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14. Commerce, since the fifteenth century, has rapidly spread these luxuries over the world, and the rulers of the nations have contrived to collect an immense revenue from them. They were chiefly brought to America from England, and the attempt of the mother country to impose a duty on tea imported into her colonies, without their consent, involved a principle, which produced that spirited resistance to her usurpations called the war of independence.


AN elderly Hottentot in the service of a Christian, near the upper part of Sunday river on the Cambdedo side, perceived a lion following him at a great distance for two hours together. Thence he naturally concluded, that the lion only waited for the approach of darkness, in order to make him a prey; and, in the mean time, could not expect any other than `. to serve for this fierce animal's supper; inasmuch as he had no other weapon* of defence than a stick, and he knew that he could not get home before it was dark.

2. But, as he was well acquainted with the nature of the lion, and the manner of its seizing upon its prey, and, at the same time, had leisure to ruminate on the ways and means in which it was most likely that his existence would be terminated, he at length hit on a method of saving his life.

3. For this purpose, instead of making the best of his way home, he looked out for a precipice; and, setting himself down on the edge of it, found, to his great joy, that the lion likewise made a halt, and kept at the same distance as before.

4. As soon as it grew dark, the Hottentot, sliding a little forwards, let himself down below the upper edge of the precipice upon some projecting part or cleft of the rock, where he could just keep himself from falling. But, in order to cheat the lion still more, he set his hat and cloak on the stick, making with it a gentle motion just over his head, a little way from the edge of the precipice.

*Pronounced wěp pn.

5. This crafty expedient had the desired success. He did not stay long in that situation, before the lion came creeping softly towards him like a cat, and, mistaking the skin coat for the Hottentot himself, took his leap with such exactness and precision, as to fall headlong down the precipice, and was dashed in pieces.


Crist. TELL

me, Gustavus, tell me why is this,

That, as a stream diverted from the banks

Of smooth obedience, thou hast drawn those men
Upon a dry, unchannelled enterprise,

To turn their inundation? Are the lives

Of my misguided people held so light,

That thus thoud'st push them on the keen rebuke

Of guarded majesty; where justice waits,

All awful and resistless, to assert

Th' impervious rights, the sanctitude of kings,
And blast rebellion?

Gust. Justice, sanctitude,

And rights! O, patience! Rights! what rights, thou tyrant? Yes, if perdition be the rule of power,

If wrongs give right, O then, supreme in mischief,

Thou wert the lord, the monarch of the world!

Too narrow for thy claim. But if thou think'st
That crowns are vilely propertied, like coin,
To be the means, the speciality of lust,
And sensual attribution; if thou think'st
That empire is of titled birth or blood;
That nature, in the proud behalf of one,
Shall disenfranchise all her lordly race,
And bow her general issue to the yoke
Of private domination; then, thou proud one,
Here know me for thy king. Howe'er, be told,
Not claim hereditary, not the trust

Of frank election,

Not even the high, anointing hand of Heaven,

Can authorize oppression, give a law
For lawless power, wed faith to violation,
On reason build misrule, or justly bind
Allegiance to injustice. Tyranny

Absolves all faith; and who invades our rights,
Howe'er his own commence, can never be
But an usurper. But for thee, for thee
There is no name. Thou hast abjured mankind,
Dashed safety from thy bleak, unsocial side,
And waged wild war with universal nature.

Crist. Licentious traitor! thou canst talk it largely.
Who made thee umpire of the rights of kings,
And power, prime attribute; as on thy tongue
The poise of battle lay, and arms of force,
To throw defiance in the front of duty?
Look round, unruly boy! Thy battle comes
Like raw, disjointed, mustering, feeble wrath,
A war of waters, borne against a rock

Of our firm continent, to fume, and chafe,
And shiver in the toil.

Gust. Mistaken man!

