« EelmineJätka »
ing of the colonies, we discover the never discovered a greater enmity to beginnings of those institutions and the Puritians, than during his adminis. customs which are now the foundation tration. In the early part of Charles', of all our social happiness.
reign, Laud was bishop of London; in These things, principally, engaged 1633, he was made archbishop of Canthe attention of the early colonists of terbury, which place he held till his New-England. Their connection with death in 1644. The principles held their mother country, their intercourse by the New-England colonists on the with the Indian natives, and their in- subject of civil government, were not ternal welfare. These, we shall sepa- less obnoxious to the abettors of tyranrately consider. The present, howev- ny than their religious sentiments.er, will be, chiefly, historical narration. These cireumstances, for many years, Remarks will be reserved for future exposed the colonies to constant apnumbers.
prehensions from the resentments of With respect to their connection the mother country. with the mother country, the first plan- On the other hand, the first planters ters were agitated with a variety of of New-England always looked to conflicting feelings, with much solici- Great Britain as to the land of their fatude, and with no small degree of trou- thers, as the country of their birth, and ble. The greater part of them left the place of all the attachments of their native land in consequence of their early years. Their breasts ever the oppressions of ecclesiastical tyran-glowed with thạt natural and ardent vy, and for the sake of the enjoyment attachment to their native land, which of those privileges of which they were from the affections of good men, can there deprived. These circumstances never be eradicated. They rejoiced produced in the colonists, a coldness that they were born in a land of freeof affection towards the parent coun-dom, that they were heirs to the heretry, which could not, easily, be for- ditary privileges of the English congotten. A correspondent jealousy was stitution, that they were bred in the necessarily produced in the govern-bosom of the protestant church. They ment of England, towards the colo- claimed no more privileges, civil or renies A strong attachment to all the ligious, than they conceived to pertain punctilios of episcopacy, a persever to the birth-right of Englishmen, and, ance in the high-handed measures of while ever ready to own an allegiance, prelacy, and an irreconcilable opposi- they wished for the protection of the tion to the principles of the Puritans, parent state. long continued to be the leading prin. The civil rights which were secured ciples of the adıninistration. The big. to the colonies by their respective Paoted King James, who died in 1625, tents, were all which they claimed. before the commencement of any of These indeed were most ample, and the colonies excepting that of Plym- well suited to their circumstances.outh, was succeeded by his son Charles Many efforts were made by their eneI. With grater ability to execute bismies to induce the government to repurposes, he was no less an enemy to sume these Patents, and to grant othcivil and religious liberty than his fa-ers with less extensive privileges. Of ther.- Early in his reign rose the fa- this measure, the colonies were in conmous Archbishop Laud, who, for ma- stant apprehension, for a number of ny years, had a principal share in the years after their first settlement. One administration. The ecclesiastical in- part of the plan of their enemies was tërests of the nation were almost en-that a general governor should be aptirely under his control. Laud was pointed by the crown to whom all the superstitious, an inexorable tyrant, and New England colonies should be sub.' an implacable enemy to all evangelie-ject, who would be amenable to the a religion. The English government government of the mother sountry.
The apprehension of such an event colonies to conciliate the favor, or, at gave the colonies great concern. One least, the forbearance of the governprincipal motive with the colony of, ment. They ever avowed their subNew-Haven, in settling so far from ljection to the British crown, and contheir neighbors, was that by being so sidered themselves as constituting an much extended, the colonies would be integral part of the empire. They less likely to be subjected to the con- maintained this idea in all their intertrol of a general governor.
