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of the south as an article of food. emitting their characteristic call-note. None of the swallow tribe are more We have watched them approachexact in their times of arrival and ing Malta during the calm and delightdeparture than the swifts, which seem ful weather at that season, when a to proceed further southward than any few, attracted by the verdure, would of the others; whether from sudden break off from the rest and descend, failure of food or change of climate, whilst the majority continued steering or both, it is seldom the black swift their course in a northerly direction, tarries on its way ; for, not content Luckless is the bird wanderer that with the climate of the southern shores makes a temporary resting-place of of the great inland sea, it pushes on Malta at any time, especially on Sunwith little delay to Abyssinia, Nubia, day, for no sooner is an individual reand eren Timbuctoo. The Alpine cognized than a dozen guns are put in swift passes to and from Europe in requisition, and soon the fair forms of small numbers ; compared with the the bee-eater, oriole, etc., are seen last-named species, this is a hardy stretched in rows on the benches of bird ; we have seen it and the house the poulterer. The weird-like form of marten Sporting around Alpine gla- the hoopoe may constantly be seen ciers at the latter end of August, when drifting before a south wind in spring, there was a hoar frost every night, or hastening southward in August, and occasional heavy falls of spow; seldom in flocks, but so numerous that many Alpine swifts spend the entire on one occasion, on a projecting rock year on the Himalayan ranges. The in the island of Gozo, we saw in the chimney, house, and sand swallows course of half an hour no less than ten make their first appearance in spring, hoopoes arrive, one after another. and leave Europe in the order here None of the woodpeckers, neither the given; none seem to pass the winter creeper, nuthatch, nor the wren, scom in any of the islands, and on their ar- to migrate. The warblers no doubt rival in Africa move steadily south- constitute by far the greatest majority ward to more genial regions. The of the birds of passage, and may be rock swallow and rufous swallow said to be most punctual in their time make regular migrations from Asia of arrival and departure. As with Minor to south-eastern Europe, few other groups, many entirely abandon venturing westward of Greece. Ow- their summer or winter residences at ing to the strong N E. winds that pre- the migratory seasons, whilst others vail during the cold months, and leave a few stragglers behind. The sweep along the Mediterranean basin sedge, willow, garden, the chiffchaff, with great violence, many birds are whitethroat, Sardinian, Dartford, sulblown from one coast to another, and alpine, Vieillot's warblers, and the turn up in districts in every way blackcap annually cross and recross uncongenial to their habits and wants: the Mediterranean with undeviating thus are recorded by C. A. Wright, regularity, some in enormous numbers, Esq., in his admirable catalogue of especially the garden warbler and “ Birds observed in Malta," the ap- whitethroat, which being then plump pearance of the diminutive golden and and in good condition are in great refire-crested wrens among the woodless quest, and constitute the Italian's much tracts of these bare islands; supposing relished beccafico. The nightingale them to have come from the nearest appears in considerable numbers and point of Sicily, they must have flown shares the same fate with the lastat least fifty miles! Along the shores named species. The two redstarts, of the Mediterranean the approach of wheatear, whin, and stone-chats, with spring is heralded by flocks of gaudy the redbreast, come and go to Africa bee-eaters, which may be seen ad- regularly, leaving a few siragglers on vancing northward in scattered hosts the islands during winter, which, how.