I come empowered and strengthened in thy weakness;
For, though the structure of a tyrant's throne
Rise on the necks of half the suffering world,
Fear trembles in the cement; prayers, and tears,
And secret curses, sap its mouldering base,
And steal the pillars of allegiance from it;
Then let a single arm but dare the sway,
Headlong it turns, and drives upon destruction.

Crist. Profane, and alien to the love of Heaven!
Art thou still hardened to the wrath divine,
That hangs o'er thy rebellion? Knowest thou not
Thou art at enmity with grace, cast out,
Made an anathema, a curse enrolled
Among the faithful, thou and thy adherents,
Shorn from our holy church, and offered up
As sacred to perdition?

Gust. Yes, I know,

When such as thou, with sacrilegious hand,
Seize on the apostolick key of heaven,
It then becomes a tool for crafty knaves

To shut out virtue, and unfold those gates
That heaven itself had barred against the lusts
Of avarice and ambition. Soft and sweet,
As looks of charity, or voice of lambs

That bleat upon the mountain, are the words
Of Christian meekness! mission all divine!
The law of love, sole mandate. But your gall,
Ye Swedish prel'acy, your gall hath turned
The words of sweet, but undigested peace,
To wrath and bitterness. Ye hallowed men,
In whom vice sanctifies, whose precepts teach
Zeal without truth, religion without virtue,

Sacked towns and midnight howlings, through the realm,
Receive your sanction. O, 'tis glorious mischief!
When vice turns holy, puts religion on,

Assumes the robe pontifical, the eye

Of saintly elevation, blesseth sin,

And makes the seal of sweet, offended Heaven
A sign of blood.

Crist. No more of this.

Gustavus, would'st thou yet return to grace,
And hold thy motions in the sphere of duty,
Acceptance might be found.

Gust. Imperial spoiler !

Give me my father, give me back my kindred,
Give me the fathers of ten thousand orphans,
Give me the sons in whom thy ruthless sword
Has left our widows childless. Mine they were,
Both mine and every Swede's, whose patriot breast
Bleeds in his country's woundings. O, thou canst not!
Thou hast outsinned all reckoning! Give me then
My all that's left, my gentle mother there,

And spare yon little trembler.

Crist. Yes, on terms

Of compact and submission.

Gust. Ha! with thee!

Compact with thee! and mean'st thou for my country?
For Sweden? No, so hold my heart but firm,

Although it wring for't, though blood drop for tears,
And at the sight my straining eyes start forth-
They both shall perish first.


THESE northern seas, owing to the excessive cold of the climate, are frequently so full of ice, as to render it exceedingly hazardous to ships, which are thereby exposed to the danger of being crushed between two immense bodies of ice, or of being so completely surrounded, as to deprive them of every power of moving from the spot.

2. In this latter alarming situation were the crew of a Russian ship. A council was immediately held, when the mate mentioned what he recollected to have heard, that a ship's crew from Mesen, some time before, had formed a resolution of passing the winter upon this island, and for that purpose had carried timber proper for building a hut at a little distance from the shore.

3. This information led the whole company to form the resolution of wintering there, should the hut be fortunately remaining. They were induced to adopt this measure from the certainty of perishing should they remain in the ship. They, therefore, deputized four of their crew to go in search of the hut, and make what further discoveries they could.

4. As no human creature inhabited the shore on which they were to land, it was absolutely necessary for them to carry some provisions with them for their support. They had to make their way, for nearly two miles, over loose heaps of ice, which the water had raised, and the wind had driven against each other; and this made it equally difficult and dangerous. 5. From this consideration, they avoided loading themselves too much with provisions, lest their weight might sink them between the pieces of ice, where they must inevitably perish.

6. Having previously considered all these matters, they provided themselves only with a musket, and powder horn, containing twelve charges of powder and ball, an axe, a small kettle, a bag with about twenty pounds of flour, a knife, a tinder-box and tinder, a bladder filled with tobacco, and every man his wooden pipe.

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