course with the patives, and induced About the time that the first adven- many of the Sachems to acknowledge turers sailed from England for Plym- theniselves subjects of the British king. outh, they received a verbal intimation They owned the church of England as from the government, that they should their mother church, and the members not be molested in the free exercise of that church as their Christian brethof their religion. It seems to have ren. They were at great expense in been understood by the succeeding sending over agents, and in employing emigrants, that the same privilege influential characters in England, to should be enjoyed ; yet there was no advocate their interests, to counteract stipulated engagement on which they misrepresentations, and to remove could rely. Of course, they were un- the jealousies which their enemies ev. der constant, and at times, strong ap- er labored to excite. Notwithstandprehensions, that the order of their ing all these efforts, we must impute churches would be broken up, that their early security to the special inthey should be subjected to all the terpositions of divine Providence for vexations of prelatic tyranny. the preservation of these Christian col
The peculiar and well known char-onies and evangelical churches. Some acter of the colonies, their firm adher- persons, who were engaged in designe ence to the precepts of divine truth, against the colonies, unexpectedly their steady resistance of any devia- died. One vessel, prepared to bring tion from their first principles, and their orders from the commissioners for the noble stand in the cause of civil and plantations, whereby the liberties of religious liberty, raised a host of ene- the colonies would have been greatly mies against them. Every unprincipled infringed, foundered at sea. In some man, who came over for the sake of instances, the friends of the colonies gratifying his ambition, finding himself succeeded, wholly beyond their exdisappointed in his expectations, be- pectation, in impressing the mind of came an enemy to all their institutions. the king in their favor, in opposition to Many of these returned to England the advice of his council. These and employed all the arts of misrepre. things were particularly noticed by the sentation and subtilty, to effect a colonists, with the most grateful ac• change in the existing order of the col- knowledgments to heaven. onies. As the character of the colo- But the great cause of the early senies produced constant emigrations curity of the colonies, and the preserfrom the mother country, of many of vation of their civil and ecclesiastical the best citizens, the government privileges, under the divine favor, was could not view this effect without sen- the unforeseen events which soon comsible concern. Their public institu- menced, and for many years, so greattions, also, awakened a spirit of enqui- ly agitated the mother country. In ry in the mother country, no way fa- the aderable wisdom of the Most vorable to the arbitrary measures then High, an arbitrary prince and a persepursued by the crown. Under all I cuting bishop were made instrumentthese circumstances, the alarms of the al of establishing churches and repubcolonies could not be without sufficient licks, in the possession of the most cause.
perfect religious and civil liberty, of Great exertions were made by the any which have yet existed. He who said of the proud Assyrlan, He mean conduct of our veñerable fathers iii eth not so, neither doth his heart think their intercourse with the aborigines so, still holds the reins of universal of the country. Their primary object government, still is the glorious head in removing to the western wilderness and protector of the church. To the and planting themselves in a land not distressing calamities which afflicted sown, was the glory of God, and the the mother country, do we look, as the enjoyment of the pure religion of their primary means of the establishment divine Saviour. They knew that this and preservation of the invaluable lib- religion was benevolent, that the Lord erties of New England.
Jesus is the Saviour of all men, and that As early as the year 1636, about he hath left it in charge to his people the time of the settlement of Connect to disciple all nations. If they sought icut, there began to be serious collis- the glory of God, if they depended for ions between King Charles and his their preservation and safety on the faparliament.--In 1637, the discontents vor of him who hath made of one blood of the nation at the arbitrary measures all nations of men for to dwell on all of the court openly appeared, and be the face of the earth, they were irresisgan generally to prevail. These dis-tibly impelled to make sincere efforts contents and troubles continued to in- to introduce the light of the Sun of crease, till they involved the nation in righteousness into the dreary abodes a most distressing civil war, which of their pagan neighbors. For this purbegan in 1642, and continued with lit- pose, their first necessary step was to tle intermission till 1649, when the convince the barbarians that they fearking was beheaded. Soon after this, ed and loved the God whom they the government fell into the bands of worshipped, that his precepts were just Cromwell, who was friendly to the ec- and good. Thus the colonial governclesiastical order established in New-ments were ever careful to maintain England. The government continu- the strictest integrity