ever, unite with their brethren from southern Europe on the approach of north Africa in spring, when all pro- winter, and many also cross the great ceed to Europe. The blue-throated inland sea and proceed a long way warbler repairs to Egypt in winter, into Africa ; we found the former very fion the south-eastern countries of common up the Nile to the second ca:Europe and western Asia. A small aract. The grey wagtail, although migration takes place of the russet nowhere so common, follows the same and eared wheat-ears annually to course and pushes northward at the southern Europe in summer, and same time with its congener in spring. back again to the African deserts in The yellow wagtails of Europe have wumn. As the song thrush and been so frequently confounded and blackbird are plentiful throughout the misnamed, that until the student has şear along the Atlas range, it is prob- carefully examined specimens of each able few of them return in spring, he will be almost sure to become conand whatever do cross in autumn and fused. There is, first, the yellow winter remain with the residents. wagtail of the British islands, called The golden oriole passes through also Ray's wagtail, tha: migrates to Malta regularly on its way northward, the continent in winter, but we opine and in small flocks returns to Africa not to southern Europe; this bird has immediately after the harvest and been mistaken for the yellow wagtail fruit are collected in autumn. The of the continent, first discribed by ring ousel is also migratory; and al- Linnæus. Enormous flocks of the lastthough a few missal thrushes and red- named bird cross regularly to and from wings appear on the islands and south- Africa annually : probably not a stragern shores during the cold season, nei- gler remains in either country after the ther can strictly speaking be called migratory seasons are over. We have birds of passage, as their numbers repeatedly noticed varieties of this way. seem entirely dependent on the state tail with grey and black-colored heads, of the weather in Europe and local which many naturalisis consider as galrs. The tree, meadow, red-throated specific differences, whilst others apand tawny pipits cross and recross pear to class them under the head of a rrgularly, and often in large flocks. race or variety of the Motacilla flava The madow pipit is another illustra- of Linneus. We are enabled so far ton of a bird which remains all the to strengthen the latter opinion, by the vear in northern Europe, but is min fact that in a large series of skins colgratory in the southern paris. As lected from flocks of yellow waztails 803n as the hot weather has fairly set during their migrations across the in in Africa, flocks of the short-toed Mediterranean, we could make out a lark proceed to southern Europe and gradual transition from the one state distribute themselves over wastes; of plumage to the other, and we fre. like other desert-living birds, it is very quently found the grey, black, and sens:ble of cold, and accordingly quits olive-headed (or yellow wagtail proEurope before the regular migratory per) all in one flock and constantly season. The sky, crested, and Cal associating together, and with the andral arks go southwaril late in Ocio- same call-note; the only difference ber and the following month ; the two Wils the call-note in autumn in como last-named are extremely abundant in was noticed to be harsher ; thes., hopnorth Africa during winter. The ever, we ascertained to be birds of the toodlark repairs to southern Europe year. The rook is migratory in during the winter, but a few also regu- south-eastern Europe, and repairs to larly push further southward, and the delta of the Nile in large flocks ; cross again in spring. The pied war. sonatinius it is driven by stress of tail and its northern variety, callel weih; to the islands of the mid and after the late Mr. Yarrell, repar to Vesten Jedierran 21. The north

