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S. They are as follow. 1. The Indicative. 2. The Imperative. 3. The Optative. 4. The Potential. 5. The Conjunctive or Subjunctive, and 6th. The Infinitive Mood.
M. How is the indicative Mood known ?
S. The indicative Mood fhews, fets forth, or declares the Thing itself affirmatively; as, I run, I love, &c. Or, interrogatively, or by way of Question; as, Do I love? Do I run? &c.
M. What is the imperative Mood?
2. The imperative Mood commands, or forbids? as, run thou, or you; let him run; run ye; let them run, &c.
M. What do you mean by the optative Mood?
S. The optative Mood is known by Expreffions defiring or wishing; as, I wish I could eat; I wish I may enjoy it, &c.
M. How may I know the potential Mood?
S. The potential Mood fhews, or fets forth the Power of the Perfon, or Thing acting; or else the Want of fuch Power; and is further exprefs'd or known by the Words can, may, might, cquld, would, fhould, or ought; as, I can go in and out when I please. He would have done it, but his Mafter could not spare him.
M. How is the conjunctive, fubjunctive, or conditional Mood known ?
S. The conjunctive Mood is known by having always a Conjunction before it, fuch as if, and, but, &c. As, I should have done it, if he and my Uncle had confented. John and I took a Walk, and fbould have had Pleasure, but it rain'd very hard: Or, If you could perform your Promife, I should be happy, &c.
M. How fhall I know the infinitive Mood?
3. The infinitive Mood affirms Nothing of the Verb; but only expreffes the Verb itself, with the Word To before it; as thus: To love, to walk, to run, to conquer; are Verbs expreffing or fhewing the infinitive Mood.
M. You faid juft now, that the English have no Mood; pray how then do they express the different Circumstances of Verbs, in Relation to Perfon in different Times?
S. The English (as I faid before) have no Mood, because they have no Alteration of the Verb itself, except in the second Perfon fingular, and the third Perfon plural: Therefore the Mood in English is expreffed or known by certain Words; as, can, may, might, would, could, ought, shall, should. &c. Thus: The Poffibility of any Thing to
be done, is expreffed by can, or would; t or Defign of the Speaker or Doer, by may or might; the Inclination, by will, or would; and the Neceffity of doing a Thing, by must, or ought; fhall or fhould. See GEEENWOOD's Grammar, page 136. Of TENSE S.
M. What do you mean by Tenfes ?
S. Tenfe in Grammar fignifies the different Times of an Action: That is, the Tenfe fhews the Action or Thing we are doing; the Thing or Action not quite done, or the Thing or Action finished or done.
M. Are there then but three Tenfes or Times ? S. Strictly speaking there are but three; for all Things are comprehended in the Time past, Time prefent, or Time to come.
M. But are there no more Tenfes or Difference of Times, than these three?
S. Yes; these three are divided into Six, viz. three Tenfes or Times of the imperfect Action,
Thing not done; and three Tenfes of the perfect Action, or Thing really done or finished.
- M. Pray tell me how you make six Tenses ? S. There is one prefent, three preter, and two future Tenfes.
M. Tell me their Names?
S. 1. The prefent Tenfe. 2. The preter, or preterperfect Tenfe. 3. The preter-imperfect Tenfe. 4. The preter-pluperfect Tenfe, 5. The first future. Tenfe. 6. The fecond future Tense.
M. How are thefe Tenfes, or different Times of an Action, express'd?
S. The prefent Tenfe or Time of an Action is known by the Words do, doft, doth, or does, coming before the Verb; as, I do dine, or am now at &c.
2. he preter perfect Tenfe, or the present Time of the Action finished, is known by the Words bhaft, bath, or bas; as, I have dined, or have done Dinner, &c.
3. The preter-imperfect Tense, or the preter Time of the Action not finished, which is known by the Words was, were, did, didft, &c. as, I was then at Dinner, but had not done, &c.
4. The preter-pluperfect Tenfe, which fhews the preter Time of the Action done or finished, and is known by the Words bad, badft, &c. as, I had dined, or, I had quite done Dinner, &c.
5. The firft future Tenfe, fignifies the Time of the Action not yet done, but will foon be done or finished; and is known by the Words ball, and will; as, I fhall dine, but shall not then have done : Or, I will fing presently, and you shall foon hear me,&c.
6. The fecond future Tenfe fpeaks of Things, or of the Action that is to be finished or done a
great while to come; as, 1 fhall have dined, and fball then have done: Or, I shall dine, or shall have dined hereafter, &c.
Of Regular VERBS.
M. What do you mean by a regular Verb? S. All fuch Verbs as keep a regular Formation in their Mood or Tenfes, are called regular.
M. Name two or three of thefe regular Verbs? S. To fup, to burn, to walk, to punish, &c. Or, Sup, I burn, I walk, I punish, &c. are regular Verbs.
·M. Why do you call Verbs of this Sort regular?"
S. Because the Verb itself keeps the fame in every Perfon and Tenfe; fave that it fometimes has a Syllable more in fome of the Persons, and a Syllable more in fome of the Tenfes; as alfo in the paffive, participle, as you will fee more plainly, hereafter...d
M. Give me an Inftance of the regular Verb to walk?
S. In the prefent Tenfe it runs thus: I walk, we walk, ye walk, they walk, in all which Places walk is the fame.
M. And will it be the fame in the other Tenfes ?
S. The Verb itself will then have a Syllable more in the preter Tenfe, and in the other Tenfes formed from the preter: Thus the prefent Tenfe is, I burn, or do burn, I walk, or do walk, I fup, or do fup, &c. to which if you add the Syllable [ed] you have the preter Tense, as, I burned, or did burn, I supped, or did fup, &c.
M. But pray is [ed] to be added in all regular Verbs of the preter Tenfe?
S. No, for if the present Tenfe ends in [e] then adding [d] only, makes the preter; but ftill it has another Syllable: Thus, I dine, I love, &c. in the Prefent, make dined, and loved in the preter Tense, except you put the Word did to it, then it is I dined, or did dine, &c.
Of irregular VERBS.
M. What do you call irregular Verbs?
S. All fuch Verbs as are the very fame in the preter, as in the prefent Tenfe; or fuch whofe prefent preter Tenfe, and paffive participle (or paffive Voice) are quite contrary Words, are irregular Verbs. M. Name me a few irregular Verbs?
S. Thefe Verbs, to read, run, fly, give, &c. are irregular Verbs.
M. Why fo?
S. Because the preter Tenfe will not allow of [ed] to retain the fame Word; but has quite ano ther Word, or else the very fame differently pronounced. As,
Prefent Tenfe, I read, or do read.
Preter Tenfe, I read (pronounced as red) or did read
S. You fee fome Verbs are alike in both present and preter Tense; but the Verbs run, fly, give, &c. are quite different in the Preter.
Thus in the Irun,
prefent Tenfe. I give,
Is in the preter Tenfe,
Iran, or did run. I flew, or did fly. I gave, or did give
* N. B. See more of these under the distinct Head of passive