, expresses in language of 1%, respectfully but firmly urged in much reverence his hope that Mercontravention of his regal pleasure. let m y still live to illustrate the suYet this would seem to have been a preme dignity in which he stands closing effort, for in 1648 we find four amongst them. The “ patriarch” with Protestant doctors on the lists. Every his last breath energetically refuses Fear there was a solemn mass on St. such excessive honors. He confesses: Lake's day, at which all the members that he holds a high rank as ancient of were bound to be present, and which the school, but not the highest. “ To even at the commencement of the sev. the dean alone,” he says, “ belongs suenteenth century was still sung by the preme honor.” “Sublime words," obdoctors of the faculty. After mass the serves Morand in his funeral notice : Statutes were publicly read. There was " veritable song of the dying swan, proa like obligation, with a penalty for its ceeding from a man truly wise and enneglect, to attend an annual mass for dowed with all perfection! May he deceased doctors, and another for bene- rest in the peace of the Lord.” Of actors, as also to accompany the bod- course, it is a dean who is speaking,
of their brethren to the grave. The charge was indeed a weighty one, The head of the corporation was the both externally and internally ; for in 11. His powers were extensive, and spite of general respect, the medical de honor paid to him unbounded. He corporation, like most privileged hodies, es the guardian of the discipline and had active enemies. Every two years
utes" of the faculty, vindex discip- a fresh election took place on the first e et custos legum ; he was at once Saturday after All Saints'. The dean foremost champion and its highest deposed the insignia of his dignity and guitary. He was also its historian, gave a report of the state of affairs to