ern portion of Africa is a favorite re- Africa at the same season, whilst a sort for the starling in winter, when few solitary individuals of the cross. flocks may be constantly seen all over bill, scarlet grosbeak, reel and meadthe south of Europe; they quit, how- ow buntings, cirl and bramble finches, ever, in spring and go northward. tree and rock sparrows, find their way Tue jay has been recorded as migra- in winter to the islands and southern tory, and said to frequent north Af- shores of the Mediterranean. The rier, Malta, and Egypt. We cannot, cuckoo and wryneck are among the however, find any authentic confirma- foremost birds of passage that cross tion of this statement. All the Eu- to and from Africa, and both seem to ropean flycatchers cross the Mediter- have much the same geographical disrancan very punctually. The spotted tribution. We have heard the cuckoo's biri is by far the most numerous, next welcome note among the carol trees the pied, and in a much less propor- of Malta in March ; in the north of tion, the white-necked flycatcher. The Europe in May; among the stunted first has a very extensive geographical birch trees on the confines of perpe:range, embracing the whole continentual snow on the Himalayan mountains 0% Africa and Europe, and breeds in in July; and ofien recognized its great numbers even in North Britain, handsome form among the orange where we have seen large flocks in groves on the torrid plains of India as autumn pursuing their retrograde late as November. course southward. The woodchatM any wood and stock pigeons mishrike seems to be the only represen- grate to Africa in winter; their headtative of the family that regularly quarters, however, would seem to be leaves Europe in winter; its red- located in the south of Europe; not so ba ked congener has been said to mi with the turtle dove, of which flocks grate to north Africa. The finches of thousands may be seen steering are always late in migrating in au- their course southward in autumn and tumn, and leave north Africa long be- vice versa in spring; very few, if any, fore the other birds of passage; at remaining in Europe or in Africa at a! times much depends on the sever- the termination of their migrations. ity of the weather, their numbers in- At these seasons they are caught in creasing or diminishing accordingly. great numbers, by means of clapneis No doubt, like the thrushes and other and decoy birds. The quail invariaspecies indigenous to temperate climes, bly flies within a few feet of the sea miny individuals extend their range when crossing. during the winter months, not so much As soon as the coll weather has from failure of food, as the cold fairly set in along the shores of the weather allows thern to wander over Mediterranean, a partial migration of regions inimical to their constitutions the following plovers takes place. The and wants in summer; from this Norfolk plover disperses in winter cause and the state of the climate in over the islands, and penetrates far north and in Europe, together with south to central Africa. During th” transporting power of giles, muy November flights of golden plovers be a tributed the pretty regular ap- arrive on the northern exposures of perance of fucks of the following the Maltese islands ; also a few of th: fiches on th: islands and southern grey and a good many of the lapwing stores of the great inland oc?an. The plovers, all of which go to Africa. linget is plentiful in Egypt and north The dottere!, with its two-wingel alAfrica in winter; small flicks of the lies, and the Kentish plover, pursue chatfish, grafinch, goldfinch, com- much the sam? course, perhaps if any. moa bintings, srinfinh, grosbeak, thing more of all these pass in autumn and ortolan may be seen among the than recross in spring, for the reason tanırisk anl olive grores of north that several of the species are resident in Africa, and extensively distributed ruffs, the great snipe, knot, curlew over the entire continent. The com- sandpiper, dunlin turnstone. Now mon heron and crane repair south- and then the woodcock wanders ward to the African lakes and rivers, across, but as a rule its migration is and may be seen during the winter mostly confined to the south of Eumonths fiving at great heights; neither rope. The Adriatic gull extends its is attracted by the mere appearance range over the western Mediterranean of land, whilst the purple heron Egret in winter. Many northern gulls and equacco, night heron, little bittern, terns, to wit, the herring, losser, and glossy ibis, whimbrel, common and slen, black-backed gulls, Sandwich, comder-billed curlews, fly at lower levels, mon, the little, the black, the whiteand tarry on the islands on their winged, and the whiskered terns, war.

spread themselves over the sea, and The frosts of October and the fol- wander up the Nile and to the lakes lowing months drive across the inland of north Africa. Of the duck tribe zea myriads of greenshanks, wood, nearly all go north in spring. Among the common and little sandpipers, others, we have noticed the bean stilts, water-rails, the common, spotted goose, shoveller, shelldrake, mallard, Baillons, and little crakes, and the pintail, gadwall, widgeon, teal, garcoot. In smaller numbers come black- gany, and castaneous ducks; the redtailed godwits, common and jack breasted merganser, and the cormosnipes, common and spotted redshanks, rant; the crested, horned, eared, and marsh and green sandpipers, with little grebes.

