Page images

S. Adverbs ending in ly, are formed from Adjectives; as, from wife, fwift, prudent, &c. come wifely, fwiftly, prudently, &c.

M. Do all Adverbs end in ly?

S. No, for there are many more as follows, viz. already, always, as, afunder, by and by, upward, downward, bere, hereafter, beretofore, how many, how much, peradventure, rather, feldom, then, thence, benceforth, thenceforth, there, thither, to-day, tomorrow, where, whither, whence, while, whilst, yea, yes, yesterday, yesternight.

M. How are Adverbs joined to Adjectives?
S. Thus: He is a very good Scholar, &c.
M. How are they joined to a Verb?

S. Thus: He loves fincerely, They act prudently, &c.

M. How are they joined to a Participle?

S. Thus He is a Man fincerely friving to do his Duty, &c.

M. Do never two Adverbs directly follow one another?

S. Yes; as, they live very lovingly, &c.

M. Are not Adverbs fometimes compared like Adjectives.

S. Yes; but more particularly fuch as end in ly: As, fwiftly, more fwiftly, most fwiftly, &c.



M. What is a Conjunction?

S. A Conjunction is a Part of Speech that joins Sentences together.


M. Name fome of the principal Conjunctions? S. They are as follows, and, as, or, but, for, nor, not, also, if, altho3, because, either, except, bowfoever, likewife, moreover, namely, nevertheless, otherwise, fave, fince, that, therefore, thereupon, unless, whereas, wherefore, &c.

M. Give me an Example?

S. I have both Wine and Alé: Or, I have good Bread, Cheefe and Butter; but neither Meat, Fish, nor Fowls, &c,



M. What are Prepofitions?

S. Prepofitions are certain Words joined to other Words, yet different from the Conjunctions, for they are fometimes feparate, as well as joined. M. Have they a different Name then?

S. Yes; thofe Prepofitions that stand separate are called Prepofitions of Appofition; and those joined to the Noun are called Prepofitions of Compofition. M. Which are the Prepofitions of Appofition?

S. They are thefe: Above, below, beneath, about, after, against, among, amongft, at, before, between, betwixt, beyond, by, in, on, ihrough, into, on, upon, out, out of, on this fide, on that fide, over, under, up to, with, within, without, &c.

M. How are thefe ufed?

S. They generally come before the Noun, or if the Noun be left out it is fignified; thus: beneath the Earth; about the Wood; after Supper, &c. Or,


thus: Peter was without, but I was within, viz. Peter was out of Doors, or out of the Place ; but I was in the Place, &c.

M. Name fome of the Prepofitions of Compo


S. They are as follows, viz. ad, en, in, up, after, out, mis, dis, &c. which being joined to other Words compose them, and therefore are called Prepofitions of Compofition; thus: un, joined to done, is undone; dif, joined to grace, is difgrace; and mif, joined to fortune or chief, become Mifchief, and Misfortune, &c.




M. What is an Interjection?

S. Interjections are certain Words used to declare the fudden Paffion, Motion, or Transports of the Mind; either by being furprized over much; or by doubting, jefting, wondering, &c. and generally have a Note of Admiration after them.

M. How many Sorts of Interjections are there? S. They may all be comprehended in these two. Sorts, viz. Solitary and Paffive, Social and Active. M. Which are the folitary Interjections?

S. Thefe: O! ok! ab! alas! heigh! bey-day! bark! fie! O fie! O brave! O ftrange! good Sir! Sirrah! tush! pish! Woe * !

M. Which are the focial Interjections?

* Woe is a Subftantive ; as, Woe is me: Or, I am in Wce or Mifery.

S. They

S. They denote crying out in a fofter Manner, and feem to exprefs Love; as, bo brave Boys! Sobo! And sometimes Command; as, bere, you Woman! And fometimes neither; as, ba, ba! bush, bush! filence! behold! &c. &c.


Some Obfervations on the foregoing Rules by Way of Exercife.


1. Tho' the English Tongue confifts of nine Parts of Speech, yet fome Authors have contracted them into lefs Compass, that the Mind may be the less burthened. Thus Mr. Lane, Dr. Turner, Dyche, &c. have reduced them into four Parts only, viz. Subftantives, Adjectives, Verbs, and Particles : And in fhort, a Knowledge of thefe four Parts of Speech only, will give a young Scholar a fenfi ́ble Infight into his own Language; for they being well understood the Reft will foon follow.

Thus: The Wicked are overthrown; but theHoufe of the Righteous fhall stand. Prov. 12. v. 17. The Words, Wicked, Houfe, and Righteous, are Subftantives, because the Article The is just before them: Are, is a Verb of the third Perfon plural they are: Overthrown, is the paffive Participle of the Verb overthrow: But, is a Conjunction that joins the two Sentences, and compares the State of the One with the Other. Of is a Prepofition. Stand is a Verb of the third Perfon fingular and future Tense,


governed by the helping Verb ball, viz. it shall Stand, i. e. their Houfe, it fhall fland, &c.

But according to the fecond Method with those that make but four Parts of Speech; the Words the, but, of, and shall, are Particles.

2. Of the fingular and plural Verb or Numbers,&c.

Never put s at the End of a Verb without it be in the third perfon Singular; and then s, or elfe eth, muft always be added: Thus; he eats or he drinks, or eateth or drinketh; but we never fay we eats or they drinks.

3. Of the Verbs is and are.

It is very common to use the Verb is for are, which comes I imagine from Cuftom, or rather from the Want of Obfervation; and fometimes it paffes pretty well: As, how many Apples is there? inftead of how many are there Here

is Twenty

instead of here are Twenty N. B. The Genitive Cafe is an Exception to this Rule; for it may be ufed with Propriety, but never out at Length; thus: Here's Twenty.

4. In all Sentences, when theVerb is or are govern several Subftantives, they may be both indifferently used, and that with good Senfe ; as thus, Here is taught Writing, Arithmetic, Geometry, &c. which is as good Grammar, as Here are taught, &c. for they being all distinct Things, is has a Relation to all feparately.

5. A great many Things comprehended in one, ought rather to have the Verb is than are, viz. A Multitude is coming. This People is a rebellious People, &c. &c.

6. When

[ocr errors]
« EelmineJätka »