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from the subject, the more do they postess of it's specific qualities. Now the most easy feparation is by infusion of tar in cold water, which to smell and tatt Thewing it self well impregnated, may be presumed to extract and retain the most pure volatile and active particles of that vegetable ballam,

9. Tar was by the anciencs esteemed good against poisons, ulcers, the bites of venomous creatures, also for pthisical, scrophulous, paralytic and afthmatic persons. But the method of rendering it an inoffensive medicine and agreeable to the stomach, by extracting it's virtues in cold water, was unknown to them. The leaves and tender tops of pine and for are in our times used for diet-drinks, and allowed to be antiscorbutic and diuretic. But the most elaborate juice, salt, and spirit of those evergreens are to be found in tar; whose virtues extend not to animals alone, but also to vegetables. Mr. Evelyn in his treatise on Forest trees obferves with wonder, that ftems of trees, smeared over with tar, are preserved thereby from being hurt by the invenomed teeth of goats and other injuries, while every other thing of an unctuous nature is highly prejudicial to them.

10. It seems that tar and turpentine may be had more or less, from all sorts of pines and firs whatsoever; and that the native spirits and essential salts of those vegetables are the same in turpentine and common tar. In effect this vulgar tar, which cheapness and plenty may have rendered contempţible, appears to be an excellent balsam, containing the virtues of most other balsams, which it easily imparts to water, and by that means readily and inoffensively insinuates them into the habit of the body.

11. The resinous exsudations of pines and firs are an important branch of the materia medica,

and

and not only useful in the prescriptions of physicians, but have been also thought otherwise conducive to health. Pliny tells us, that wines in the time of the old Romans were medicated with pitch and resin; and Jonstonus in his Dendrographia observes, that it is wholesome to walk in groves of pine trees, which impregnate the air with balsamic particles. That all turpentines and refins are good for the lungs, against gravel also and obstructions, is no secret. And that the medicinal properties of thofe drugs are found in tar-water, without heating the blood, or disordering the stomach, is confirmed by experience: and particularly that pthilical and asthmatic perfons receive speedy and great relief from the use of it.

12. Balsams, as all unctuous and oily medicines, create a nauseating in the stomach. They cannot therefore be taken in substance, so much or so long, as to produce all those falutary effects, which, if thoroughly mixed with the blood and juices, they would be capable of producing. It muft therefore be a thing of great benefit, to be able to introduce any requisite quantity of their volatile parts into the finest ducts and capillaries, so as noc to offend the stomach, but, on the contrary, to comfort and strengthen it in a great degree,

13. According to Pliny, liquid pitch (as he calls it) or tar was obtained by setting fire to bilfers of oil fat pines or firs. The first running was tar, the latter or thicker running was pitch. Theophrastus is more particular: he tells us the Macedonians' made huge heaps of the cloven trunks of those trees, wherein the billets were placed erect beide each other. That such heaps or piles af wood were sometimes a hundred and eighty cubits Trand, and fixty or even a hundred high: and Lindt having covered them with fods of earth to

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prevent the flame from bursting forth (in which case the car was lost) they set on fire those huge heaps of pine or fir, letting the tar and pitch run out in a channel:

14. Pliny faith, it was customary for the ancients, to hold Aeeces of wool over the steam of boiling tar, and squeeze the moisture from them, which

watery substance was called pislinum. Ray will have this to be the same with the pisselæum of the ancients ; but Hardouin in his notes on Pliny, thinks the piffelæum to have been produced from the cones of cedars. What use they made of these liquors anciently I know not : but it may be presumed they were used in medicine, though at present, for ought I can find, they are not used at all.

15. From the manner of procuring tar (a) it plainly appears to be a natural production, lodged in the vessels of the tree, whence it is only freed and let loose (not made) by burning. If we may believe Pliny, the first running or tar was called cedrium, and was of such efficacy to preserve from putrefaction, that in Egypt they embalmed dead bodies with it. And to this he ascribes their mummies continuing uncorrupted for so many ages.

16. Some modern writers inform us that tar flows from the trunks of pines and firs, when they are very old, through incisions made in the bark near the root ; that pitch is tar infpiflated ; and both are the oyl of the tree grown thick and ripened with age and sun. The trees, like old men, being unable to perspire, and their secretory ducts obstructed, they are, as one may fay, choaked and Ituffed with their own juice.

17. The method used by our colonies in America, for making tar and pitch, is in effect the fame with that of the ancient Macedonians; as

(a) Sect. 13.
B

appears

appears from the account given in the Philofophical Transactions. And the relation of Leo Africanus, who describes, as an eye witness, the making of tar on mount Atlas, agrees in substance, with the methods used by the Macedonians of old, and the people of New England at this day.

18. Jonítonus in his Dendrographia, is of opinion, that pitch was anciently made of cedar, as well as of the pinė and fir grown old and oily. Ic should seem indeed that one and the fame word was used by the ancients in a large senfe, so as to comprehend the juices issuing from all those trees.

Tar and all sorts of exsudations from evergreens are, in a general acceptation, included under the name resin. Hard coarse resin or dry pitch is made from tar, by letting it blaze till the moisture is spent. Liquid refin is properly an oily viscid juice oozing from the bark of evergreen trees, either spontaneously or by incision. It is thought to be the oil of the bark inspiffated by the fun.

As ic issues from the tree it is liquid, but becomes dry and hard being condensed by the sun or by fire.

19. According to Theophrastus, resin was obtained by stripping off the bark from pines, and by incisions made in the silver fir and the pitch pine. The inhabitants of mount Ida, he tells us, itripped the trunk of the pine on the funny side two or three cubits from the ground. He observes that a good pine might be made to yield resin every year; and indifferent every other year; and the weaker trees once in three years; and that three runnings were as much as a tree could bear. It is remarked by the fame author, that a pine doth not at once produce fruit and resin, but the former only in its youth, the latter in its old age.

20. Turpentine is a fine resin. Four kinds of this are in use. The turpencine of Chios or Cy

prus

wrus which flows from the turpentine tree; the Venice turpentine which is got by piercing the Larch tree; the Strasburgh Turpentine which Mr. Ray informs us is procured from the knots of the silver fir; it is fragrant and grows yellow with age: The fourth kind is common turpentine, neither transparent, nor so liquid as the former; and this Mr. Ray taketh to flow from the mountain pine, All these turpentines are useful in the fame intentions. Theophraftus faith the best resin or turpentine is got from the Terebinthus growing in Syrii and some of the Greek islands. The next best from the silver fir and pitch pine.

21. Turpentine is on all hands allowed to have great medicinal virtues.

Tar and it's infusion contain those virtues. Tar-water is extremely pectoral and restorative, and, if I may judge from what experience I have had, it poffeffech the most valuable qualities ascribed to the several balsams of Peru, of Tolu, of Capivi, and even to the balm of Gilead; such is it's virtue in asthmas and pleurisies, in obstructions and ulcerous erosions of the inward parts. Tar in substance, mix'd with honey, I have found an excellent medicine for coughs. Balfams, as hath been already observed, are apt to offend the stomach. But tar-water may be taken without offending the stomach: For the strengthening whereof it is the best medicine I have ever tried.

· 22. The folly of man rateth things by their scarceness, but Providence hath made the most useful things most common. Among those liquid oily extracts from trees and shrubs which are termed balsams, and valued for medicinal virtues, tar may hold it's place as a most valuable balsam. It's fragrancy sheweth, that it is possessed of active qualities, and it's oiliness, that it is fitted to retain them. This excellent balsam may be pur . B2

chased

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