Tranelated from Etudes Religieuses, Historiques et Littéraires, par des Pères de la Compagnie de




It is remarkable with what per- sidered as composing the external severance Protestants have ever la- side of religion. The Greeks, on the bored to bring about a reconcilia contrary, so far from rejecting tion and union between themselves these, have rather exaggerated their and the schismatical churches of the importance. It seems impossible that

they shculd ever reach a uniformity When one compares the terms be- of sentiment; but yet the endeavor tween which it is desired to effect this to effect it has been steadily persevernion, it is difficult to conceive of ed in. *wo which are more opposed, and be- As far back as 1559 Melancthon

Teen which there is a more complete tried to bring about an understanding 29.trast. Protestants reject the au- with Joseph II., the patriarch of Conthority both of tradition and of the stantinople; and on sending him the hierarchy; the veneration of saints, confession of Augsburg, he wrote, with images, and relics; outward ceremo- rather more cunning than fairness, nial, and all that which may be con- “that the Protestants had remained

VOL. II. 5

faithful to the Holy Scriptures, to the situdes Cyril Lucar died in 1638.* A dogmatic decisions of holy councils, few weeks after his death the synod of and to the teaching of Athanasius, Constantinople pronounced sentence of Basil, Gregory, Epiphanius, etc., the censure upon his propositions, and fathers of the Greek Church; that anathema upon himself. In 1642 a they rejected the errors of Paul of second council was held under the Samosata, of the Manichees, and of all Patriarch Parthenius, who was very the heresiarchs condemned by the hostile both to Rome and to Catholics, Holy Church, as well as the supersti- which confirmed the previous condemtious practices introduced by ignorant nation of Cyril. Among others, Peter monks into the Latin Church, where- Mogila, metropolitan of Kief, signed fore he besought the patriarch to give this fresh censure. Last of all, these no heed to the evil reports which condemnations of 1638 and 1642 were were in circulation against Protest- confirmed by a council held at Jerusa.ants."

lem in 1672, over which the Patriarch It seems the patriarch was not to Dositheus presided. be caught by these plausible pro- The creation of a bishopric at Jerufessions, for he made no reply. The salen may be regarded, also, as an atProtestants were not discouraged, and tempt at reunion between the Protestfifteen years later a fresh attempt was ants and the schismatic churches of made by the Lutheran university the East. Frederick William IV., of Tübingen. The ambassador of the king of Prussia, assisted by M. de German emperor at Constantinople Bunsen, was the promoter of this idea, was a Protestant, and had brought but it was too ingenious and too comwith him a minister of his own de plicated to be practical. It proposed Dosnination, named Gerlach. It was to labot for the conversion of the he who carried on the negotiations be- Jews; to prepare the way for the tweer: the university of Tübingen and union of the schismatical churches of the Patriarch Jeremias. The whole the East with the Anglican; and, oi' this correspondence is before the by means of the evangelical church public. The patriarch refutes the of Prussia, to induce the various sects Protestant doctrines with great ability of Protestantism to conform in matters and clearness, and concludes by re- of doctrine and discipline to the questing the professors of Tübingen to Church of England. The archbishtrouble him no longer and to send op of Canterbury favored the plan ; him no more letters. They were not but, as was to be expected, there were to be discouraged by a trifle like this; many Protestants who were very far but write what they would, the patri. from giếing it their approbation. As arch made them no further reply. to the Oriental Christians, they were This negotiation began in 1573 and exceedingly astonished, as Dr. Bowlasted until 1581, but nothing came ring humorously related before Parliaof it.

ment, at the arrival, not only of a Fifty years after the Lutherans bishop (un vescovo), but of a lady. had failed, in their turn the Calvinists bishop (una vescova) and baby-bishmude ano:her effort, which seemed ops (vescovini). After au existence to promise better success. The am- of twenty years, no pretence is yet bassadors of Ilolland, England, and made that the bishopric of Jerusalem Sweden took the most active and has succeeded in effecting any reconenergetic part in the matter. The ciliation whatever with the Oriental patriarch of Constantinople, Cyril churches, or that it has in any measure Luar, himself a Calvinist at heart, so prepared the way for the uniting of far from opfrosing their designs, favored them with all his power. Success He was thro seemed certain.

sultan, at the request of his brother bishops. After various vicis- EDC. .

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