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S. They are as follow. 1. The Indicative. 2. The Imperative. 3. The Optative. 4. The Po. tential. - 5. The Conjunctive or Subjunctive, and 6th. The Infinitive Mood.
M. How is the indicative Mood known ?
S. The indicative Mood shews, sets forth, or declares the Thing itself affirmatively; as, I run, I love, &c. Or, interrogatively, or by way of Question; as, Do I love? Do I run ? &c.
M, What is the imperative Mood ?
2. The imperative Mood commands, or forbids ? as, run thou, or you ; let him run, run ye; let them
M. What do you mean by the optative Mood?
S. The optative Mood is known by Expressions defiring or wishing ; as, I wish I could eat; I will I may enjoy it, &c. ,
M. How may I know the potential Mood?
S. The potential Mood shews, or sets forth the Power of the Person, or Thing acting; or else the Want of such Power ; and is further express’d or known by the Words can, may, might, cquld, would, should, or ought; as, I can go in and out when I please. He would have done it, but his Mafter could not spare him.
M. How is the conjunctive, subjunctive, or conditional Mood known?
5. The conjunctive Mood is known by having always a Conjunction before it, such as if, and, but, &c. As, I jould have done it, if be and my Uncle had consented. John and I took a Walk, and sbould have had Pleasure, but it rain'd very hard : Or, If you could perform your Promise, I jould be happy, &c. M. How mall I know the infinitive Mood?
3. The infinitive Mood affirms Nothing of the Verb; but only expresses the Verb: itself, with the Word To before it; as thus : To love, to walk, to run, to conquer ; are Verbs expressing or shewing the infinitive Mood.
M. You said just now, that ibe English bave no Mood; pray bow then do they express the different Circumstances of Verbs, in Relation to Person in different Times ?
S. The English (as I said before) have no Mood,
Of TENSE S.
S. Tense in Grammar signifies the different Times of an A&tion : That is, the Tense thews the Ation or Thing we are doing ; the Thing or Action not quite done, or the Thing or Astion finished or done.
M, Are there then but three Tenses or Times ?
S. Strictly speaking there are but three ; for all Things are comprehended in the Time past, Time present, or Time to come.
M. But are there no more Tenses or Difference of Times, than these three?
S. Yes; these three are divided into Six, viz. three Tenses or Times of the imperfect Actio!',
Thing not done ; and three Tenses of the perfect
S. There is one present, three preter, and two future Tenses.
M. Tell me their Names?
. 2. The preter, or preterperfeet Tense. 3. The preter-imperfe&t Tense. . 4.
The preter-pluperfect Tense. 5. The first future.
M. How are these Tenses, or different Times of an Action, express'd?
S. The present Tense or Time of an Action is known by the Words do, dost, doth, or does, coming before the Verb; as, I do dine, or am now at
&c. 2. i he preler perfect Tense, or the present Time of the Action finished, is known by the Words biehajt, bath, or bas ; as, I have dined, or have done Dinner, &c.
3. The preter-imperfeEt Tense, or the preter Time of the Aetion not finished, which is known by the Words was, were, did, didft, &c. as, I was then at Dinner, but had not done, &c.
4. The preter-pluperfect Tense, which shews the preter Time of the Action done or finished, and is known by the Words bad, hadft, &c. 'as, I had dined, or, I had quire done Dinner, &c.
5. The first future Tense, signifies the Time of the Action not yet done, but will soon be done or finished; and is known by the Words Mall, and will; as, I fall dine, but shall not then have done : Or,luill fing presently, and you shall soon beår me,&c.
6. The second future Tenfe speaks of Things, or of the Action that is to be finished or done a
great while to come; as, I shall have dined, and sball then have done : Or, I shall dine, or fall have dined bereafter, &c.
Of Regular VERB S.
M. What do you mean by a regular Verb?
S. All such Verbs as keep a regular Formation in their Mood or Tenses, are called regular.
M. Name two or three of these regular Verbs?
S. To sup, to burn, to walk, to punish, &c. Or, I sup, 1 burn, I walk, I punish, &c. are regular Verbs.
M. Why do you call Verbs of this Sort regular ?
S. Because the Verb itself keeps the fame in every Person and Tense, save that it sometimes has a Syllable more in some of the Persons, and a Syllable more in some of the Tenses; as also in the pasive, participle, as you will see more plainly, hereafter, i,..
M. Give me an Instance of the regular Verb tá walk ?
S. In the present Tense it runs thus : I walk, we walk, ye walk, they walk, in all which Places walk is the fame.
M. And will it be the same in the other Tenses?
S. The Verb itself will then have a Syllable more in the preter Tense, and in the other Tenses formed from the preter: Thus the present Tense is, I burn, or do burn, I walk, or do walk, I Jup, or do fup, &c, to which if you add the Syllable (ed] you have the preter Tense, as, I burned, or did burn, I supped, or did sup, &c.
M. But pray is [ed] to be added in all regular Verbs of the preter Tense?
S. No, for if the present Tense ends in [e] then adding [d] only, makes the preter ; but still it has another Syllable : Thus, I dine, I love, &c. in the Present, make dined, and loved in the preter Tense, except you put the Word did to it, then it is í dined, or did dine, &c.
Of irregular VERB S.
M. What do you call irregular Verbs ?
S. All such Verbs as are the very fame in the preter, as in the present Tense; or such whose present preter Tense, and paljive participle (or passive Voice) are quite contrary Words, are irregular Verbs.
M. Name me a few irregular Verbs?
S. These Verbs, to read, run, fly, give, &c, are irregular Verbs.
M. W by so?
S. Because the preter Tense will not allow of [ed] to retain the same Word; but has quite another Word, or else the very fame differently pro, nounced. As, Present Tense, I read, or do read. Preter Tense, I read (pronounced as red) or did read. Paffive Participle *, read (pronounced as red.)
M. What do you observe further on irregular Verbs ?
S. You see some Verbs are alike in both present and preter Tense; but the Verbs run, fly, give, &c. are quite different in the Preter. Thus in the Irun, Is in the Iran, or did run.
I flew, or did fly. present Tense. } 1 ive , s preter Tense,
I gave, or did gives * N. B. See more of these under the distinct Head of Palive Participle.