in all their intered in this situation, till the restoration course with the natives, and laws were of Charles II. in 1660. During the enacted with severe penalties to pretroubles between the king and parlia- vent their being defrau:led or injured ment, and, especially, during the civil by individuals. The duties of benevowars, the king and his council had no lence and fidelity towards the natives leisure to attend to the affairs of the were much inculcated by the public colonies. During the period of the teachers of religion. By the most of commonwealth, New England enjoyed the people these important duties were the favor of the mother country. The well observed, and they were producrestoration of the king was about thir- tive of the happiest effects. ty years after the settlement of Mas- After these preparatory measures, sachusetts. In this period, the colonies the instituted means of gospel instrucacquired such a consistence, they had tion were regularly employed among risen to such numbers and strength, them. Several able and laborious dithe utility of their political system was vines exerted themselves in this im80 apparent, and such were the com- portant work with great fidelity and mercial advantages derived and expec- perserverance. The Reverend John ted from them, that the mother coun- Elliot, the famous minister of Roxbutry never after made any essential al- ry,who came to New-England in 1631, terations in their civil or ecclesiastica) took the lead in this benevolent work. jostitations. Some attempts for this! Thc life of Mr. Elliot having been pubpurpose were made in the reign of lished, at some length, in the sixth volJames II. but his reign being short and ume of the Connecticut Magazine, I universally unpopular, things soon re- shall not now enlarge upon it. In the verted to their former state.
same, and in the preceding and sucWe will now take a brief view of the ceeding volumes of this Magazine, an
able account was given of the attempts were procured by fair and open purwhich have been made in N. England chases. Traffic was conducted with to Christianize the Indians, and of the them according to just and established success with which those efforts were rules. Many of the natives became attended. In the prosecution of this the most faithful friends of the colowork, the venerable evangelists learn- nies, and would give them seasonable ed their rude language, translated the notice of any hostile machinations of scriptures into their own tongue, and any of the savage tribes. They often taught them to read. Mr. Elliot made referred their differences to the arbitraa translation of the whole bible into tion of the English. In some instanthe Indian language, which was printed ces individual colonies formed allianfor their use. The poor barbarians, ces with some of the tribes, which they who had been for ages the abject de-observed with scrupulous good faith. votees of the basest idolatry, were ena. These means were the occasion of prebled to declare, We do hear them speal serving the colonies from the distresin our own tongues the wonderful works ; ses of any general Indian war, for of God. Baxter's Call to the Uncon- more than fifty years. verted, some valuable catechisms, and Great numbers of the Indians fell a other religious tracts were translated prey to epidemic diseases, particularly and printed for their use. These ex- the small-poš. No evidence appears ērtions, under the favor of him who that this was ever communicated to hath promised, Lo I ain with you al- them by design;' and it is certain, that, way, were not made in vain. They while affected with the disease, they were attended with the most encour- received the most humane and faithaging success. They were powerful ful attention from the English. means of maintaining the peace of the No Indian war sustained by the cocolonies with the natives, and, as we lonies excited so much alarm, or enhumbly believe, through divine grace, dangered their existence to such a deof preparing many of those poor pa-gree as the war of the Pequods. A gans for a part in the everlasting song: particular account of this war was givDr: Increase Mather, in a letter to the en in our sixth Number. Soon after Hebrew professor at Utrecht, dated at the conclusion of the Pequod war, MiBoston, July 1687, observes, “ There antonimoh, the chief Sachem of the are six churches of baptized Indians in Narragansets, who commanded about a New-England, and eighteen assemblies thousand warriors, being delivered of Catechumens, professing the name from his fears of the Peqüods, appear of Christ. Of the Indians there are ed to entertain hostile designs against four-and-twenty who are preachers of the colonies. He carried on his machthe word of God; and besides these inations, for some time, with great sethere are four English Mioisters who crecy, but, at length, they became so preach the gospel in the Indian tongue.' apparent, that most of the Connecticut I have heard the late Dr. Edwards ob- settlements were obliged to maintain a serve than whom perhaps there was no nightly guard. In the year 1643, he more competent judge, that he believ-l suddenly made war upon the Moheaed as great success had attended the gans, and was taken prisoner by them ministrations of the gospel in New-En- and put to death. In 1645, and 46, gland, according to the means used, a- the Narragansets endeavored to excite mong the Indians, as among the En-, the Mohawks and other warlike tribes .
