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Of neuter VERBS.

M. What do you mean by a neuter Verb? ·S. A neuter Verb is by fome call'd an essential Verb, it being absolute in itself, and expreffes fomething to be done, but not who does it; for it has no Noun after it as an active Verb has.

M. How is a neuter Verb known then?

S. By the Word to being always placed before it; as, to ftand, to run, to fup, &c.

M. But you fay it has no Noun after it; pray make that appear.

S. The Word to destroys the Noun; for we cannot fay to stand a 'Thing; or to run a Thing; but in an active Verb it takes in another Subject, or paffes over to fome other Object or Thing, and then has a Noun after it to make a complete Sentence; as, to ftand in the Rain; to run a Race, &C.

Of the auxiliary, or helping VERBS.. `

M. What do you mean by auxiliary Verbs? S. They are fuch Verbs that help, or affift other. Verbs, by being placed before them.

M. Name the helping Verbs ?

S. The helping Verbs are thefe, do, doft, does, or doth, did, didft, have, haft, has or bath, bad, hadft, will, wilt, fhall, fhalt, may, mayst, can, canft, might, mightest, would, wouldft, fhould, shouldft, could, couldft, ought, oughteft, let, am, are, is, was, were, been, and be.

M. What do you obferve in the Use of these help ing Verbs?

S.. Have

S. Have, am, or be, are call'd perfect being Verbs; and the others are called defective helping Verbs.

M. Are not have, am, and be, of great Ufe in the English Tongue?

S. Yes, of very great Ufe, for they supply the Defect of other Verbs, and make the Sentence complete by being joined to them, or by going before them, otherwife they would be deficient in the preter Tenfe, and in the paffive Participle.

M. Have thefe helping Verbs any perfonal Pronouns; or bow, or by what Means may they be faid to be helping Verbs?

S. The helping Verbs have, am, and be, have perfonal Pronouns; as, I have, I am; or we have, ye are, or we be; they are, or they be, &c.

M. Then I perceive are and be may be used the fame in the plural; may they not?..

S. In general they may; as, we are boneft Men, is the fame as we be honest Men, &c.

M. But are not thefe helping Verbs used without Pronouns?

S. The Verbs have, and be, have often the Word To before them; but am never has, nor yet its plural; for we often say, to kave, to be; or to have been, or to be burned, &c.

You will fee more of the Nature and Formation of these Beling Verbs under the Head of Participle, because they help to make up the whole paßive Voice.





M. What is a Participle?

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S. A Participle is a Part of Speech formed of, or derived from a Verb, and fignifies being, doing, or fuffering, as a Verb does.

M. How many Participles are there?

S. Only two, viz. the active, and the paffive Participle.

M. How is the active Participle known?

S. The alive Participle has ing added to the Verb itfelf; Thus, from the Verbs to love, to walk, to burn, to create, &c, come the active Participles, loving, walking, burning, creating, &c.

M. Is the paffive Participle fo easily known?

S. The paffive Participle is not quite fo cafily known; for in regular Verbs it is fometimes the fame as the preter Tenfe, fometimes it ends in d, ed, t, or n; but in regular Verbs it is quite contrary to the Verb itself, or the preter Tenfe of the Verb.

M. How is the paffive Participle formed then? S. It is no other than the Verb, or the preter Tenfe of the Verb done, or finished, as follows.

Regular VERBS, and their PARTICIPLES.

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turn, create, &c. turned, created, &c. created, &c.

Paffive Participles, loved, turned,
Active Participles, loving, turning,

creating, &c.



Present Tense,


calculate, &c.

Preter Tenfe,


calculated, &c.

Paffive Participle,

appertained, calculated, &c.

Active, Participle, appertaining, calculating, &c.

Irregular Verbs, and their Participles.

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Paffive Participle, read, as I have read, or have done reading.

Here you fee the Verb itself, the preter Tenfe, and the paffive Participle are alike,


Preter Tenfe,

More irregular Verbs.

blow, fall, drink, eat, &c. blew, fell, drank, ate, &c. Paffive Participle, blown, fallen, drunk, eaten, &c. as you may fee in the following Table.

M. You talk'd just now of the paffive Voice, pray bow is it made?

S. When the helping Verbs have, am, be, &c. are joined to the Participle, they make up, or complete the passive Voice; as, Į am loved, I am dining, or, I do dine; I have been dining; we be burned; we have been burnt; they have been fain &c. &c.

M. Are not fome Participles used as Adjectives? S. Yes, often fo; as, a learned Prince, a-loving Hufband, a charming Child, &c.


Here follows a Collection of fome irregular Verbs, with their paffive Participles; very necessary to be learnt or understood.

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N. B. This Table is very neceffary for Foreigners, who notwithstanding their Knowledge in Grammar, do frequently mistake the different enfes, and paffive Participle of regular Verbs, and so do many of our own Modern Writers,


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M. What is an Adverb ?

S. An Adverb is a Part of Speech joined fometimes to a Verb, to an Adjective, or to a Participle. M. How are Adverbs formed?



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