to make war upon the colonies. Tlie The strict justice observed by the people perceived the occasions of 2. first planters towards the natives, with, larm, and made preparations for active many acts of distinguished benevo-' war. In view of these, the Indians Jence, produced in their minds a very linquished their hostile attempts. E favorable impression. Their lands cepting some small occasional troub!
B Vb. Il.
the colonies had no war with the Indi. Governor Winslow of Plymouth, in the ans, from this time to the year 1676. At depth of winter, attacked a very strong that time commenced the famous war fort of the Narragansots, with greal galof King Philip, which produced greater lantry, and, after sustaining a heavy desolation and individual distress than logs, carried and destroyed the fort. any Indian war which has been sustain- Previous to this expedition, a general ed by the N. England colonies. Philip fast was observed through the colonies. was a noted Sachem, who resided at In the spring of 1676, in a great pum. Mount Hope, in the state of R. Island.ber of conflicts, the colonial troops For pleasantness of situation, pone, per- were almost invariably victorious. haps, can be found in New-Eugiand, Jealousies arose among the different superior to his residence. He was the tribes of the savages, and, while great son of Massasoit, the early and con- numbers were slain, many deserted stant friend of the English, who made the common cause. The death of Phia treaty of friendship with the colony lip, who was killed in August, termiof Plymouth in about four months af- nated the war. The twenty-ninth of ter their arrival. Philip was an invet- June 1675, was observed by the coloerate pagan, and a determined enemy nies as a public fast; the same day of the of the English. He was a man of great following year, for their signal successpersonal prowess, of extraordinary sub-les and the prospect of peace, wa tlety, and thoroughly skilled in the served as a day of general thanksgivwiles and cruelties of Indian warfare. ing. (No. VIII to be continued.)
Philip's war commenced by an attack on the people of Swanzey, not far
For the Utica Christian Magazine. from his residence, as they were re
A SERIOUS ADDRESS TO STUPID SINNERS. turning from public worship on a day of public humiliation and prayer, under Fellow candidates for eternity, the apprehensions of the approaching PERMIT me to expose the unreasonwar. It soon appeared that there was a ableness of your stupidity in regard to most secret and very extensive combi- your spiritual concerns, and lend your nation of the greater part of the Indian candid attention for a few moments. tribes, among and surrounding the N. This paper finds you at ease in your England colonies, to make one great sins. You are insensible of the daneffort for the general destruction of the ger to which you are exposed. As to settlements. The war raged with un- the things of religion you are inactive exampled fierceness for more than a and dead. year. No settlement was secure, for Now it is my purpose to lay before without the least notice, many hun- you the unreasonableness of this condreds of savages would fall upon a de- duct, and to labor, as an instrument in fenceless town, and, by murder and the hand of God, to rouse you to conconflagration, the work of destructionsideration and repentance. would be soon complete. The deso- The following parcticulars will be lations of the war were most severe on observed. the settleraents in Massachusetts. Se- 1st. Your carnal stupidity is a vioveral of the towns on Connecticut Ri-lation of the most sacred obligation to ver, and many between that and the be awake and active in the things of sea-coast were nearly destroyed. Ma- religion. This obligation arises from ny others severely suffered. All the the relation in which you stand to God cruelties of savage warfare were com- and other beings. And you might as mitted with the utmost barbarity. The well contend with God for giving you colonies made great efforts against the existence, as for making it your duty enemy, and soon obtained some signal to love him with all your heart, soul, successes. An army of nearly fifteen strength and mind, and your neighbor bundred men, under the command of as yourselves. For this must be the